Articles | Volume 23, issue 12
19 Dec 2019
Research article | 19 Dec 2019
A three-dimensional palaeohydrogeological reconstruction of the groundwater salinity distribution in the Nile Delta Aquifer
Joeri van Engelen et al.
No articles found.
Jannis Michael Hoch, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, Niko Wanders, Rens van Beek, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
To facilitate locally relevant simulations over large areas, global hydrological models (GHM) have developed towards ever finer spatial resolutions. After a decade on the quest for hyper-resolution (i.e. equal to or smaller than 1 km), the presented work is a first application of a GHM at 1 km resolution over Europe. This not only shows that hyper-resolution can be achieved, but also allows for a thorough evaluation of model results at unprecedented detail and the formulation of future research.
Sandra M. Hauswirth, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Vincent Beijk, and Niko Wanders
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
Forecasts on water availability are important for water managers. We test a hybrid framework based on machine learning models and global input data for generating seasonal forecasts. Our evaluation shows that our discharge and surface water level predictions are able to create reliable forecasts up to 2 months ahead. We show that a hybrid framework, developed for local purpose, combined and rerun with global data is able to create valuable information similar to large scale forecasting models.
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7545–7571,Short summary
Groundwater is increasingly being included in large-scale (continental to global) land surface and hydrologic simulations. However, it is challenging to evaluate these simulations because groundwater is
hiddenunderground and thus hard to measure. We suggest using multiple complementary strategies to assess the performance of a model (
Marc F. P. Bierkens, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Niko Wanders
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5859–5878,Short summary
We introduce a simple analytical framework that allows us to estimate to what extent large-scale groundwater withdrawal affects groundwater levels and streamflow. It also calculates which part of the groundwater withdrawal comes out of groundwater storage and which part from a reduction in streamflow. Global depletion rates obtained with the framework are compared with estimates from satellites, from global- and continental-scale groundwater models, and from in situ datasets.
Jan L. Gunnink, Hung Van Pham, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3297–3319,Short summary
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) groundwater is important for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Increased pumping of groundwater has caused land subsidence and increased the risk of salinization, thereby endangering the livelihood of the population in the delta. We made a model of the salinity of the groundwater by integrating different sources of information and determined fresh groundwater volumes. The resulting model can be used by researchers and policymakers.
Edward R. Jones, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Manzoor Qadir, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 237–254,Short summary
Continually improving and affordable wastewater management provides opportunities for both pollution reduction and clean water supply augmentation. This study provides a global outlook on the state of domestic and industrial wastewater production, collection, treatment and reuse. Our results can serve as a baseline in evaluating progress towards policy goals (e.g. Sustainable Development Goals) and as input data in large-scale water resource assessments (e.g. water quality modelling).
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Daniel Zamrsky, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1591–1603,Short summary
An increasing number of coastal areas worldwide are facing a threat of groundwater quality degradation by saltwater intrusion. Groundwater flow models help to get a better idea of the volumes of fresh groundwater reserves in these areas. Our research provides information on aquifer thickness, which is one of the most important parameters for such models. However, we found that geological complexity of coastal aquifer systems is at least equally as important a factor for accurate predictions.
Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, Rens van Beek, Niko Wanders, Yoshihide Wada, Joyce H. C. Bosmans, Niels Drost, Ruud J. van der Ent, Inge E. M. de Graaf, Jannis M. Hoch, Kor de Jong, Derek Karssenberg, Patricia López López, Stefanie Peßenteiner, Oliver Schmitz, Menno W. Straatsma, Ekkamol Vannametee, Dominik Wisser, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2429–2453,Short summary
PCR-GLOBWB 2 is an integrated hydrology and water resource model that fully integrates water use simulation and consolidates all features that have been developed since PCR-GLOBWB 1 was introduced. PCR-GLOBWB 2 can have a global coverage at 5 arcmin resolution and supersedes PCR-GLOBWB 1, which has a resolution of 30 arcmin only. Comparing the 5 arcmin with 30 arcmin simulations using discharge data, we clearly find improvement in the model performance of the higher-resolution model.
Sebastian Huizer, Max Radermacher, Sierd de Vries, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1065–1080,Short summary
For a large beach nourishment called the Sand Engine we have examined the impact of groundwater recharge, tides, storm surges, and geomorphological changes on the growth of the fresh groundwater resources between 2011 and 2016. With detailed model simulations of these coastal processes we were able to get a good match with field measurements, and demonstrated the importance of wave runup and coastal erosion in studies on fresh groundwater in such dynamic coastal environments.
Brian J. Dermody, Murugesu Sivapalan, Elke Stehfest, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Martin J. Wassen, Marc F. P. Bierkens, and Stefan C. Dekker
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 103–118,Short summary
Ensuring sustainable food and water security is an urgent and complex challenge. As the world becomes increasingly globalised and interdependent, food and water management policies may have unintended consequences across regions, sectors and scales. Current decision-making tools do not capture these complexities and thus miss important dynamics. We present a modelling framework to capture regional and sectoral interdependence and cross-scale feedbacks within the global food system.
Joyce H. C. Bosmans, Ludovicus P. H. van Beek, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5603–5626,Short summary
We investigate how changes in land cover, such as deforestation, affect river runoff and evaporation from the land surface. We use computer simulations to show that the impact of land cover changes is significant and, when globally averaged, it is as important as more direct human impacts through water use (such as irrigation). There is large spatial variability in the impact of land cover change, with the largest changes when tall vegetation (such as forests) is replaced by crop fields.
