Articles | Volume 19, issue 6
03 Jun 2015
Research article | 03 Jun 2015
Estimating flow and transport parameters in the unsaturated zone with pore water stable isotopes
M. Sprenger et al.
No articles found.
Stefan Seeger and Markus Weiler
This study proposes a low-budget method to visualize the radial distribution of water transport velocities within trees at a high spatial resolution. We observed a wide spread of water transport velocities within a tree stem section, which were on average three times faster than the flux velocity. The distribution of transport velocities has implications for studies that use water isotopic signatures to study root water uptake processes and usually assume uniform or even infinite velocities.
Barbara Herbstritt, Benjamin Gralher, Stefan Seeger, Michael Rinderer, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
We present a new method to collect discrete water vapor samples in the field without an in-field analyser, followed by isotope analysis in the lab. It resolves even fine-scaled natural isotope variations. It combines low-cost and light-weight components for maximum spatial and temporal flexibility regarding environmental setups. Hence, it allows for sampling even in terrains that are rather difficult to access, enabling future extended isotope datasets in soil sciences and ecohydrology.
Daniel Rasche, Jannis Weimar, Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Markus Morgner, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
We introduce passive downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing (d-CRNS) as an approach for the non-invasive estimation of soil moisture in deeper layers of the unsaturated zone which exceed the observational window of above-ground CRNS applications. Neutron transport simulations are used to derive mathematical descriptions and transfer functions while experimental measurements in an existing groundwater observation well illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the approach.
Andreas Hänsler and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5069–5084,Short summary
Spatially explicit quantification of design storms is essential for flood risk assessment and planning. However, available datasets are mainly based on spatially interpolated station-based design storms. Since the spatial interpolation of the data inherits a large potential for uncertainty, we develop an approach to be able to derive spatially explicit design storms on the basis of weather radar data. We find that our approach leads to an improved spatial representation of design storms.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, Konrad Greinwald, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4953–4974,Short summary
Analyzing the impact of soil age and rainfall intensity on vertical subsurface flow paths in calcareous soils, with a special focus on preferential flow occurrence, shows how water flow paths are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The observed increase in preferential flow occurrence with increasing moraine age provides important but rare data for a proper representation of hydrological processes within the feedback cycle of the hydro-pedo-geomorphological system.
Achim Brauer, Ingo Heinrich, Markus J. Schwab, Birgit Plessen, Brian Brademann, Matthias Köppl, Sylvia Pinkerneil, Daniel Balanzategui, Gerhard Helle, and Theresa Blume
DEUQUA Spec. Pub., 4, 41–58,
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 653–669,Short summary
Climate change fundamentally alters glaciated high-alpine areas, but it is unclear how this affects riverine sediment transport. As a first step, we aimed to identify the most important processes and source areas in three nested catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, in the past 15 years. We found that areas above 2500 m were crucial and that summer rainstorms were less influential than glacier melt. These findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes in high-alpine sediment dynamics.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2671–2696,Short summary
This study is analyses how characteristics of precipitation events and soil moisture and temperature dynamics during these events can be used to model the associated streamflow responses in intermittent streams. The models are used to identify differences between the dominant controls of streamflow intermittency in three distinct geologies of the Attert catchment, Luxembourg. Overall, soil moisture was found to be the most important control of intermittent streamflow in all geologies.
Heye Reemt Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Mustafa Berk Duygu, Miguel Angel Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Davide Canone, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Stefano Ferraris, Félix Frances, Davide Gisolo, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten H. Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) operated by 24 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Daniel Rasche, Markus Köhli, Martin Schrön, Theresa Blume, and Andreas Güntner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6547–6566,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing provides areal average soil moisture measurements. We investigated how distinct differences in spatial soil moisture patterns influence the soil moisture estimates and present two approaches to improve the estimate of soil moisture close to the instrument by reducing the influence of soil moisture further afield. Additionally, we show that the heterogeneity of soil moisture can be assessed based on the relationship of different neutron energies.
Conrad Jackisch, Sibylle K. Hassler, Tobias L. Hohenbrink, Theresa Blume, Hjalmar Laudon, Hilary McMillan, Patricia Saco, and Loes van Schaik
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5277–5285,
Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5219–5235,Short summary
We scrutinized the quickest currently available method for stable isotope analysis of matrix-bound water. Simulating common procedures, we demonstrated the limits of certain materials currently used and identified a reliable and cost-efficient alternative. Further, we calculated the optimum proportions of important protocol aspects critical for precise and accurate analyses. Our unifying protocol suggestions increase data quality and comparability as well as the method's general applicability.
Jan Greiwe, Markus Weiler, and Jens Lange
Biogeosciences, 18, 4705–4715,Short summary
We analyzed variability in diel nitrate patterns at three locations in a lowland stream. Comparison of time lags between monitoring sites with water travel time indicated that diel patterns were created by in-stream processes rather than transported downstream from an upstream point of origin. Most of the patterns (70 %) could be explained by assimilatory nitrate uptake. The remaining patterns suggest seasonally varying dominance and synchronicity of different biochemical processes.
Stefan Seeger and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 4603–4627,Short summary
We developed a setup for fully automated in situ measurements of stable water isotopes in soil and the stems of fully grown trees. We used this setup in a 12-week field campaign to monitor the propagation of a labelling pulse from the soil up to a stem height of 8 m. We could observe trees shifting their main water uptake depths multiple times, depending on water availability. The gained knowledge about the temporal dynamics can help to improve water uptake models and future study designs.
Andreas Hänsler and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Spatially explicit quantification on design storms are essential for flood risk assessment. However this information can be only achieved from substantially long records of rainfall measurements, usually only available for a few stations. Hence, design storms estimates from these few stations are then spatially interpolated leading to a major source of uncertainty. Therefore we defined a methodology to extend spatially explicit weather radar data to be used for the estimation of design storms.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, Konrad Greinwald, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation and vegetation succession across ten millennia on calcareous parent material shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. We provide important but rare data and observations for a proper handling of hydrologic processes and their role within the feedback cycle of the hydro-pedo-geomorphological system.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2127–2142,Short summary
This paper presents FluSM, an algorithm to derive the water balance from soil moisture and metrological measurements. This data-driven water balance framework uses soil moisture as an input and therefore is applicable for cases with unclear processes and lacking parameters. In a case study, we apply FluSM to derive the water balance of 15 different permeable pavements under field conditions. These findings are of special interest for urban hydrology.
Robin Schwemmle, Dominic Demand, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2187–2198,Short summary
A better understanding of the reasons why model performance is unsatisfying represents a crucial part for meaningful model evaluation. We propose the novel diagnostic efficiency (DE) measure and diagnostic polar plots. The proposed evaluation approach provides a diagnostic tool for model developers and model users and facilitates interpretation of model performance.
