Articles | Volume 17, issue 9
12 Sep 2013
Research article | 12 Sep 2013
Impact of long-term drainage on summer groundwater flow patterns in the Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada
B. J. Kopp et al.
No articles found.
Laura M. Clark, Ian B. Strachan, Maria Strack, Nigel T. Roulet, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and Henning Teickner
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
We determine the effect that years of extraction has on CO2 and CH4 emissions from an actively extracted peatland. Peatlands had high net C emissions in the first years after opening and then declined to half the initial value for several decades. Findings contribute to knowledge on the atmospheric burden that results from these activities, as well as being of use to industry in their life cycle reporting and government agencies responsible for GHG accounting and policy.
Arianna Borriero, Rohini Kumar, Tam V. Nguyen, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Stefanie R. Lutz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
We analyzed the uncertainty of water transit time distribution (TTD) resulting from model input (interpolated tracer data) and structure (StorAge Selection (SAS) functions). We found that uncertainty was mainly associated with tracer data time interpolation, time-variant SAS function and low flow conditions. We convey the importance to characterize the specific uncertainty sources, and their combined effects on predicted TTDs, as it has relevant implications for both water quantity and quality.
Tracy E. Rankin, Nigel T. Roulet, and Tim R. Moore
Biogeosciences, 19, 3285–3303,Short summary
Peatland respiration is made up of plant and peat sources. How to separate these sources is not well known as peat respiration is not straightforward and is more influenced by vegetation dynamics than previously thought. Results of plot level measurements from shrubs and sparse grasses in a woody bog show that plants' respiration response to changes in climate is related to their different root structures, implying a difference in the mechanisms by which they obtain water resources.
Carolin Winter, Tam V. Nguyen, Andreas Musolff, Stefanie R. Lutz, Michael Rode, Rohini Kumar, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
We investigated the impact of the severe 2018–2019 Central European drought on riverine nitrate pollution. We found that under severe drought, catchments can lose part of their nitrogen retention capacity due to decreased denitrification and plant uptake, but the time scale of riverine nitrate export responses to drought can be catchment specific. These results imply that severe and prolonged droughts can intensify nitrate pollution and threaten water quality.
Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Christian Schmidt, Daniel Partington, Philip Brunner, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1883–1905,Short summary
In near-stream aquifers, mixing between stream water and ambient groundwater can lead to dilution and the removal of substances that can be harmful to the water ecosystem at high concentrations. We used a numerical model to track the spatiotemporal evolution of different water sources and their mixing around a stream, which are rather difficult in the field. Results show that mixing mainly develops as narrow spots, varying In time and space, and is affected by magnitudes of discharge events.
Thomas Hermans, Pascal Goderniaux, Damien Jougnot, Jan Fleckenstein, Philip Brunner, Frédéric Nguyen, Niklas Linde, Johan Alexander Huisman, Olivier Bour, Jorge Lopez Alvis, Richard Hoffmann, Andrea Palacios, Anne-Karin Cooke, Álvaro Pardo-Álvarez, Lara Blazevic, Behzad Pouladi, Peleg Haruzi, Meruyert Kenshilikova, Philippe Davy, and Tanguy Le Borgne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
Although invisible, groundwater plays an essential role for the society as a source of drinking water or for ecosystems by providing baseflow to rivers, but is also facing important challenges in term of contaminations. Characterizing groundwater reservoirs with their spatial heterogeneity and their temporal evolution is therefore crucial for their sustainable management. In this paper, we review some important challenges and recent innovations in imaging and modelling groundwater reservoirs.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Joni Dehaspe, Fanny Sarrazin, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6437–6463,Short summary
Increased nitrate concentrations in surface waters can compromise river ecosystem health. As riverine nitrate uptake is hard to measure, we explore how low-frequency nitrate concentration and discharge observations (that are widely available) can help to identify (in)efficient uptake in river networks. We find that channel geometry and water velocity rather than the biological uptake capacity dominate the nitrate-discharge pattern at the outlet. The former can be used to predict uptake.
Hongxing He, Tim Moore, Elyn R. Humphreys, Peter M. Lafleur, and Nigel T. Roulet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
We applied the CoupModel to quantify the impacts of natural and human disturbances to adjacent water bodies in regulating net CO2 uptake of northern peatlands. We found 1 m drops of the water level at the beaver pond, lower the peatland water table depth, 250 m away by 0.15 m and reduce the peatland net CO2 uptake by 120 g C m−2 yr−1 therefore even though bogs are ombrotrophic rainfed systems, the boundary hydrological conditions play an important role in regulating water storage and CO2 uptake.
