Articles | Volume 26, issue 16
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4233–4249, 2022
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4233–4249, 2022
Research article
17 Aug 2022
Research article | 17 Aug 2022

Quantifying overlapping and differing information of global precipitation for GCM forecasts and El Niño–Southern Oscillation

Tongtiegang Zhao et al.

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Cited articles

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Barnston, A. G., Tippett, M. K., L'Heureux, M. L., Li, S., and DeWitt, D. G.: Skill of Real-Time Seasonal ENSO Model Predictions during 2002–11: Is Our Capability Increasing?, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 631–651,, 2012. 
Bauer, P., Thorpe, A., and Brunet, G.: The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction, Nature, 525, 47–55,, 2015. 
Becker, E. J., Kirtman, B. P., L'Heureux, M., Muñoz, Á. G., and Pegion, K.: A Decade of the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME): Research, Application, and Future Directions, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 103, E973–E995,, 2022. 
Bennett, J. C., Wang, Q. J., Li, M., Robertson, D. E., and Schepen, A.: Reliable long-range ensemble streamflow forecasts: Combining calibrated climate forecasts with a conceptual runoff model and a staged error model: Long-Range Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts, Water Resour. Res., 52, 8238–8259,, 2016. 
Short summary
This paper develops a novel set operations of coefficients of determination (SOCD) method to explicitly quantify the overlapping and differing information for GCM forecasts and ENSO teleconnection. Specifically, the intersection operation of the coefficient of determination derives the overlapping information for GCM forecasts and the Niño3.4 index, and then the difference operation determines the differing information in GCM forecasts (Niño3.4 index) from the Niño3.4 index (GCM forecasts).