Michael Rinderer, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 1009–1027,Short summary
We quantified the lateral and vertical subsurface flow (SSF) and P concentrations of three beech forest plots with contrasting soil properties during sprinkling experiments. Vertical SSF was 2 orders of magnitude larger than lateral SSF, and both consisted mainly of pre-event water. P concentrations in SSF were high during the first 1 to 2 h (nutrient flushing) but nearly constant thereafter. This suggests that P in the soil solution was replenished fast by mineral or organic sources.
Merle Koelbing, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Based on a unique and comprehensive data set of urban micro-meteorological variables, which were observed with a mobile climate station, we developed a new method to transfer mesoscale reference potential evapotranspiration to the urban microscale in street canyons. Our findings can be transferred easily to existing urban hydrologic models to improve modelling results with a more precise estimate of potential evapotranspiration on street level.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3189–3204,Short summary
Our analysis of soil physical and hydraulic properties across two soil chronosequences of 10 millennia in the Swiss Alps provides important observation of the evolution of soil hydraulic behavior. A strong co-evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties was revealed by the observed change of fast-draining coarse-textured soils to slow-draining soils with a high water-holding capacity in correlation with a distinct change in structural properties and organic matter content.
Daniel Beiter, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5713–5744,Short summary
We investigated the interactions between streams and their adjacent hillslopes in terms of water flow. It could be revealed that soil structure has a strong influence on how hillslopes connect to the streams, while the groundwater table tells us a lot about when the two connect. This observation could be used to improve models that try to predict whether or not hillslopes are in a state where a rain event will be likely to produce a flood in the stream.
Maria Staudinger, Stefan Seeger, Barbara Herbstritt, Michael Stoelzle, Jan Seibert, Kerstin Stahl, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3057–3066,Short summary
The data set CH-IRP provides isotope composition in precipitation and streamflow from 23 Swiss catchments, being unique regarding its long-term multi-catchment coverage along an alpine–pre-alpine gradient. CH-IRP contains fortnightly time series of stable water isotopes from streamflow grab samples complemented by time series in precipitation. Sampling conditions, catchment and climate information, lab standards and errors are provided together with areal precipitation and catchment boundaries.
Conrad Jackisch, Samuel Knoblauch, Theresa Blume, Erwin Zehe, and Sibylle K. Hassler
Biogeosciences, 17, 5787–5808,Short summary
We developed software to calculate the root water uptake (RWU) of beech tree roots from soil moisture dynamics. We present our approach and compare RWU to measured sap flow in the tree stem. The study relates to two sites that are similar in topography and weather but with contrasting soils. While sap flow is very similar between the two sites, the RWU is different. This suggests that soil characteristics have substantial influence. Our easy-to-implement RWU estimate may help further studies.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5453–5472,Short summary
In recent decades the demand for detailed information of spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream network has grown in the fields of eco-hydrology and extreme flow prediction. We use temporal streamflow intermittency data obtained at various sites using innovative sensing technology as well as spatial predictors to predict and map probabilities of streamflow intermittency. This approach has the potential to provide intermittency maps for hydrological modelling and management practices.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Michael Stoelzle, Maria Staudinger, Kerstin Stahl, and Markus Weiler
Proc. IAHS, 383, 43–50,Short summary
The role of recharge and catchment storage is crucial to understand streamflow drought sensitivity. Here we introduce a model experiment with recharge stress tests as complement to climate scenarios to quantify the streamflow drought sensitivities of catchments in Switzerland. We identified a pre-drought period of 12 months as maximum storage-memory for the study catchments. From stress testing, we found up to 200 days longer summer streamflow droughts and minimum flow reductions of 50 %–80 %.
Anne Hartmann, Ekaterina Semenova, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3271–3288,Short summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation, and vegetation succession across 10 millennia shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The increase found in water storage and preferential flow paths with increasing soil age shows the effect of the complex interaction of vegetation and soil development on flow paths, water balance, and runoff formation during landscape evolution.
Mirko Mälicke, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2633–2653,Short summary
We could show that distributed soil moisture time series bear a considerable amount of information about dynamic changes in soil moisture. We developed a new method to describe spatial patterns and analyze their persistency. By combining uncertainty propagation with information theory, we were able to calculate the information content of spatial similarity with respect to measurement uncertainty. This does help to understand when and why the soil is drying in an organized manner.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 501–517,Short summary
This paper contains detailed information about the instrumentation of permeable pavements with soil moisture sensors and the performance of infiltration experiments on these surfaces. The collected data are beneficial for studying urban water and energy cycles. They contain valuable information about the hydrological behavior of permeable pavements and urban subsurface heat anomalies. Due to the lack of similar data, we are convinced that the dataset is of great scientific value.
Michael Stoelzle, Tobias Schuetz, Markus Weiler, Kerstin Stahl, and Lena M. Tallaksen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 849–867,Short summary
During dry weather, different delayed sources of runoff (e.g. from groundwater, wetlands or snowmelt) modulate the magnitude and variability of streamflow. Hydrograph separation methods often do not distinguish these delayed contributions and mostly pool them into only two components (i.e. quickflow and baseflow). We propose a method that uncovers multiple components and demonstrates how they better reflect streamflow generation processes of different flow regimes.
Fabian Ries, Lara Kirn, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 245–255,Short summary
Pluvial or flash floods generated by heavy precipitation events cause large economic damage and loss of life worldwide. As discharge observations from such extreme occurrences are rare, data from artificial sprinkling experiments offer valuable information on runoff generation processes, overland and subsurface flow rates, and response times. A extensive data set from 132 large-scale sprinkling experiments in Germany is described and presented in this paper.
Dominic Demand, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4869–4889,Short summary
This study presents an analysis of 135 soil moisture profiles for identification of the spatial and temporal preferential flow occurrence in a complex landscape. Especially dry conditions and high rainfall intensities were found to increase preferential flow occurrence in soils. This results in a seasonal pattern of preferential flow with a higher occurrence in summer. During this time grasslands showed increased flow velocities, whereas forest sites exhibited a higher amount of bypass flow.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Ernestine Sohrt, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1363–1374,Short summary
Different sensing techniques including time-lapse imagery, electric conductivity and stage measurements were used to generate a combined dataset of the presence and absence of streamflow within a large number of nested sub-catchments in the Attert catchment, Luxembourg. The first sites of observation were established in 2013 and successively extended to a total number of 182 in 2016. The dataset can be used to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of the stream network.