Benedikt J. Werner, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Andreas Musolff, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Jie Yang, Ralf Gründling, Ulrike Werban, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6067–6086,Short summary
Export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from riparian zones (RZs) is an important yet poorly understood component of the catchment carbon budget. This study chemically and spatially classifies DOC source zones within a RZ of a small catchment to assess DOC export patterns. Results highlight that DOC export from only a small fraction of the RZ with distinct DOC composition dominates overall DOC export. The application of a spatial, topographic proxy can be used to improve DOC export models.
Katharina Blaurock, Burkhard Beudert, Benjamin S. Gilfedder, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Stefan Peiffer, and Luisa Hopp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5133–5151,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of the global carbon cycle with regards to carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and drinking water treatment. In this study, we compared DOC export of a small, forested catchment during precipitation events after dry and wet preconditions. We found that the DOC export from areas that are usually important for DOC export was inhibited after long drought periods.
Jie Yang, Ingo Heidbüchel, Chunhui Lu, Yueqing Xie, Andreas Musolff, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
We assessed the effect of catchment topographic slopes on the nitrate export dynamics in terms of the concentration level and its seasonal variability using a coupled surface-subsurface model. We identified a threshold-like three-class relation between young streamflow fraction and slope, with distinct mechanical explanations for each class. We emphasized that it can be misleading to assume a straightforward monotonous relationship between any catchment characteristics and young water fraction.
Gesa Meyer, Elyn R. Humphreys, Joe R. Melton, Alex J. Cannon, and Peter M. Lafleur
Biogeosciences, 18, 3263–3283,Short summary
Shrub and sedge plant functional types (PFTs) were incorporated in the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model to improve representation of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Evaluated against 14 years of non-winter measurements, the magnitude and seasonality of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at a Canadian dwarf-shrub tundra site were better captured by the shrub PFTs than by previously used grass and tree PFTs. Model simulations showed the tundra site to be an annual net CO2 source.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Jie Yang, Andreas Musolff, Peter Troch, Ty Ferré, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2895–2920,Short summary
With the help of a 3-D computer model we examined how long the water of different rain events stays inside small catchments before it is discharged and how the nature of this discharge is controlled by different catchment and climate properties. We found that one can only predict the discharge dynamics when taking into account a combination of catchment and climate properties (i.e., there was not one single most important predictor). Our results can help to manage water pollution events.
M. Graham Clark, Elyn R. Humphreys, and Sean K. Carey
Biogeosciences, 17, 667–682,Short summary
Natural and restored wetlands typically emit methane to the atmosphere. However, we found that a wetland constructed after oil sand mining in boreal Canada using organic soils from local peatlands had negligible emissions of methane in its first 3 years. Methane production was likely suppressed due to an abundance of alternate inorganic electron acceptors. Methane emissions may increase in the future if the alternate electron acceptors continue to decrease.
Adam S. Ward, Steven M. Wondzell, Noah M. Schmadel, Skuyler Herzog, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, and Nathan I. Wisnoski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5199–5225,Short summary
The movement of water and solutes between streams and their shallow, connected subsurface is important to many ecosystem functions. These exchanges are widely expected to vary with stream flow across space and time, but these assumptions are seldom tested across basin scales. We completed more than 60 experiments across a 5th-order river basin to document these changes, finding patterns in space but not time. We conclude space-for-time and time-for-space substitutions are not good assumptions.
Benedikt J. Werner, Andreas Musolff, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Marieke R. Oosterwoud, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 4497–4516,Short summary
Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in streams can pose a threat to downstream water resources. Analyzing data from an in-stream probe we found that hydroclimatic and hydrological drivers can describe up to 72 % of the observed DOC concentration and composition variability. Variability was found to be highest during discharge events with warm and dry preconditions. The findings suggest an impact of climate change on DOC exports and thus also on downstream water quality.
Adam S. Ward, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Skuyler Herzog, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Noah M. Schmadel, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, Nathan I. Wisnoski, and Steven M. Wondzell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1567–1581,Short summary
Studies of river corridor exchange commonly focus on characterization of the physical, chemical, or biological system. As a result, complimentary systems and context are often lacking, which may limit interpretation. Here, we present a characterization of all three systems at 62 sites in a 5th-order river basin, including samples of surface water, hyporheic water, and sediment. These data will allow assessment of interacting processes in the river corridor.