Jannis M. Hoch, Jeffrey C. Neal, Fedor Baart, Rens van Beek, Hessel C. Winsemius, Paul D. Bates, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3913–3929,Short summary
To improve flood hazard assessments, it is vital to model all relevant processes. We here present GLOFRIM, a framework for coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models to increase the number of physical processes represented in hazard computations. GLOFRIM is openly available, versatile, and extensible with more models. Results also underpin its added value for model benchmarking, showing that not only model forcing but also grid properties and the numerical scheme influence output accuracy.
Yoshihide Wada, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Ad de Roo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, James S. Famiglietti, Naota Hanasaki, Megan Konar, Junguo Liu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Taikan Oki, Yadu Pokhrel, Murugesu Sivapalan, Tara J. Troy, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Tim van Emmerik, Marjolein H. J. Van Huijgevoort, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Charles J. Vörösmarty, Niko Wanders, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4169–4193,Short summary
Rapidly increasing population and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes on an unprecedented scale. Awareness of potential water scarcity led to first global water resource assessments; however, few hydrological models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities. Our contribution highlights the importance of human activities transforming the Earth's water cycle, and how hydrological models can include such influences in an integrated manner.
Naze Candogan Yossef, Rens van Beek, Albrecht Weerts, Hessel Winsemius, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4103–4114,Short summary
This paper presents a skill assessment of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World. For 20 large basins of the world, forecasts using the ESP procedure are compared to forecasts using actual S3 seasonal meteorological forecast ensembles by ECMWF. The results are discussed in the context of prevailing hydroclimatic conditions per basin. The study concludes that in general, the skill of ECMWF S3 forecasts is close to that of the ESP forecasts.
Randal D. Koster, Alan K. Betts, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Marc Bierkens, Katrina E. Bennett, Stephen J. Déry, Jason P. Evans, Rong Fu, Felipe Hernandez, L. Ruby Leung, Xu Liang, Muhammad Masood, Hubert Savenije, Guiling Wang, and Xing Yuan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3777–3798,Short summary
Large-scale hydrological variability can affect society in profound ways; floods and droughts, for example, often cause major damage and hardship. A recent gathering of hydrologists at a symposium to honor the career of Professor Eric Wood motivates the present survey of recent research on this variability. The surveyed literature and the illustrative examples provided in the paper show that research into hydrological variability continues to be strong, vibrant, and multifaceted.
Emmy E. Stigter, Niko Wanders, Tuomo M. Saloranta, Joseph M. Shea, Marc F. P. Bierkens, and Walter W. Immerzeel
The Cryosphere, 11, 1647–1664,
Martyn P. Clark, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Luis Samaniego, Ross A. Woods, Remko Uijlenhoet, Katrina E. Bennett, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Xitian Cai, Andrew W. Wood, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3427–3440,Short summary
The diversity in hydrologic models has led to controversy surrounding the “correct” approach to hydrologic modeling. In this paper we revisit key modeling challenges on requirements to (1) define suitable model equations, (2) define adequate model parameters, and (3) cope with limitations in computing power. We outline the historical modeling challenges, summarize modeling advances that address these challenges, and define outstanding research needs.
Patricia López López, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, Jaap Schellekens, Geert Sterk, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3125–3144,Short summary
We perform various calibration experiments of a large-scale hydrological model using satellite-based products of evapotranspiration and soil moisture in the Oum Er Rbia River basin in Morocco. In addition, we study the impact on discharge estimates of three global precipitation products in comparison with model parameter calibration. Results show that evapotranspiration and soil moisture observations can be used for model calibration, resulting in discharge estimates of acceptable accuracy.
Jannis M. Hoch, Arjen V. Haag, Arthur van Dam, Hessel C. Winsemius, Ludovicus P. H. van Beek, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 117–132,Short summary
Modelling inundations is pivotal to assess current and future flood hazard, and to define sound measures and policies. Yet, many models focus on the hydrologic or hydrodynamic aspect of floods only. We combined both by spatially coupling a hydrologic with a hydrodynamic model. This way we are able to balance the weaknesses of each model with the strengths of the other. We found that model coupling can indeed strongly improve discharge simulation, and see big potential in our approach.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Maarten van Meersbergen, Edwin Sutanudjaja, Marc Bierkens, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A system that predicts the amount of water flowing in each river on earth, 9 days ahead, is build using existing parts of open source computer code build by different researchers in other projects. The glue between all pre-existing parts are all open interfaces which means that the pieces system click together like a house of LEGOs. It is easy to remove a piece (a brick) and replace it with another, improved, piece. The resulting predictions are available online at forecast.ewatercycle.org
Sebastian Huizer, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3149–3166,Short summary
The anticipation of sea-level rise has led to an innovative project called the Sand Engine, where a large volume of sand was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current and tide, reinforcing coastal defence structures. Model simulations show that this large sand replenishment can result in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources. Thus, sand replenishments could combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh groundwater resources.
Patricia López López, Niko Wanders, Jaap Schellekens, Luigi J. Renzullo, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3059–3076,Short summary
We perform a joint assimilation experiment of high-resolution satellite soil moisture and discharge observations in the Murrumbidgee River basin with a large-scale hydrological model. Additionally, we study the impact of high- and low-resolution meteorological forcing on the model performance. We show that the assimilation of high-resolution satellite soil moisture and discharge observations has a significant impact on discharge simulations and can bring them closer to locally calibrated models.
Inge E. M. de Graaf, Rens L. P. H. van Beek, Tom Gleeson, Nils Moosdorf, Oliver Schmitz, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In this study we want to understand groundwater flows at the global scale better. We simulated groundwater storage and fluctuations in confined and unconfined aquifer systems. This is the first study that includes confined systems at the global scale. Confined systems change timing and amplitude of head fluctuations, flow paths, and groundwater-surface water interactions. Hotspots of groundwater depletion are identified and resulted in a global estimate of 6700 km3.