Barbara Herbstritt, Benjamin Gralher, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3007–3019,Short summary
We describe a novel technique for the precise, quasi real-time observation of water-stable isotopes in gross precipitation and throughfall from tree canopies in parallel. Various processes (e.g. rainfall intensity, evapotranspiration, exchange with ambient vapour) thereby control throughfall intensity and isotopic composition. The achieved temporal resolution now competes with common meteorological measurements, thus enabling new ways to employ water-stable isotopes in forested catchments.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Adriaan J. Teuling, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, and Martin Herold
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2077–2091,Short summary
Satellite images are often used to estimate land water fluxes over a larger area. In this study, we investigate the link between a well-known vegetation index derived from satellite data and sap velocity, in a temperate forest in Luxembourg. We show that the link between the vegetation index and transpiration is not constant. Therefore we suggest that the use of vegetation indices to predict transpiration should be limited to ecosystems and scales where the link has been confirmed.
Erwin Zehe, Ralf Loritz, Conrad Jackisch, Martijn Westhoff, Axel Kleidon, Theresa Blume, Sibylle K. Hassler, and Hubert H. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 971–987,
Jobin Joseph, Christoph Külls, Matthias Arend, Marcus Schaub, Frank Hagedorn, Arthur Gessler, and Markus Weiler
SOIL, 5, 49–62,Short summary
By coupling an OA-ICOS with hydrophobic but gas-permeable membranes placed at different depths in acidic and calcareous soils, we investigated the contribution of abiotic and biotic components to total soil CO2 release. In calcareous Gleysol, CO2 originating from carbonate dissolution contributed to total soil CO2 concentration at detectable degrees, probably due to CO2 evasion from groundwater. Inward diffusion of atmospheric CO2 was found to be pronounced in the topsoil layers at both sites.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Mirko Mälicke, Sibylle K. Hassler, Markus Weiler, Theresa Blume, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this study we use time dependent variograms to identify periods of organized soil moisture during drying. We could identify emerging spatial patterns which imply periods of terrestrial control on soil moisture organization. The coupling of time dependent variograms with density based clustering is a new approach to detect similarity in spatial patterns. The presented method is useful to describe states of organization and improve kriging workflows by extending their prerequisites.
Jana von Freyberg, Scott T. Allen, Stefan Seeger, Markus Weiler, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3841–3861,Short summary
We explored how the fraction of streamflow younger than ca. 3 months (Fyw) varies with landscape characteristics and climatic forcing, using an extensive isotope data set from 22 Swiss catchments. Overall, Fyw tends to be larger when catchments are wet and discharge is correspondingly higher, indicating an increase in the proportional contribution of faster flow paths at higher flows. We quantify this
discharge sensitivityof Fyw and relate it to the dominant streamflow-generating mechanisms.
Natalie Orlowski, Lutz Breuer, Nicolas Angeli, Pascal Boeckx, Christophe Brumbt, Craig S. Cook, Maren Dubbert, Jens Dyckmans, Barbora Gallagher, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Christophe Hissler, Paul Koeniger, Arnaud Legout, Chandelle Joan Macdonald, Carlos Oyarzún, Regine Redelstein, Christof Seidler, Rolf Siegwolf, Christine Stumpp, Simon Thomsen, Markus Weiler, Christiane Werner, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3619–3637,Short summary
To extract water from soils for isotopic analysis, cryogenic water extraction is the most widely used removal technique. This work presents results from a worldwide laboratory intercomparison test of cryogenic extraction systems. Our results showed large differences in retrieved isotopic signatures among participating laboratories linked to interactions between soil type and properties, system setup, extraction efficiency, extraction system leaks, and each lab’s internal accuracy.
Jakob Sohrt, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We sampled concentrations of phosphorus (P) in laterally flowing water in the organic layer of three beech forest sites. Sampling frequency was in the range to minutes to ours with the intent of capturing short term variability of this parameter and the underlying mechanisms, which were analyzed with a modeling approach. While site affiliation was found to be a strong influence on P concentrations in lateral flow, some universal effects – like antecedent soil moisture – could also be determined.
Paolo Benettin, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Jay Frentress, Daniele Penna, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2881–2890,Short summary
Evaporation causes the isotopic composition of soil water to become different from that of the original precipitation source. If multiple samples originating from the same source are available, they can be used to reconstruct the original source composition. However, soil water is influenced by seasonal variability in both precipitation sources and evaporation patterns. We show that this variability, if not accounted for, can lead to biased estimates of the precipitation source water.
Daphné Freudiger, David Mennekes, Jan Seibert, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 805–814,Short summary
To understand glacier changes in the Swiss Alps at the large scale, long-term datasets are needed. To fill the gap between the existing glacier inventories of the Swiss Alps between 1850 and 1973, we digitized glacier outlines from topographic historical maps of Switzerland for the time periods ca. 1900 and ca. 1935. We found that > 88 % of the digitized glacier area was plausible compared to four inventories. The presented dataset is therefore valuable information for long-term glacier studies.
Michael P. Schwab, Julian Klaus, Laurent Pfister, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 15, 2177–2188,Short summary
We studied the diel fluctuations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small stream in Luxembourg. We identified an increased proportion of DOC from terrestrial sources as responsible for the peaks in DOC in the afternoon. Warmer water temperatures in the riparian zone in the afternoon increased the amount of water flowing towards the stream. Consequently, an increased amount of DOC-rich water from the riparian zone was entering the stream.
Jan Seibert, Marc J. P. Vis, Irene Kohn, Markus Weiler, and Kerstin Stahl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2211–2224,Short summary
In many glacio-hydrological models glacier areas are assumed to be constant over time, which is a crucial limitation. Here we describe a novel approach to translate mass balances as simulated by the (glacio)hydrological model into glacier area changes. We combined the Δh approach of Huss et al. (2010) with the bucket-type model HBV and introduced a lookup table approach, which also allows periods with advancing glaciers to be represented, which is not possible with the original Huss method.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Willem J. van Verseveld, Holly R. Barnard, Chris B. Graham, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, J. Renée Brooks, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5891–5910,Short summary
How stream water responds immediately to a rainfall or snow event, while the average time it takes water to travel through the hillslope can be years or decades and is poorly understood. We assessed this difference by combining a 24-day sprinkler experiment (a tracer was applied at the start) with a process-based hydrologic model. Immobile soil water, deep groundwater contribution and soil depth variability explained this difference at our hillslope site.
Christina Tecklenburg and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5043–5063,Short summary
We characterized groundwater–lake exchange patterns and identified their controls based on extensive field measurements. Our measurement design bridges the gap between the detailed local characterisation and low resolution regional investigations. Results indicated strong spatial variability in groundwater inflow rates: large scale inflow patterns correlated with topography and the groundwater flow field and small scale patterns correlated with grainsize distributions of the lake sediment.
Michael P. Schwab, Julian Klaus, Laurent Pfister, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Lisa Angermann, Conrad Jackisch, Niklas Allroggen, Matthias Sprenger, Erwin Zehe, Jens Tronicke, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3727–3748,Short summary
This study investigates the temporal dynamics and response velocities of lateral preferential flow at the hillslope. The results are compared to catchment response behavior to infer the large-scale implications of the observed processes. A large portion of mobile water flows through preferential flow paths in the structured soils, causing an immediate discharge response. The study presents a methodological approach to cover the spatial and temporal domain of these highly heterogeneous processes.