Sophie Ehrhardt, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Sabine Attinger, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3503–3524,Short summary
This study shows quantitative and temporal offsets between nitrogen input and riverine output, using time series of three nested catchments in central Germany. The riverine concentrations show lagged reactions to the input, but at the same time exhibit strong inter-annual changes in the relationship between riverine discharge and concentration. The study found a strong retention of nitrogen that is dominantly assigned to a hydrological N legacy, which will affect future stream concentrations.
Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, Yao Gao, Olle Räty, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Bogdan Chojnicki, Ankur R. Desai, Albertus J. Dolman, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Mathias Göckede, Manuel Helbig, Elyn Humphreys, Robert B. Jackson, Georg Jocher, Fortunat Joos, Janina Klatt, Sara H. Knox, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Sebastian Lienert, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Daniel F. Nadeau, Mats B. Nilsson, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Thomas Pypker, William Quinton, Janne Rinne, Torsten Sachs, Mateusz Samson, Hans Peter Schmid, Oliver Sonnentag, Christian Wille, Donatella Zona, and Tuula Aalto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1263–1289,Short summary
Here we develop a monthly gridded dataset of northern (> 45 N) wetland methane (CH4) emissions. The data product is derived using a random forest machine-learning technique and eddy covariance CH4 fluxes from 25 wetland sites. Annual CH4 emissions from these wetlands calculated from the derived data product are comparable to prior studies focusing on these areas. This product is an independent estimate of northern wetland CH4 emissions and hence could be used, e.g. for process model evaluation.
Gustaf Granath, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Fia Bengtsson, Nicholas Boncek, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon J. M. Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, David P. Gillikin, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hájek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna I. Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia G. Koronatova, Natalia P. Kosykh, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina, Juul Limpens, Maiju Linkosalmi, Jin-Ze Ma, Marguerite Mauritz, Tariq M. Munir, Susan M. Natali, Rayna Natcheva, Maria Noskova, Richard J. Payne, Kyle Pilkington, Sean Robinson, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Line Rochefort, David Singer, Hans K. Stenøien, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kai Vellak, Anouk Verheyden, James Michael Waddington, and Steven K. Rice
Biogeosciences, 15, 5189–5202,Short summary
Peat constitutes a long-term archive for climate reconstruction by using the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen. We analysed isotopes in two peat moss species across North America and Eurasia. Peat (moss tissue) isotope composition was predicted by soil moisture and isotopic composition of the rainwater but differed between species. Our results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.
Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, Shushi Peng, Mika Aurela, Christian Bernhofer, Christian Brümmer, Syndonia Bret-Harte, Housen Chu, Jiquan Chen, Ankur R. Desai, Jiří Dušek, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Thomas Friborg, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sébastien Gogo, Thomas Grünwald, Birger U. Hansen, David Holl, Elyn Humphreys, Miriam Hurkuck, Gerard Kiely, Janina Klatt, Lars Kutzbach, Chloé Largeron, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Magnus Lund, Peter M. Lafleur, Xuefei Li, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Mats B. Nilsson, Janusz Olejnik, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Walter Oechel, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Norbert Pirk, Olli Peltola, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Daniel Rasse, Janne Rinne, Gaius Shaver, Hans Peter Schmid, Matteo Sottocornola, Rainer Steinbrecher, Torsten Sachs, Marek Urbaniak, Donatella Zona, and Klaudia Ziemblinska
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 497–519,Short summary
Northern peatlands store large amount of soil carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We implemented peatland hydrological and carbon accumulation processes into the ORCHIDEE land surface model. The model was evaluated against EC measurements from 30 northern peatland sites. The model generally well reproduced the spatial gradient and temporal variations in GPP and NEE at these sites. Water table depth was not well predicted but had only small influence on simulated NEE.
Rémi Dupas, Andreas Musolff, James W. Jawitz, P. Suresh C. Rao, Christoph G. Jäger, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Michael Rode, and Dietrich Borchardt
Biogeosciences, 14, 4391–4407,Short summary
Carbon and nutrient export regimes were analyzed from archetypal headwater catchments to downstream reaches. In headwater catchments, land use and lithology determine land-to-stream C, N and P transfer processes. The crucial role of riparian zones in C, N and P coupling was investigated. In downstream reaches, point-source contributions and in-stream processes alter C, N and P export regimes.