Maria Stergiadi, Marcel van der Perk, Ton C. M. de Nijs, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Biogeosciences, 13, 1519–1536,Short summary
We modelled the effects of changes in climate and land management on soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in sandy and loamy soils under forest, grassland, and arable land. Climate change causes a decrease in both SOC and DOC for the agricultural systems, whereas for the forest systems, SOC slightly increases. A reduction in fertilizer application leads to a decrease in SOC and DOC levels under arable land but has a negligible effect under grassland.
W. W. Immerzeel, N. Wanders, A. F. Lutz, J. M. Shea, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4673–4687,Short summary
The water resources of the upper Indus river basin (UIB) are important for millions of people, yet little is known about the rain and snow fall in the high-altitude regions because of the inaccessibility, the climatic complexity and the lack of observations. In this study we use mass balance of glaciers to reconstruct the amount of precipitation in the UIB and we conclude that this amount is much higher than previously thought.
B. R. Voortman, R. P. Bartholomeus, S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee, M. F. P. Bierkens, and J. P. M. Witte
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3787–3805,Short summary
This study explores the magnitude of energy and water fluxes in an inland dune ecosystem in the Netherlands. We parameterized the Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration model for four different surfaces: bare sand, moss, grass and heather. The knowledge presented in this paper will help improve the simulations of water recharge in sand dunes by hydrological models, and allow the quantification of the cost and benefit of nature conservation in terms of groundwater recharge.
K. Frieler, A. Levermann, J. Elliott, J. Heinke, A. Arneth, M. F. P. Bierkens, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, D. Deryng, P. Döll, P. Falloon, B. Fekete, C. Folberth, A. D. Friend, C. Gellhorn, S. N. Gosling, I. Haddeland, N. Khabarov, M. Lomas, Y. Masaki, K. Nishina, K. Neumann, T. Oki, R. Pavlick, A. C. Ruane, E. Schmid, C. Schmitz, T. Stacke, E. Stehfest, Q. Tang, D. Wisser, V. Huber, F. Piontek, L. Warszawski, J. Schewe, H. Lotze-Campen, and H. J. Schellnhuber
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 447–460,
A. Lourens, M. F. P. Bierkens, and F. C. van Geer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We present a method to find the most likely properties (layer thickness and conductivity) for each litho-class of the constituting layers of an aquitard, using a readily calibrated groundwater model. The prior litho-class properties are uncertain, and based on borehole data. The groundwater model parameters are assumed to be the truth. The combination of prior data and calibration result yields the most likely litho-class properties. The method is applicable to aquifers as well.
I. E. M. de Graaf, E. H. Sutanudjaja, L. P. H. van Beek, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 823–837,Short summary
In this paper we present a high-resolution global-scale groundwater model of an upper aquifer. An equilibrium water table at its natural state is constructed. Aquifer parameterization is based on available global datasets on lithology and conductivity combined with estimated aquifer thickness. The results showed groundwater levels are well simulated for many regions of the world. Simulated flow paths showed the relevance of including lateral groundwater flows in global scale hydrological models.
B. J. Dermody, R. P. H. van Beek, E. Meeks, K. Klein Goldewijk, W. Scheidel, Y. van der Velde, M. F. P. Bierkens, M. J. Wassen, and S. C. Dekker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5025–5040,Short summary
Our virtual water network of the Roman World shows that virtual water trade and irrigation provided the Romans with resilience to interannual climate variability. Virtual water trade enabled the Romans to meet food demands from regions with a surplus. Irrigation provided stable water supplies for agriculture, particularly in large river catchments. However, virtual water trade also stimulated urbanization and population growth, which eroded Roman resilience to climate variability over time.
J. R. Delsman, K. R. M. Hu-a-ng, P. C. Vos, P. G. B. de Louw, G. H. P. Oude Essink, P. J. Stuyfzand, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3891–3905,
N. Wanders, D. Karssenberg, A. de Roo, S. M. de Jong, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2343–2357,
Y. Wada, D. Wisser, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 15–40,
A. F. Lutz, W. W. Immerzeel, A. Gobiet, F. Pellicciotti, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3661–3677,
E. Vannametee, D. Karssenberg, M. R. Hendriks, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2981–3004,
A. F. Bouwman, M. F. P. Bierkens, J. Griffioen, M. M. Hefting, J. J. Middelburg, H. Middelkoop, and C. P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 10, 1–22,
Related subject area
Subject: Groundwater hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesExploring river–aquifer interactions and hydrological system response using baseflow separation, impulse response modeling, and time series analysis in three temperate lowland catchmentsExperimental study of non-Darcy flow characteristics in permeable stonesKarst spring discharge modeling based on deep learning using spatially distributed input dataHESS Opinions: Chemical transport modeling in subsurface hydrological systems – space, time, and the “holy grail” of “upscaling”Spatiotemporal variations in water sources and mixing spots in a riparian zoneDelineation of discrete conduit networks in karst aquifers via combined analysis of tracer tests and geophysical dataReactive transport modeling for supporting climate resilience at groundwater contamination sitesImproved understanding of regional groundwater drought development through time series modelling: the 2018–2019 drought in the NetherlandsSimulation of long-term spatiotemporal variations in regional-scale groundwater recharge: contributions of a water budget approach in cold and humid climatesFeedback mechanisms between precipitation and dissolution reactions across randomly heterogeneous conductivity fieldsTaking theory to the field: streamflow generation mechanisms in an intermittent Mediterranean catchmentCoupling saturated and unsaturated flow: comparing the iterative and the non-iterative approachTime lags of nitrate, chloride, and tritium in streams assessed by dynamic groundwater flow tracking in a lowland landscapeUsing Long Short-Term Memory networks to connect water table depth anomalies to precipitation anomalies over EuropeEstimation of groundwater recharge from groundwater levels using nonlinear transfer function noise models and comparison to lysimeter dataEarly hypogenic carbonic acid speleogenesis in unconfined limestone aquifers by upwelling deep-seated