Conrad Jackisch, Lisa Angermann, Niklas Allroggen, Matthias Sprenger, Theresa Blume, Jens Tronicke, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3749–3775,Short summary
Rapid subsurface flow in structured soils facilitates fast vertical and lateral redistribution of event water. We present its in situ exploration through local measurements and irrigation experiments. Special emphasis is given to a coherent combination of hydrological and geophysical methods. The study highlights that form and function operate as conjugated pairs. Dynamic imaging through time-lapse GPR was key to observing both and to identifying hydrologically relevant structures.
Carlotta Scudeler, Luke Pangle, Damiano Pasetto, Guo-Yue Niu, Till Volkmann, Claudio Paniconi, Mario Putti, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4061–4078,Short summary
Very few studies have applied a physically based hydrological model with integrated and distributed multivariate observation data of both flow and transport phenomena. In this study we address this challenge for a hillslope-scale unsaturated zone isotope tracer experiment. The results show how model complexity evolves as the number and detail of simulated responses increases. Possible gaps in process representation for simulating solute transport phenomena in very dry soils are discussed.
Maik Renner, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, Anke Hildebrandt, Marcus Guderle, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2063–2083,Short summary
We estimated forest transpiration (European beech) along a steep valley cross section. Atmospheric demand, obtained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power, is the dominant control of transpiration at all sites. To our surprise we find that transpiration is rather similar across sites with different aspect (north vs. south) and different stand structure due to systematically varying sap velocities. Such a compensation effect is highly relevant for modeling and upscaling of transpiration.
Katharina F. Gimbel, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1301–1317,Short summary
It is usually assumed that soil properties are not affected by drought events. We used dye tracer experiments to test this assumption on six forest soils, which were forced into drought conditions. The results of this study show clear evidence for changes in infiltration pathways. In addition, most soils developed soil water repellency. Overall, the results suggest that the past climatic conditions are more important than the actual soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1269–1288,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors bridge the gap between point-scale measurements of soil moisture and remote sensing applications. We tested four distinct methods to calibrate the sensor in a temperate forest environment using different soil moisture weighting approaches. While the variable leaf biomass of the deciduous trees had no significant influence on the calibration, it proved necessary to modify the standard calibration method to achieve the best sensor performance.
Tobias Schuetz, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Patrick Durand, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 843–857,Short summary
We quantify the spatio-temporal impact of distinct nitrate sinks and sources on stream network nitrate dynamics in an agricultural headwater. By applying a data-driven modelling approach, we are able to fully distinguish between mixing and dilution processes, and biogeochemical in-stream removal processes along the stream network. In-stream nitrate removal is estimated by applying a novel transfer coefficient based on energy availability.
A. Hartmann, J. Kobler, M. Kralik, T. Dirnböck, F. Humer, and M. Weiler
Biogeosciences, 13, 159–174,Short summary
We consider the time period before and after a wind disturbance in an Austrian karst system. Using a process-based flow and solute transport simulation model we estimate impacts on DIN and DOC. We show that DIN increases for several years, while DOC remains within its pre-disturbance variability. Simulated transit times indicate that impact passes through the hydrological system within some months but with a small fraction exceeding transit times of even a year.
M. Staudinger, M. Weiler, and J. Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1371–1384,
K. F. Gimbel, K. Felsmann, M. Baudis, H. Puhlmann, A. Gessler, H. Bruelheide, Z. Kayler, R. H. Ellerbrock, A. Ulrich, E. Welk, and M. Weiler
Biogeosciences, 12, 961–975,Short summary
This paper introduces a novel rainfall reduction experiment to investigate drought effects on soil-forest-understory-ecosystems. An annual drought with a return period of 40 years was imposed, while other ecosystem variables (humidity, air & soil temperature) remained unaffected. The first year of drought showed considerable changes in soil moisture dynamics, which affected leaf stomatal conductance of understory species as well as evapotranspiration rates of the forest understory ecosystem.
S. Seeger and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4751–4771,
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, L. Pfister, T. Blume, B. Schröder, M. Westhoff, C. Jackisch, S. J. Schymanski, M. Weiler, K. Schulz, N. Allroggen, J. Tronicke, L. van Schaik, P. Dietrich, U. Scherer, J. Eccard, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4635–4655,
J. Schwerdtfeger, M. S. Johnson, E. G. Couto, R. S. S. Amorim, L. Sanches, J. H. Campelo Jr., and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4407–4422,
B. Merz, J. Aerts, K. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, M. Baldi, A. Becker, A. Bichet, G. Blöschl, L. M. Bouwer, A. Brauer, F. Cioffi, J. M. Delgado, M. Gocht, F. Guzzetti, S. Harrigan, K. Hirschboeck, C. Kilsby, W. Kron, H.-H. Kwon, U. Lall, R. Merz, K. Nissen, P. Salvatti, T. Swierczynski, U. Ulbrich, A. Viglione, P. J. Ward, M. Weiler, B. Wilhelm, and M. Nied
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1921–1942,
D. Freudiger, I. Kohn, K. Stahl, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2695–2709,
H. M. Holländer, H. Bormann, T. Blume, W. Buytaert, G. B. Chirico, J.-F. Exbrayat, D. Gustafsson, H. Hölzel, T. Krauße, P. Kraft, S. Stoll, G. Blöschl, and H. Flühler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2065–2085,
R. S. Smith, R. D. Moore, M. Weiler, and G. Jost
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1835–1856,
T. H. M. Volkmann and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1819–1833,
M. Gassmann, C. Stamm, O. Olsson, J. Lange, K. Kümmerer, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5213–5228,
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, T. Blume, A. Kleidon, U. Scherer, and M. Westhoff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4297–4322,
A. Hartmann, M. Weiler, T. Wagener, J. Lange, M. Kralik, F. Humer, N. Mizyed, A. Rimmer, J. A. Barberá, B. Andreo, C. Butscher, and P. Huggenberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3305–3321,
N. Dietermann and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2657–2668,
J. Garvelmann, S. Pohl, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1415–1429,
M. Stoelzle, K. Stahl, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 817–828,
Related subject area