Magdalena Burger, Sina Berger, Ines Spangenberg, and Christian Blodau
Biogeosciences, 13, 3777–3791,Short summary
Ponds associated with peatlands cover large areas in boreal regions and are potentially important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. At this point, little is known about the magnitude of these fluxes, where they are generated, and how they are controlled. We analyzed CH4 and CO2 summer exchange in a pond and bog located in Ontario and identified sources, mechanisms, and controls on gas exchange. The pond was a hot spot of gas release, with the shore being particularly important.
Weifeng Wang, Nigel T. Roulet, Youngil Kim, Ian B. Strachan, Paul del Giorgio, Yves T. Prairie, and Alain Tremblay
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Water reservoirs emit greenhouse gases. We developed a 1-dimensional biogeochemical model to predict CO2 emissions from boreal reservoirs. We found that the CO2 emissions are initially high, steeply decline in the first three years, and then steadily decrease with increasing reservoir age, suggesting that flooded terrestrial organic matter has long-term (> 100 years) effects on CO2 emissions. Our model could be used to evaluate the role of boreal reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions.
K. Zając and C. Blodau
Biogeosciences, 13, 707–722,Short summary
Peatlands have been exposed to nitrogen (N) deposition in Europe for decades. In this greenhouse study we investigated how N concentration and mobility in plants and peat have responded by sampling five sites across Europe and experimentally depositing labeled nitrogen on samples in a greenhouse. The peat moss retained its ability to absorb labeled nitrogen, but in the polluted sites more of it reached the deeper peat and was taken up by shrubs and grasses, indicating increased mobility of N.
W. He, C. Beyer, J. H. Fleckenstein, E. Jang, O. Kolditz, D. Naumov, and T. Kalbacher
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3333–3348,Short summary
This technical paper presents a new tool to simulate reactive transport processes in subsurface systems and which couples the open-source software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc. A flexible parallelization scheme was developed and implemented to enable an optimized allocation of computer resources. The performance tests of the coupling interface and parallelization scheme illustrate the promising efficiency of this generally valid approach to simulate reactive transport problems.
A. Malhotra and N. T. Roulet
Biogeosciences, 12, 3119–3130,Short summary
We found that the dominant abiotic and biotic correlates of CO2 and CH4 fluxes change in strength and interactions as permafrost thaw progresses in a sub-arctic peatland. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating transitional stages of thaw in landscape-level C budgets and highlight that end-member thaw stages do not adequately describe the variability in structure-function relationships present along a thaw gradient.
Y. Wu, C. Blodau, T. R. Moore, J. Bubier, S. Juutinen, and T. Larmola
Biogeosciences, 12, 79–101,
H. N. Mbufong, M. Lund, M. Aurela, T. R. Christensen, W. Eugster, T. Friborg, B. U. Hansen, E. R. Humphreys, M. Jackowicz-Korczynski, L. Kutzbach, P. M. Lafleur, W. C. Oechel, F. J. W. Parmentier, D. P. Rasse, A. V. Rocha, T. Sachs, M. K. van der Molen, and M. P. Tamstorf
Biogeosciences, 11, 4897–4912,
C. A. Emmerton, V. L. St. Louis, I. Lehnherr, E. R. Humphreys, E. Rydz, and H. R. Kosolofski
Biogeosciences, 11, 3095–3106,
Y. Wu and C. Blodau
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1173–1207,
S. Strohmeier, K.-H. Knorr, M. Reichert, S. Frei, J. H. Fleckenstein, S. Peiffer, and E. Matzner
Biogeosciences, 10, 905–916,
C. Estop-Aragonés, K.-H. Knorr, and C. Blodau
Biogeosciences, 10, 421–436,
Related subject area
Subject: Ecohydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesInter- and intra-event rainfall partitioning dynamics of two typical xerophytic shrubs in the Loess Plateau of ChinaA comparative study of plant water extraction methods for isotopic analyses: Scholander-type pressure chamber vs. cryogenic vacuum distillationTechnical note: Conservative storage of water vapour – practical in situ sampling of stable isotopes in tree stemsXylem water in riparian willow trees (Salix alba) reveals shallow sources of root water uptake by in situ monitoring of stable water isotopesTechnical note: High-accuracy weighing micro-lysimeter system for long-term measurements of non-rainfall water inputs to grasslandsResponse of water fluxes and biomass production to climate change in permanent grassland soil ecosystemsEcohydrological travel times derived from in situ stable water isotope measurements in trees during a semi-controlled pot experimentInsights into the isotopic mismatch between bulk soil water and Salix matsudana Koidz trunk water from root water stable isotope measurementsThe role of dew and radiation fog inputs in the local water cycling of a temperate grassland during dry spells in central EuropeCo-evolution of xylem water and soil water stable isotopic composition in a northern mixed forest biomeVapor plumes in a tropical wet forest: spotting the invisible evaporationRapid reduction in ecosystem productivity caused by flash droughts