waters with high CO2 concentration: a modelling approachImpacts of climate change on groundwater flooding and ecohydrology in lowland karstHow daily groundwater table drawdown affects the diel rhythm of hyporheic exchangeGroundwater level forecasting with artificial neural networks: a comparison of long short-term memory (LSTM), convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and non-linear autoregressive networks with exogenous input (NARX)Groundwater and baseflow drought responses to synthetic recharge stress testsDetermination of vadose zone and saturated zone nitrate lag times using long-term groundwater monitoring data and statistical machine learningModelling the hydrological interactions between a fissured granite aquifer and a valley mire in the Massif Central, FranceA new criterion for determining the representative elementary volume of translucent porous media and inner contaminantPhysics-inspired integrated space–time artificial neural networks for regional groundwater flow modelingHydraulic and geochemical impact of occasional saltwater intrusions through a submarine spring in a karst and thermal aquifer (Balaruc peninsula near Montpellier, France)Calibration of a lumped karst system model and application to the Qachqouch karst spring (Lebanon) under climate change conditionsSensitivity of hydrologic and geologic parameters on recharge processes in a highly heterogeneous, semi-confined aquifer systemBasin-scale multi-objective simulation-optimization modeling for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in northwest ChinaAssessing the response of groundwater quantity and travel time distribution to 1.5, 2, and 3 °C global warming in a mesoscale central German basinGroundwater mean residence times of a subtropical barrier sand islandOn the conceptual complexity of non-point source management: impact of spatial variabilityThe millennium-old hydrogeology textbook The Extraction of Hidden Waters by the Persian mathematician and engineer Abubakr Mohammad Karaji (953 CE–1029 CE)Modeling groundwater responses to climate change in the Prairie Pothole RegionA multi-environmental tracer study to determine groundwater residence times and recharge in a structurally complex multi-aquifer systemModelling of the shallow water table at high spatial resolution using random forestsAn extended trajectory-mechanics approach for calculating the path of a pressure transient: travel-time tomographyGlobal sensitivity analysis and adaptive stochastic sampling of a subsurface-flow model using active subspacesA comprehensive quasi-3-D model for regional-scale unsaturated–saturated water flowDecomposition technique for contributions to groundwater heads from inside and outside of an arbitrary boundary: application to Guantao County, North China PlainHigh-resolution paleovalley classification from airborne electromagnetic imaging and deep neural network training using digital elevation model dataA partially coupled hydro-mechanical analysis of the Bengal Aquifer System under hydrological loadingReactive transport with wellbore storages in a single-well push–pull testDynamics of wormhole formation in fractured limestonesA general analytical model for head response to oscillatory pumping in unconfined aquifers: effects of delayed gravity drainage and initial conditionFaulting patterns in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge potentially influence groundwater flow pathsStochastic modeling of flow and conservative transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networksLocality-based 3-D multiple-point statistics reconstruction using 2-D geological cross sectionsApplication of an improved global-scale groundwater model for water table estimation across New ZealandManaged aquifer recharge with reverse-osmosis desalinated seawater: modeling the spreading in groundwater using stable water isotopesNumerical modeling of flow and transport in the Bari industrial area by means of rough walled parallel plate and random walk models
Min Lu, Bart Rogiers, Koen Beerten, Matej Gedeon, and Marijke Huysmans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3629–3649,Short summary
Lowland rivers and shallow aquifers are closely coupled. We study their interactions here using a combination of impulse response modeling and hydrological data analysis. The results show that the lowland catchments are groundwater dominated and that the hydrological system from precipitation impulse to groundwater inflow response is a very fast response regime. This study also provides an alternative method to estimate groundwater inflow to rivers from the perspective of groundwater level.
Zhongxia Li, Junwei Wan, Tao Xiong, Hongbin Zhan, Linqing He, and Kun Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3359–3375,Short summary
Four permeable rocks with different pore sizes were considered to provide experimental evidence of Forchheimer flow and the transition between different flow regimes. The mercury injection technique was used to measure the pore size distribution, which is an essential factor for determining the flow regime, for four permeable stones. Finally, the influences of porosity and particle size on the Forchheimer coefficients were discussed.
Andreas Wunsch, Tanja Liesch, Guillaume Cinkus, Nataša Ravbar, Zhao Chen, Naomi Mazzilli, Hervé Jourde, and Nico Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2405–2430,Short summary
Modeling complex karst water resources is difficult enough, but often there are no or too few climate stations available within or close to the catchment to deliver input data for modeling purposes. We apply image recognition algorithms to time-distributed, spatially gridded meteorological data to simulate karst spring discharge. Our models can also learn the approximate catchment location of a spring independently.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2161–2180,Short summary
Extensive efforts have focused on quantifying conservative chemical transport in geological formations. We assert that an explicit accounting of temporal information, under uncertainty, in addition to spatial information, is fundamental to an effective modeling formulation. We further assert that efforts to apply chemical transport equations at large length scales, based on measurements and model parameter values relevant to significantly smaller length scales, are an unattainable
Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Christian Schmidt, Daniel Partington, Philip Brunner, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1883–1905,Short summary
In near-stream aquifers, mixing between stream water and ambient groundwater can lead to dilution and the removal of substances that can be harmful to the water ecosystem at high concentrations. We used a numerical model to track the spatiotemporal evolution of different water sources and their mixing around a stream, which are rather difficult in the field. Results show that mixing mainly develops as narrow spots, varying In time and space, and is affected by magnitudes of discharge events.