Subject: Vadose Zone Hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesNumerical assessment of morphological and hydraulic properties of moss, lichen and peat from a permafrost peatlandA robust upwind mixed hybrid finite element method for transport in variably saturated porous mediaSoil-vegetation-water interactions controlling solute flow and transport in volcanic ash soils of the high AndesStepping beyond perfectly mixed conditions in soil hydrological modelling using a Lagrangian approachUsing machine learning to predict optimal electromagnetic induction instrument configurations for characterizing the shallow subsurfaceGravity as a tool to improve the hydrologic mass budget in karstic areasA scaling procedure for straightforward computation of sorptivityFrom hydraulic root architecture models to macroscopic representations of root hydraulics in soil water flow and land surface modelsSimulated or measured soil moisture: which one is adding more value to regional landslide early warning?Interaction of soil water and groundwater during the freezing–thawing cycle: field observations and numerical modelingAssessing the dynamics of soil salinity with time-lapse inversion of electromagnetic data guided by hydrological modellingSimulation of reactive solute transport in the critical zone: a Lagrangian model for transient flow and preferential transportInvestigating the impact of exit effects on solute transport in macroporous mediaComparison of root water uptake models in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes and growth of wheatUnderstanding the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the frozen soil with three levels of model complexitiesA field-validated surrogate crop model for predicting root-zone moisture and salt content in regions with shallow groundwaterCharacterizing uncertainty in the hydraulic parameters of oil sands mine reclamation covers and its influence on water balance predictionsSimulating preferential soil water flow and tracer transport using the Lagrangian Soil Water and Solute Transport ModelAssessment of simulated soil moisture from WRF Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM land surface schemes for landslide hazard applicationEfficient estimation of effective hydraulic properties of stratal undulating surface layer using time-lapse multi-channel GPRPartitioning snowmelt and rainfall in the critical zone: effects of climate type and soil propertiesA unique vadose zone model for shallow aquifers: the Hetao irrigation district, ChinaModelling of shallow water table dynamics using conceptual and physically based integrated surface-water–groundwater hydrologic modelsCapturing soil-water and groundwater interactions with an iterative feedback coupling scheme: new HYDRUS package for MODFLOWCaffeine vs. carbamazepine as indicators of wastewater pollution in a karst aquiferPredicting the soil water retention curve from the particle size distribution based on a pore space geometry containing slit-shaped spacesTechnical note: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and textural heterogeneity of soilsWater ages in the critical zone of long-term experimental sites in northern latitudesEcohydrological particle model based on representative domainsImpact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yieldsSoil hydraulic material properties and layered architecture from time-lapse GPRRoot growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditionsUsing lagged dependence to identify (de)coupled surface and subsurface soil moisture valuesShallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistributionShallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertaintyA pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic propertiesMonitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawaterEffect of unrepresented model errors on estimated soil hydraulic material propertiesSaturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soilsRoss scheme, Newton–Raphson iterative methods and time-stepping strategies for solving the mixed form of Richards' equationFeasibility analysis of using inverse modeling for estimating field-scale evapotranspiration in maize and soybean fields from soil water content monitoring networksA case study of field-scale maize irrigation patterns in western Nebraska: implications for water managers and recommendations for hyper-resolution land surface modelingBenchmarking test of empirical root water uptake modelsiCRESTRIGRS: a coupled modeling system for cascading flood–landslide disaster forecastingEnKF with closed-eye period – towards a consistent aggregation of information in soil hydrologyPrediction of biopore- and matrix-dominated flow from X-ray CT-derived macropore network characteristicsA Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics during rainfall-driven conditionsQuantifying shallow subsurface water and heat dynamics using coupled hydrological-thermal-geophysical inversionStem–root flow effect on soil–atmosphere interactions and uncertainty assessmentsThe effect of different evapotranspiration methods on portraying soil water dynamics and ET partitioning in a semi-arid environment in Northwest China
Simon Cazaurang, Manuel Marcoux, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey V. Loiko, Artem G. Lim, Stéphane Audry, Liudmila S. Shirokova, and Laurent Orgogozo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 431–451,Short summary
Moss, lichen and peat samples are reconstructed using X-ray tomography. Most samples can be cut down to a representative volume based on porosity. However, only homogeneous samples could be reduced to a representative volume based on hydraulic conductivity. For heterogeneous samples, a devoted pore network model is computed. The studied samples are mostly highly porous and water-conductive. These results must be put into perspective with compressibility phenomena occurring in field tests.
Anis Younes, Hussein Hoteit, Rainer Helmig, and Marwan Fahs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5227–5239,Short summary
Despite its advantages for the simulation of flow in heterogeneous and fractured porous media, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been rarely used for transport as it suffers from strong unphysical oscillations. We develop here a new upwind scheme for the mixed hybrid finite element that can avoid oscillations. Numerical examples confirm the robustness of this new scheme for the simulation of contaminant transport in both saturated and unsaturated conditions.
Sebastián Páez-Bimos, Armando Molina, Marlon Calispa, Pierre Delmelle, Braulio Lahuatte, Marcos Villacís, Teresa Muñoz, and Veerle Vanacker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
This study analyses how vegetation influences soil hydrology, water fluxes and chemical weathering rates in the high Andes. There are clear differences in the A horizon. The extent of soil chemical weathering varies depending on vegetation. This difference is attributed mainly to the water fluxes. Our findings reveal that vegetation can modify soil properties in the uppermost horizon altering the water balance, solutes, and chemical weathering throughout the entire soil profile.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Brian Berkowitz, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1615–1629,Short summary
We present a (physically based) Lagrangian approach to simulate diffusive mixing processes on the pore scale beyond perfectly mixed conditions. Results show the feasibility of the approach for reproducing measured mixing times and concentrations of isotopes over pore sizes and that typical shapes of breakthrough curves (normally associated with non-uniform transport in heterogeneous soils) may also occur as a result of imperfect subscale mixing in a macroscopically homogeneous soil matrix.
Kim Madsen van't Veen, Ty Paul Andrew Ferré, Bo Vangsø Iversen, and Christen Duus Børgesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 55–70,Short summary
Geophysical instruments are often used in hydrological surveys. A geophysical model that couples electrical conductivity in the subsurface layers with measurements from an electromagnetic induction instrument was combined with a machine learning algorithm. The study reveals that this combination can estimate the identifiability of electrical conductivity in a layered soil and provide insight into the best way to configure the instrument for a specific field site.
Tommaso Pivetta, Carla Braitenberg, Franci Gabrovšek, Gerald Gabriel, and Bruno Meurers
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6001–6021,Short summary
Gravimetry offers a valid complement to classical hydrologic measurements in order to characterize karstic systems in which the recharge process causes fast accumulation of large water volumes in the voids of the epi-phreatic system. In this contribution we show an innovative integration of gravimetric and hydrologic observations to constrain a hydrodynamic model of the Škocjan Caves (Slovenia). We demonstrate how the inclusion of gravity observations improves the water mass budget estimates.
Laurent Lassabatere, Pierre-Emmanuel Peyneau, Deniz Yilmaz, Joseph Pollacco, Jesús Fernández-Gálvez, Borja Latorre, David Moret-Fernández, Simone Di Prima, Mehdi Rahmati, Ryan D. Stewart, Majdi Abou Najm, Claude Hammecker, and Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5083–5104,Short summary
Soil sorptivity is a crucial parameter for the modeling of water infiltration into soils. The standard equation used to compute sorptivity from the soil water retention curve, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and initial and final water contents may lead to erroneous estimates due to its complexity. This study proposes a new straightforward scaling procedure for estimations of sorptivity for four famous and commonly used hydraulic models.
Jan Vanderborght, Valentin Couvreur, Felicien Meunier, Andrea Schnepf, Harry Vereecken, Martin Bouda, and Mathieu Javaux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4835–4860,Short summary
Root water uptake is an important process in the terrestrial water cycle. How this process depends on soil water content, root distributions, and root properties is a soil–root hydraulic problem. We compare different approaches to implementing root hydraulics in macroscopic soil water flow and land surface models.
Adrian Wicki, Per-Erik Jansson, Peter Lehmann, Christian Hauck, and Manfred Stähli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4585–4610,Short summary
Soil moisture information was shown to be valuable for landslide prediction. Soil moisture was simulated at 133 sites in Switzerland, and the temporal variability was compared to the regional occurrence of landslides. We found that simulated soil moisture is a good predictor for landslides, and that the forecast goodness is similar to using in situ measurements. This encourages the use of models for complementing existing soil moisture monitoring networks for regional landslide early warning.
Hong-Yu Xie, Xiao-Wei Jiang, Shu-Cong Tan, Li Wan, Xu-Sheng Wang, Si-Hai Liang, and Yijian Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4243–4257,Short summary
Freezing-induced groundwater migration and water table decline are widely observed, but quantitative understanding of these processes is lacking. By considering wintertime atmospheric conditions and occurrence of lateral groundwater inflow, a model coupling soil water and groundwater reproduced field observations of soil temperature, soil water content, and groundwater level well. The model results led to a clear understanding of the balance of the water budget during the freezing–thawing cycle.
Mohammad Farzamian, Dario Autovino, Angelo Basile, Roberto De Mascellis, Giovanna Dragonetti, Fernando Monteiro Santos, Andrew Binley, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1509–1527,Short summary
Soil salinity is a serious threat in numerous arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Given this threat, efficient field assessment methods are needed to monitor the dynamics of soil salinity in salt-affected lands efficiently. We demonstrate that rapid and non-invasive geophysical measurements modelled by advanced numerical analysis of the signals and coupled with hydrological modelling can provide valuable information to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil salinity over large areas.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Julian Klaus, Brian Berkowitz, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1483–1508,Short summary
The key innovation of the study is a method to simulate reactive solute transport in the vadose zone within a Lagrangian framework. We extend the LAST-Model with a method to account for non-linear sorption and first-order degradation processes during unsaturated transport of reactive substances in the matrix and macropores. Model evaluations using bromide and pesticide data from irrigation experiments under different flow conditions on various timescales show the feasibility of the method.
Jérôme Raimbault, Pierre-Emmanuel Peyneau, Denis Courtier-Murias, Thomas Bigot, Jaime Gil Roca, Béatrice Béchet, and Laurent Lassabatère
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 671–683,Short summary
Contaminant transport in soils is known to be affected by soil heterogeneities such as macropores. The transport properties of heterogeneous porous media can be studied in laboratory columns. However, the results reported in this study (a combination of breakthrough experiments, magnetic resonance imaging and computer simulations of transport) show that these properties can be largely affected by the boundary devices of the columns, thus highlighting the need to take their effect into account.
Thuy Huu Nguyen, Matthias Langensiepen, Jan Vanderborght, Hubert Hüging, Cho Miltin Mboh, and Frank Ewert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4943–4969,Short summary
The mechanistic Couvreur root water uptake (RWU) model that is based on plant hydraulics and links root system properties to RWU, water stress, and crop development can evaluate the impact of certain crop properties on crop performance in different environments and soils, while the Feddes RWU approach does not possess such flexibility. This study also shows the importance of modeling root development and how it responds to water deficiency to predict the impact of water stress on crop growth.
Lianyu Yu, Yijian Zeng, and Zhongbo Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830,Short summary
Soil mass and heat transfer processes were represented in three levels of model complexities to understand soil freeze–thaw mechanisms. Results indicate that coupled mass and heat transfer models considerably improved simulations of the soil hydrothermal regime. Vapor flow and thermal effects on water flow are the main mechanisms for the improvements. Given the explicit consideration of airflow, vapor flow and its effects on heat transfer were enhanced during the freeze–thaw transition period.
Zhongyi Liu, Zailin Huo, Chaozi Wang, Limin Zhang, Xianghao Wang, Guanhua Huang, Xu Xu, and Tammo Siert Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4213–4237,Short summary
We have developed an integrated surrogate model for arid irrigated areas with shallow groundwater that links crop growth with soil water and salinity in the vadose zone. The model recognizes that field capacity is reached when the matric potential is equal to the height above the groundwater table. The model applies areas with shallow groundwater for which only very few surrogate models are available for most surface irrigation systems in the world without suffering from high groundwater.
M. Shahabul Alam, S. Lee Barbour, and Mingbin Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 735–759,Short summary
This study quantifies uncertainties in the prediction of long-term water balance for mine reclamation soil covers using random sampling of model parameter distributions. Parameter distributions were obtained from model optimization for field monitoring data. Variability in climate is a greater source of uncertainty than the model parameters in evaporation predictions, while climate variability and model parameters exert similar uncertainty on predictions of net percolation.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Wolfgang Wilcke, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4249–4267,Short summary
We present our hydrological LAST-Model to simulate preferential soil water flow and tracer transport in macroporous soils. It relies on a Lagrangian perspective of the movement of discrete water particles carrying tracer masses through the subsoil and is hence an alternative approach to common models. Sensitivity analyses reveal the physical validity of the model concept and evaluation tests show that LAST can depict well observed tracer mass profiles with fingerprints of preferential flow.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Dawei Han, Ningsheng Chen, and Binru Zhao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4199–4218,Short summary
This study assesses the usability of WRF model-simulated soil moisture for landslide monitoring in northern Italy. In particular, three advanced land surface model schemes (Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM4) are used to provide multi-layer soil moisture data. The results have shown Noah-MP can provide the best landslide monitoring performance. It is also demonstrated that a single soil moisture sensor located in plain area has a high correlation with a significant proportion of the study area.
Xicai Pan, Stefan Jaumann, Jiabao Zhang, and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3653–3663,Short summary
This study suggests an efficient approach to obtain plot-scale soil hydraulic properties for the shallow structural soils via non-invasive ground-penetrating radar measurements. Facilitated by spatial information of lateral water flow, this approach is more efficient than the widely used inversion approaches relying on intensive soil moisture monitoring. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of great interest to fields such as hydrology and precision agriculture.