Jacques Bodin, Gilles Porel, Benoît Nauleau, and Denis Paquet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1713–1726,Short summary
Assessment of the karst network geometry is an important challenge in the accurate modeling of karst aquifers. In this study, we propose an approach for the identification of effective three-dimensional discrete karst conduit networks conditioned on tracer tests and geophysical data. The applicability of the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study at the Hydrogeological Experimental Site in Poitiers, France.
Zexuan Xu, Rebecca Serata, Haruko Wainwright, Miles Denham, Sergi Molins, Hansell Gonzalez-Raymat, Konstantin Lipnikov, J. David Moulton, and Carol Eddy-Dilek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 755–773,Short summary
Climate change could change the groundwater system and threaten water supply. To quantitatively evaluate its impact on water quality, numerical simulations with chemical and reaction processes are required. With the climate projection dataset, we used the newly developed hydrological and chemical model to investigate the movement of contaminants and assist the management of contamination sites.
Esther Brakkee, Marjolein H. J. van Huijgevoort, and Ruud P. Bartholomeus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 551–569,Short summary
Periods of drought often lead to groundwater shortages in large regions, which cause damage to nature and the economy. To take measures, we need a good understanding of where and when groundwater shortage occurs. In this study, we have tested a method that can combine large amounts of groundwater measurements in an automated way and provide detailed maps of how groundwater shortages develop during a drought period. This information can help water managers to limit future groundwater shortages.
Emmanuel Dubois, Marie Larocque, Sylvain Gagné, and Guillaume Meyzonnat
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6567–6589,Short summary
This work demonstrates the relevance of using a water budget model to understand long-term transient and regional-scale groundwater recharge (GWR) in cold and humid climates where groundwater observations are scarce. Monthly GWR is simulated for 57 years on 500 m x 500 m cells in Canada (36 000 km2 area) with limited uncertainty due to a robust automatic calibration method. The increases in precipitation and temperature since the 1960s have not yet produced significant changes in annual GWR.
Yaniv Edery, Martin Stolar, Giovanni Porta, and Alberto Guadagnini
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5905–5915,Short summary
The interplay between dissolution, precipitation and transport is widely encountered in porous media, from CO2 storage to cave formation in carbonate rocks. We show that dissolution occurs along preferential flow paths with high hydraulic conductivity, while precipitation occurs at locations close to yet separated from these flow paths, thus further funneling the flow and changing the probability density function of the transport, as measured on the altered conductivity field at various times.
Karina Y. Gutierrez-Jurado, Daniel Partington, and Margaret Shanafield
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4299–4317,Short summary
Understanding the hydrologic cycle in semi-arid landscapes includes knowing the physical processes that govern where and why rivers flow and dry within a given catchment. To gain this understanding, we put together a conceptual model of what processes we think are important and then tested that model with numerical analysis. The results broadly confirmed our hypothesis that there are three distinct regions in our study catchment that contribute to streamflow generation in quite different ways.
Natascha Brandhorst, Daniel Erdal, and Insa Neuweiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4041–4059,Short summary
We compare two approaches for coupling a 2D groundwater model with multiple 1D models for the unsaturated zone. One is non-iterative and very fast. The other one is iterative and involves a new way of treating the specific yield, which is crucial for obtaining a consistent solution in both model compartments. Tested on different scenarios, this new method turns out to be slower than the non-iterative approach but more accurate and still very efficient compared to fully integrated 3D model runs.
Vince P. Kaandorp, Hans Peter Broers, Ype van der Velde, Joachim Rozemeijer, and Perry G. B. de Louw
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3691–3711,Short summary
We reconstructed historical and present-day tritium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations in stream water of a catchment using land-use-based input curves and calculated travel times of groundwater. Parameters such as the unsaturated zone thickness, mean travel time, and input patterns determine time lags between inputs and in-stream concentrations. The timescale of the breakthrough of pollutants in streams is dependent on the location of pollution in a catchment.
Yueling Ma, Carsten Montzka, Bagher Bayat, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3555–3575,Short summary
This study utilized spatiotemporally continuous precipitation anomaly (pra) and water table depth anomaly (wtda) data from integrated hydrologic simulation results over Europe in combination with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to capture the time-varying and time-lagged relationship between pra and wtda in order to obtain reliable models to estimate wtda at the individual pixel level.
Raoul A. Collenteur, Mark Bakker, Gernot Klammler, and Steffen Birk
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2931–2949,Short summary
This study explores the use of nonlinear transfer function noise (TFN) models to simulate groundwater levels and estimate groundwater recharge from observed groundwater levels. A nonlinear recharge model is implemented in a TFN model to compute the recharge. The estimated recharge rates are shown to be in good agreement with the recharge observed with a lysimeter present at the case study site in Austria. The method can be used to obtain groundwater recharge rates at sub-yearly timescales.
Franci Gabrovšek and Wolfgang Dreybrodt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2895–2913,Short summary
The evolution of karst aquifers is often governed by solutions gaining their aggressiveness in depth. Although the principles of
hypogene speleogenesisare known, modelling studies based on reactive flow in fracture networks are missing. We present a model where dissolution at depth is triggered by the mixing of waters of different origin and chemistry. We show how the initial position of the mixing zone and flow instabilities therein determine the position and shape of the final conduits.
Patrick Morrissey, Paul Nolan, Ted McCormack, Paul Johnston, Owen Naughton, Saheba Bhatnagar, and Laurence Gill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1923–1941,Short summary
Lowland karst aquifers provide important wetland habitat resulting from seasonal flooding on the land surface. This flooding is controlled by surcharging of the karst system, which is very sensitive to changes in rainfall. This study investigates the predicted impacts of climate change on a lowland karst catchment in Ireland and highlights the relative vulnerability to future changing climate conditions of karst systems and any associated wetland habitats.
Liwen Wu, Jesus D. Gomez-Velez, Stefan Krause, Anders Wörman, Tanu Singh, Gunnar Nützmann, and Jörg Lewandowski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1905–1921,Short summary
With a physically based model that couples flow and heat transport in hyporheic zones, the present study provides the first insights into the dynamics of hyporheic responses to the impacts of daily groundwater withdrawal and river temperature fluctuations, allowing for a better understanding of transient hyporheic exchange processes and hence an improved pumping operational scheme.
Andreas Wunsch, Tanja Liesch, and Stefan Broda
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1671–1687,
Jost Hellwig, Michael Stoelzle, and Kerstin Stahl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1053–1068,Short summary
Potential future groundwater and baseflow drought hazards depend on systems' sensitivity to altered recharge conditions. With three generic scenarios, we found different sensitivities across Germany driven by hydrogeology. While changes in drought hazard due to seasonal recharge shifts will be rather low, a lengthening of dry spells could cause stronger responses in regions with slow groundwater response to precipitation, urging local water management to prepare for more severe droughts.
Martin J. Wells, Troy E. Gilmore, Natalie Nelson, Aaron Mittelstet, and John K. Böhlke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 811–829,Short summary
Groundwater in many agricultural areas contains high levels of nitrate, which is a concern for drinking water supplies. The rate at which nitrate moves through the subsurface is a critical piece of information for predicting how quickly groundwater nitrate levels may improve after agricultural producers change their approach to managing crop water and fertilizers. In this study, we explored a new statistical modeling approach to determine rates at which nitrate moves into and through an aquifer.
Arnaud Duranel, Julian R. Thompson, Helene Burningham, Philippe Durepaire, Stéphane Garambois, Robert Wyns, and Hervé Cubizolle
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 291–319,Short summary
Peat-forming wetlands (mires) provide multiple ecosystem services, which depend on peat remaining waterlogged. Using hydrological modelling, we show that, contrary to a common assumption, groundwater inflow can be a quantitatively important and functionally critical element of the water balance of mires in hard-rock upland and mountain areas. This influence is such that patterns of groundwater upwelling and seepage explain the spatial distribution of mires in the landscape.
Ming Wu, Jianfeng Wu, Jichun Wu, and Bill X. Hu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5903–5917,Short summary
A new criterion (χi) is proposed to estimate representative elementary volume (REV) of a translucent material based on light transmission techniques. This study is essential for quantitative investigation of the scale effect of porous media and contaminant transformation. The fluid and contaminant migration and transform in porous media can be simulated accurately according to the REV estimation results using the light transmission technique and the appropriate criterion χi.
Ali Ghaseminejad and Venkatesh Uddameri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5759–5779,Short summary
While artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used to forecast groundwater levels at single wells, they have not been constructed to forecast hydraulic heads in both space and time. This seminal study presents a modeling framework, guided by the governing physical laws, for building an integrated space–time ANN (IST–ANN) model for regional groundwater level predictions. IST–ANN shows promise for parsimoniously modeling regional-scale groundwater levels using available surrogate information.
Marie-Amélie Pétré, Bernard Ladouche, Jean-Luc Seidel, Romain Hemelsdaël, Véronique de Montety, Christelle Batiot-Guilhe, and Claudine Lamotte
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5655–5672,Short summary
We studied the impact of occasional saltwater intrusions into the karst aquifer of the Balaruc peninsula (France). Using hydrogeological and geochemical data, this study shows that the hydraulic impact on the aquifer is rapid and of regional extent, whereas the geochemical impact is observed at the local scale and is temporally persistent. This research supports groundwater management by providing a better understanding of the hydrodynamics and recovery of the aquifer after saltwater intrusions.
Emmanuel Dubois, Joanna Doummar, Séverin Pistre, and Marie Larocque
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4275–4290,Short summary
The simulation of flow in a karst aquifer in a Mediterranean region using a semi-distributed linear reservoir model (geometry and parameterization) is calibrated and validated based on the analysis of high-resolution time series. The model is used to predict the effect of climatic variation. Although the spring is highly sensitive to rainfall variations, it is also resilient to warming temperature. Finally, this integrated conceptual method is reproducible for karst in semiarid regions.
Stephen R. Maples, Laura Foglia, Graham E. Fogg, and Reed M. Maxwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2437–2456,Short summary
In this study, we use a combination of local- and global-sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of (1) the configuration of subsurface alluvial geology and (2) the hydraulic properties of geologic facies on recharge processes. Results show that there is a large variation of recharge rates possible in a typical alluvial aquifer system and that the configuration proportion of sand and gravel deposits in the subsurface have a large impact on recharge rates.
Jian Song, Yun Yang, Xiaomin Sun, Jin Lin, Ming Wu, Jianfeng Wu, and Jichun Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2323–2341,Short summary
We proposed a novel many-objective simulation-optimization framework for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in Yanqi Basin, northwest China. The management model involving socioeconomic and environmental objectives was constructed to explore optimal water-use schemes. Three runoff scenarios were then specified to quantify the effect of runoff reduction related to climate change on water management. Results provide Pareto-optimal solutions for basin-scale water management.
Miao Jing, Rohini Kumar, Falk Heße, Stephan Thober, Oldrich Rakovec, Luis Samaniego, and Sabine Attinger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1511–1526,Short summary
This study investigates the response of regional groundwater system to the climate change under three global warming levels (1.5, 2, and 3 °C) in a central German basin. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis is also presented. This study indicates that the variability of responses increases with the amount of global warming, which might affect the cost of managing the groundwater system.