John C. Hammond, Adrian A. Harpold, Sydney Weiss, and Stephanie K. Kampf
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3553–3570,Short summary
Streamflow in high-elevation and high-latitude areas may be vulnerable to snow loss, making it important to quantify how snowmelt and rainfall are divided between soil storage, drainage below plant roots, evapotranspiration and runoff. We examine this separation in different climates and soils using a physically based model. Results show runoff may be reduced with snowpack decline in all climates. The mechanisms responsible help explain recent observations of streamflow sensitivity to snow loss.
Zhongyi Liu, Xingwang Wang, Zailin Huo, and Tammo Siert Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3097–3115,Short summary
A novel approach is taken in simulating the hydrology of the vadose zone in areas with shallow groundwater. The model recognizes that field capacity is reached when the matric potential is equal to the height above the groundwater table. The model can be used in areas with shallow groundwater to optimize irrigation water use and minimize tailwater losses.
Mohammad Bizhanimanzar, Robert Leconte, and Mathieu Nuth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2245–2260,Short summary
Modelling of shallow water table fluctuations is usually carried out using physically based numerical models. These models have notable limitations regarding intensive required data and computational burden. This paper presents an alternative modelling approach for modelling of such cases by introducing modifications to the calculation of groundwater recharge and saturated flow of a conceptual hydrologic model.
Jicai Zeng, Jinzhong Yang, Yuanyuan Zha, and Liangsheng Shi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 637–655,Short summary
Accurately capturing the soil-water–groundwater interaction is vital for all disciplines related to subsurface flow but is difficult when undergoing significant nonlinearity in the modeling system. A new soil-water flow package is developed to solve the switching-form Richards’ equation. A multi-scale water balance analysis joins unsaturated–saturated models at separated scales. The whole system is solved efficiently with an iterative feedback coupling scheme.
Noam Zach Dvory, Yakov Livshitz, Michael Kuznetsov, Eilon Adar, Guy Gasser, Irena Pankratov, Ovadia Lev, and Alexander Yakirevich
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6371–6381,Short summary
This research is paramount given the significance of karst aquifers as essential drinking water sources. While CBZ is considered conservative, CAF is subject to sorption and degradation, and therefore each of these two pollutants can be considered effective tracers for specific assessment of aquifer contamination. The model presented in this paper shows how each of the mentioned contaminants could serve as a better tool for aquifer contamination characterization and its treatment.
Chen-Chao Chang and Dong-Hui Cheng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4621–4632,Short summary
The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is fundamental to researching water flow and chemical transport in unsaturated media. However, the traditional prediction models underestimate the water content in the dry range of the SWRC. A method was therefore proposed to improve the estimation of the SWRC using a pore model containing slit-shaped spaces. The results show that the predicted SWRCs using the improved method reasonably approximated the measured SWRCs.
Carlos García-Gutiérrez, Yakov Pachepsky, and Miguel Ángel Martín
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3923–3932,Short summary
Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is an important soil parameter that highly depends on soil's particle size distribution (PSD). The nature of this dependency is explored in this work in two ways, (1) by using the information entropy as a heterogeneity parameter of the PSD and (2) by using descriptions of PSD in forms of textural triplets, different than the usual description in terms of the triplet of sand, silt, and clay contents.
Matthias Sprenger, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Jim Buttle, Hjalmar Laudon, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3965–3981,Short summary
We estimated water ages in the upper critical zone with a soil physical model (SWIS) and found that the age of water stored in the soil, as well as of water leaving the soil via evaporation, transpiration, or recharge, was younger the higher soil water storage (inverse storage effect). Travel times of transpiration and evaporation were different. We conceptualized the subsurface into fast and slow flow domains and the water was usually half as young in the fast as in the slow flow domain.
Conrad Jackisch and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3639–3662,Short summary
We present a Lagrangian model for non-uniform soil water dynamics. It handles 2-D diffusion (based on a spatial random walk and implicit pore space redistribution) and 1-D advection in representative macropores (as film flow with dynamic interaction with the soil matrix). The interplay between the domains is calculated based on an energy-balance approach which does not require any additional parameterisation. Model tests give insight into the evolution of the non-uniform infiltration patterns.
Joop Kroes, Iwan Supit, Jos van Dam, Paul van Walsum, and Martin Mulder
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2937–2952,Short summary
Impact of upward flow by capillary rise and recirculation on crop yields is often neglected or underestimated. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of this upward flow in the Dutch delta. Neglecting upward flow results in yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes. Half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions; the other half from increased upward capillary rise.
Stefan Jaumann and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2551–2573,Short summary
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive measurement method to monitor the hydraulic processes precisely and efficiently. We analyze synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site and show that the analysis yields accurate estimates for the soil hydraulic material properties as well as for the subsurface architecture by comparing the results to references derived from time domain reflectometry (TDR) and subsurface architecture ground truth data.
Gaochao Cai, Jan Vanderborght, Matthias Langensiepen, Andrea Schnepf, Hubert Hüging, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2449–2470,Short summary
Different crop growths had consequences for the parameterization of root water uptake models. The root hydraulic parameters of the Couvreur model but not the water stress parameters of the Feddes–Jarvis model could be constrained by the field data measured from rhizotron facilities. The simulated differences in transpiration from the two soils and the different water treatments could be confirmed by sap flow measurements. The Couvreur model predicted the ratios of transpiration fluxes better.
Coleen D. U. Carranza, Martine J. van der Ploeg, and Paul J. J. F. Torfs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2255–2267,Short summary
Remote sensing has been popular for mapping surface soil moisture. However, estimating subsurface values using surface soil moisture remains a challenge, as decoupling can occur. Depth-integrated soil moisture values used in hydrological models are affected by vertical variability. Using statistical methods, we investigate vertical variability between the surface (5 cm) and subsurface (40 cm) to quantify decoupling. We also discuss potential controls for decoupling during wet and dry conditions.
Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Claire Lauvernet, and Nadia Carluer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 53–70,Short summary
Seasonal shallow water tables (WTs) in lowlands limit vegetation-buffer efficiency to control runoff pollution. Mechanistic models are needed to quantify true field efficiency. A new simplified algorithm for soil infiltration over WTs is tested against reference models and lab data showing WT effects depend on local settings but are negligible after 2 m depth. The algorithm is coupled to a complete vegetation buffer model in a companion paper to analyze pesticide and sediment control in situ.
Claire Lauvernet and Rafael Muñoz-Carpena
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 71–87,Short summary
Vegetation buffers, often placed in lowlands to control runoff pollution, can exhibit limited efficiency due to seasonal shallow water tables (WTs). A new shallow water table infiltration algorithm developed in a companion paper is coupled to a complete vegetation buffer model to quantify pesticide and sediment control in the field. We evaluated the model on two field experiments in France with and without WT conditions and show WTs can control efficiency depending on land and climate settings.