Harald Hofmann, Dean Newborn, Ian Cartwright, Dioni I. Cendón, and Matthias Raiber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1293–1318,Short summary
Fresh groundwater (GW) on barrier islands is affected by GW use and precipitation variability. Mean residence times (MRTs) of GW on a sand barrier island were determined. They ranged from 37 years to more than 150 years for tritium and had a much larger range (modern to 5000 years) for carbon-14. Perched aquifer systems in the unsaturated zone and peat formations around wetlands are the most likely cause of longer MRTs, as they have a significant impact on regional recharge and flow diversion.
Christopher Vincent Henri, Thomas Harter, and Efstathios Diamantopoulos
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1189–1209,Short summary
Non-point source contaminations of aquifers are complex to model, predict and manage. This study uses numerical and stochastic methods to address the importance of key sources of spatial variability. We show that heterogeneity in recharge and contaminant loading does not significantly impact management metrics and could be simplified. Also, homogenizing physical properties has more impact on predictions, but can provide useful information on concentration statistics in a regional analysis.
Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani and Craig T. Simmons
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 761–769,Short summary
We revisit and shed light on the textbook The Extraction of Hidden Waters by the Persian mathematician and engineer Abubakr Mohammad Karaji. Ground-breaking ideas and descriptions of hydrological and hydrogeological perceptions such as components of the hydrological cycle, groundwater quality and driving factors for groundwater flow were presented in the book. We speculate that Karaji's book is the first of its kind to provide a construction and maintenance manual for an engineering project.
Zhe Zhang, Yanping Li, Michael Barlage, Fei Chen, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Andrew Ireson, and Zhenhua Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 655–672,Short summary
The groundwater regime in cold regions is strongly impacted by the soil freeze–thaw processes and semiarid climatic conditions. In this paper, we incorporate groundwater dynamics in the Noah-MP land surface model to simulate the water exchange between the unsaturated soil zone and an unconfined aquifer in the Prairie Pothole Region. The water table dynamics are reasonably simulated. The water budget of groundwater aquifer under current and future climate are also investigated.
Cornelia Wilske, Axel Suckow, Ulf Mallast, Christiane Meier, Silke Merchel, Broder Merkel, Stefan Pavetich, Tino Rödiger, Georg Rugel, Agnes Sachse, Stephan M. Weise, and Christian Siebert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 249–267,Short summary
Despite feeding several million people, the flow system and inter-aquifer communication within one of the major aquifer systems in Israel and the West Bank is still poorly understood. Applying a combination of inorganic elements, anthropogenic organic trace substances and classical environmental age-dating tracers like 3H, CFCs, SF6 and 36Cl / Cl, groundwater flow patterns, mixing end-members, transport times and recharge estimates have been obtained despite very limited data.
Julian Koch, Helen Berger, Hans Jørgen Henriksen, and Torben Obel Sonnenborg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4603–4619,Short summary
This study explores novel modelling avenues using machine learning in combination with process-based models to predict the shallow water table at high spatial resolution. Due to climate change and anthropogenic impacts, the shallow groundwater is rising in many parts of the world. In order to adapt to risks induced by groundwater flooding, new modelling tools need to emerge. In this study, we found that machine learning is capable of reaching the required accuracy and resolution.
Donald W. Vasco, Joseph Doetsch, and Ralf Brauchler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4541–4560,Short summary
This paper presents the application of a new approach for calculating the path of a pressure transient in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a slightly compressible fluid. Unlike previous asymptotic approaches, the expressions for the path and travel time are valid in the presence of rapid variations in material properties. The technique is applied to both synthetic transient pressure variations from a test example and actual field data from a field experiment in Widen, Switzerland.
Daniel Erdal and Olaf A. Cirpka
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3787–3805,Short summary
Assessing how sensitive uncertain model parameters are to observed data can be done by analyzing an ensemble of model simulations in which the parameters are varied. In subsurface modeling, this involves running heavy models. To reduce time wasted simulating models which show poor behavior, we use a fast polynomial model based on a simple parameter decomposition to approximate the behavior prior to full-model simulation. This largely reduces the cost for the global sensitivity analysis.
Wei Mao, Yan Zhu, Heng Dai, Ming Ye, Jinzhong Yang, and Jingwei Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3481–3502,Short summary
A new quasi-3-D model was developed by coupling a soil water balance model with MODFLOW iteratively for regional-scale water flow modeling. The model was tested to be effective and efficient with well-maintained mass balance. A modeling framework was developed to organize the coupling scheme and to handle the pre- and post-processing information. The model is then used to evaluate groundwater recharge in a real-world application, which shows the model practicability in regional-scale problems.
Ning Li, Wolfgang Kinzelbach, Haitao Li, Wenpeng Li, and Fei Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2823–2840,Short summary
Groundwater heads within an administrative unit are influenced not only by inside drivers, but also by outside drivers. To assess the efficiency of groundwater management of the administrative unit, we propose the decomposition of groundwater heads within the unit into inside and outside contributions by using three numerical groundwater models. The method is successfully demonstrated using Guantao County, China.
Zhenjiao Jiang, Dirk Mallants, Luk Peeters, Lei Gao, Camilla Soerensen, and Gregoire Mariethoz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2561–2580,Short summary
Paleovalleys often form productive aquifers in the semiarid and arid areas. A methodology based on deep learning is introduced to automatically generate high-resolution 3-D paleovalley maps from low-resolution electrical conductivity data derived from airborne geophysical surveys. It is validated by borehole logs and the surface valley indices that the proposed method in this study provides an effective tool for regional-scale paleovalley mapping and groundwater exploration.
Nicholas D. Woodman, William G. Burgess, Kazi Matin Ahmed, and Anwar Zahid
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2461–2479,Short summary
We show that a conventional hydraulic understanding of groundwater level fluctuation is too simplistic for the extensive floodplains of Bangladesh and West Bengal. This is crucial because 150 million people of the region rely on groundwater for drinking and irrigation. We describe a more complex situation: the coupled hydro-mechanical action of surface water coming and going as the seasons change. Our model results will assist sustainable management of groundwater resources across the region.
Quanrong Wang and Hongbin Zhan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2207–2223,Short summary
New multi-species reactive models of the four-phase SWPP test were presented considering the wellbore storages for both groundwater flow and solute transport and a finite-aquifer hydraulic diffusivity, which were ignored in previous studies. The models of the wellbore storage for solute transport were proposed based on the mass balance, and the sensitivity analysis and uniqueness analysis were employed to investigate the assumptions used in previous studies on the parameter estimation.
Wolfgang Dreybrodt and Franci Gabrovšek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1995–2014,Short summary
Numerical models of wormhole formation in fractured porous media provide basic insights on the evolution of complex conduit systems in karst aquifers. In this work we use a time-propagating reactive flow model to explore the evolution of wormholes in a 2-D grid of fractures. We demonstrate physically meaningful mechanisms leading to the formation of individual wormholes and the competition between a set of evolving wormholes.
Ching-Sheng Huang, Ya-Hsin Tsai, Hund-Der Yeh, and Tao Yang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1323–1337,Short summary
The study develops a new model describing head fluctuation induced by oscillatory pumping test (OPT) in an unconfined aquifer with effects of delayed gravity drainage (DGD) and initial condition regarding the hydraulic head prior to OPT. The DGD reduces to instantaneous gravity drainage when a dimensionless parameter exceeds 500. A pseudo-steady-state model excluding initial condition causes a time-shift from the actual transient model in predicting simple harmonic motion of head fluctuation.
Nimrod Inbar, Eliahu Rosenthal, Fabien Magri, Marwan Alraggad, Peter Möller, Akiva Flexer, Joseph Guttman, and Christian Siebert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 763–771,Short summary
In areas of enigmatic hydrology, water scarcity, and transboundary water resources, management strategies should rely on comprehensive modeling which must be based on realistic geometry, including all relevant structural features. Based on available geophysical and geological data, a new faulting pattern in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge is suggested as a basis for hydrogeological modeling. Furthermore, unexpected pull-apart basin rim fault evolution is discussed in the context of tectonic collision.
I-Hsien Lee, Chuen-Fa Ni, Fang-Pang Lin, Chi-Ping Lin, and Chien-Chung Ke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 19–34,Short summary
Few studies focused on the direct solution of the ADE for 3-D DFNs. The study is the first to solve the ADE and focus on assessing the velocity uncertainty in 3-D DFNs. The velocity uncertainty shows a limited range of influence close to the mean diameter of a fracture. The information is useful for engineering designs at sites with fractured rocks. We quantified that the tracer test in wells might lead to the overestimation of mean concentration and induce high uncertainty in fractured media.
Qiyu Chen, Gregoire Mariethoz, Gang Liu, Alessandro Comunian, and Xiaogang Ma
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6547–6566,Short summary
One of the critical issues in MPS simulation is the difficulty in obtaining a credible 3-D training image. We propose an MPS-based 3-D reconstruction method on the basis of 2-D cross sections, making 3-D training images unnecessary. The main advantages of this approach are the high computational efficiency and a relaxation of the stationarity assumption. The results, in comparison with previous MPS methods, show better performance in portraying anisotropy characteristics and in CPU cost.
Rogier Westerhoff, Paul White, and Gonzalo Miguez-Macho
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6449–6472,Short summary
Our study improved a global-scale groundwater model to build the first nationwide estimate of the water table surface in New Zealand. By identifying the main alluvial aquifers with high spatial detail, we showed that this model can help better delineate aquifer boundaries. In catchment studies we demonstrated excellent correlation with ground observations and provided water table estimates where data were sparse and across regions, which could help solve trans-boundary issues between catchments.
Yonatan Ganot, Ran Holtzman, Noam Weisbrod, Anat Bernstein, Hagar Siebner, Yoram Katz, and Daniel Kurtzman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6323–6333,Short summary
In recent years, surpluses of desalinated seawater (DSW) are stored in the Israeli coastal aquifer. We monitor DSW spread in the aquifer using the difference between isotope composition of reverse-osmosis DSW and natural fresh water, which simplifies the system to two distinct end-members. A hydrogeological flow and transport model is used to demonstrate the robustness of this simplification, predict the future spread of DSW in the aquifer and mixing in wells, and estimate DSW recovery efficacy.
Claudia Cherubini, Nicola Pastore, Dimitra Rapti, and Concetta I. Giasi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5211–5225,Short summary
The present study investigates the hotspots of groundwater contamination in the industrial area of Modugno (Bari – southern Italy) where the limestone aquifer has a fractured and karstic nature. The characterization of the dynamics of fluid flow and solute transport in fractured aquifers is of broad concern worldwide, especially when considered in relation to water resource exploitation, because fractured aquifers serve as the primary source of drinking water for many areas of the world.
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The Nile Delta is an important agricultural area with a fast-growing population, relying increasingly on groundwater. However, saline groundwater extends far land-inward, rendering groundwater close to the coastal zone useless for consumption or agriculture. It normally is assumed that this is caused by mixing due to velocity differences, but here we show that it might also be caused by the coastline being located more land-inward 8000 years ago.
The Nile Delta is an important agricultural area with a fast-growing population, relying...