Tobias Karl David Weber, Sascha Christian Iden, and Wolfgang Durner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6185–6200,
Yonatan Ganot, Ran Holtzman, Noam Weisbrod, Ido Nitzan, Yoram Katz, and Daniel Kurtzman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4479–4493,Short summary
We monitor infiltration at multiple scales during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, while groundwater recharge is evaluated by simplified and numerical models. We found that pond-surface clogging is negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers of the unsaturated zone. We show that a numerical model with a 1-D representative sediment profile is able to capture infiltration and recharge dynamics.
Stefan Jaumann and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4301–4322,Short summary
We investigate the quantitative effect of neglected sensor position, small-scale heterogeneity, and lateral flow on soil hydraulic material properties. Thus, we analyze a fluctuating water table experiment in a 2-D architecture (ASSESS) with increasingly complex studies based on time domain reflectometry and hydraulic potential data. We found that 1-D studies may yield biased parameters and that estimating sensor positions as well as small-scale heterogeneity improves the model significantly.
Joseph Alexander Paul Pollacco, Trevor Webb, Stephen McNeill, Wei Hu, Sam Carrick, Allan Hewitt, and Linda Lilburne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2725–2737,Short summary
Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as soil moisture release curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, we developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). We further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structural soils.
Fadji Hassane Maina and Philippe Ackerer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2667–2683,Short summary
In many fields like climate change, hydrology and agronomy, water movement in unsaturated soils is usually simulated using the Richards equation. However, this equation requires lot of computational effort to be solved due to its highly nonlinear behavior, which hampers its use in simulations. In this paper, we analyze and developed some numerical strategies and we evaluate their reliability and efficiency.
Foad Foolad, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, Justin Gibson, Ayse Kilic, Richard G. Allen, and Andrew Suyker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1263–1277,Short summary
Estimates of evapotranspiration are vital for validation of models. However, those datasets are often limited to research applications. Here, we explore using vadose zone modeling with widespread and readily available soil water content monitoring networks. While this work focused on one agricultural site, the framework can be used everywhere there is basic data. The resulting evapotranspiration and soil water content measurements are valuable benchmarks for evaluation of land surface models.
Justin Gibson, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, John Gates, Patricio Grassini, Haishun Yang, and Dean Eisenhauer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1051–1062,Short summary
The human use of water for irrigation is often ignored in models and operational forecasts. We describe four plausible and relatively simple irrigation routines that can be coupled to the next generation of models. The routines are tested against a unique irrigation dataset from western Nebraska. The most aggressive water-saving irrigation routine indicates a potential irrigation savings of 120 mm yr−1 and yield losses of less than 3 % against the crop model benchmark and historical averages.
Marcos Alex dos Santos, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, Jos C. van Dam, and Andre Herman Freire Bezerra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 473–493,Short summary
Some empirical root water uptake (RWU) models were assessed under varying environmental conditions predicted from numerical simulations with a detailed physical model. The widely used empirical RWU model by Feddes only performs well in scenarios of low RWU compensation. The RWU model by Jarvis cannot mimic the RWU patterns predicted by the physical model for high root length density scenarios. The two proposed models are more capable of predicting similar RWU patterns.
Ke Zhang, Xianwu Xue, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Ning Lu, Zhanming Wan, Zhen Hong, and Rick Wooten
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 5035–5048,Short summary
We developed a new approach to couple a distributed hydrological model, CREST, to a geotechnical landslide model, TRIGRS, to simulate both flood- and rainfall-triggered landslide hazards. By implementing more sophisticated and realistic representations of hydrological processes in the coupled model system, it shows better performance than the standalone landslide model in the case study. It highlights the important physical connection between rainfall, hydrological processes and slope stability.
Hannes H. Bauser, Stefan Jaumann, Daniel Berg, and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4999–5014,Short summary
The representation of soil water movement comes with uncertainties in all model components. We assess the key uncertainties for the case of a one-dimensional soil proﬁle with measured water contents. We employ a data assimilation method to represent and reduce the key uncertainties. For intermittent phases where model assumptions are violated, we introduce a "closed-eye period" to bridge the gap. We also demonstrate the need to include heterogeneity.
Muhammad Naveed, Per Moldrup, Marcel G. Schaap, Markus Tuller, Ramaprasad Kulkarni, Hans-Jörg Vogel, and Lis Wollesen de Jonge
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4017–4030,Short summary
Quantification of rapid flow of water and associated transport of contaminants through large soil pores generated by earthworms or decaying plant roots is of crucial importance for sustaining both soil and water quality. Advanced visualization and analysis techniques based on state-of-the-art X-ray computed tomography have been applied to 65 soil cores extracted from an agricultural field in Silstrup, Denmark, to improve models for the prediction of fast, preferential flow processes in soils.
Erwin Zehe and Conrad Jackisch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3511–3526,
Anh Phuong Tran, Baptiste Dafflon, Susan S. Hubbard, Michael B. Kowalsky, Philip Long, Tetsu K. Tokunaga, and Kenneth H. Williams
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3477–3491,Short summary
Quantifying water and heat fluxes in the shallow subsurface is particularly important due to their strong control on recharge, evaporation and biogeochemical processes. This study developed and tested a new inversion scheme to estimate subsurface hydro-thermal parameters by joint using different hydrological, thermal and geophysical data. It is especially useful for the increasing number of studies that are taking advantage of autonomously collected measurements to explore ecosystem dynamics.
Tzu-Hsien Kuo, Jen-Ping Chen, and Yongkang Xue
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1509–1522,Short summary
The stem-root flow mechanism was parameterized and incorporated into the Simplified Simple Biosphere model to analyze its impact on soil moisture and land-atmospheric interactions. By testing against the Lien Hua Chih (Taiwan) and HAPEX-Mobilhy (France) measurements, the model shows that stem-root flow reduced the top-soil moisture content and moistened the deeper soil layers. Such soil moisture redistribution results in significant changes in heat flux exchange between land and atmosphere.
Lianyu Yu, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, Huanjie Cai, and Zhen Zheng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 975–990,Short summary
The coupled water vapor and heat transport model using two different ET (ETdir, ETind) methods varied concerning the simulation of soil moisture and ET components, while agreed well for the simulation of soil temperature. Considering aerodynamic and surface resistance terms improved the ETdir method regarding simulating soil evaporation, especially after irrigation. The interactive effect of crop growth parameters with changing environment played an important role in estimating ET components.
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We present a novel approach that includes information about the pore water stable isotopic composition in inverse model approaches to estimate soil hydraulic parameters. Different approaches are presented and their adequacy regarding the model efficiency, realism and parameter identifiability are discussed. The advantages of the new approach are shown by an application of the inverse estimated parameters to infer the water balance and the transit time for three different study sites.
We present a novel approach that includes information about the pore water stable isotopic...