based on decade-long FLUXNET observationsThroughfall isotopic composition in relation to drop size at the intra-event scale in a Mediterranean Scots pine standRainfall interception and redistribution by a common North American understory and pasture forb, Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. dogfennel)In situ measurements of soil and plant water isotopes: a review of approaches, practical considerations and a vision for the futureCoalescence of bacterial groups originating from urban runoffs and artificial infiltration systems among aquifer microbiomesA combination of soil water extraction methods quantifies the isotopic mixing of waters held at separate tensions in soilUsing water stable isotopes to understand evaporation, moisture stress, and re-wetting in catchment forest and grassland soils of the summer drought of 2018Partitioning growing season water balance within a forested boreal catchment using sap flux, eddy covariance, and a process-based modelTechnical note: Long-term probe misalignment and proposed quality control using the heat pulse method for transpiration estimationsContribution of understory evaporation in a tropical wet forest during the dry seasonCoffee and shade trees show complementary use of soil water in a traditional agroforestry ecosystemResponses of soil water storage and crop water use efficiency to changing climatic conditions: a lysimeter-based space-for-time approachNeighbourhood and stand structure affect stemflow generation in a heterogeneous deciduous temperate forestTechnical Note: A global database of the stable isotopic ratios of meteoric and terrestrial watersTemporally dependent effects of rainfall characteristics on inter- and intra-event branch-scale stemflow variability in two xerophytic shrubsDissolved organic carbon driven by rainfall events from a semi-arid catchment during concentrated rainfall season in the Loess Plateau, ChinaDew frequency across the US from a network of in situ radiometersSeasonal origins of soil water used by treesForest harvesting impacts on microclimate conditions and sediment transport activities in a humid periglacial environmentHydrogeochemical controls on brook trout spawning habitats in a coastal streamSpeculations on the application of foliar 13C discrimination to reveal groundwater dependency of vegetation and provide estimates of root depth and rates of groundwater useEvaporation from cultivated and semi-wild Sudanian Savanna in west AfricaEvery apple has a voice: using stable isotopes to teach about food sourcing and the water cycleTechnical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial) plant leavesThe spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors in the downstream Heihe River basin, ChinaVariation of soil hydraulic properties with alpine grassland degradation in the eastern Tibetan PlateauChanges in dissolved organic matter quality in a peatland and forest headwater stream as a function of seasonality and hydrologic conditionsComparisons of stemflow and its bio-/abiotic influential factors between two xerophytic shrub speciesRemapping annual precipitation in mountainous areas based on vegetation patterns: a case study in the Nu River basinMonitoring the variations of evapotranspiration due to land use/cover change in a semiarid shrublandThe canopy interception–landslide initiation conundrum: insight from a tropical secondary forest in northern ThailandGroundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights from satellite and field-based studiesMonitoring strategies of stream phosphorus under contrasting climate-driven flow regimesHydrological connectivity inferred from diatom transport through the riparian-stream systemMonitoring and modelling of soil–plant interactions: the joint use of ERT, sap flow and eddy covariance data to characterize the volume of an orange tree root zoneDivergence of actual and reference evapotranspiration observations for irrigated sugarcane with windy tropical conditionsUsing measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles – a comparative studyMonitoring of riparian vegetation response to flood disturbances using terrestrial photographyNegative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya
Jinxia An, Guangyao Gao, Chuan Yuan, Juan Pinos, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3885–3900,Short summary
An in-depth investigation was conducted of all rainfall-partitioning components at inter- and intra-event scales for two xerophytic shrubs. Inter-event rainfall partitioning amount and percentage depended more on rainfall amount, and rainfall intensity and duration controlled intra-event rainfall-partitioning variables. One shrub has larger branch angle, small branch and smaller canopy area to produce stemflow more efficiently, and the other has larger biomass to intercept more rainfall.
Giulia Zuecco, Anam Amin, Jay Frentress, Michael Engel, Chiara Marchina, Tommaso Anfodillo, Marco Borga, Vinicio Carraro, Francesca Scandellari, Massimo Tagliavini, Damiano Zanotelli, Francesco Comiti, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3673–3689,Short summary
We analyzed the variability in the isotopic composition of plant water extracted by two different methods, i.e., cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) and Scholander-type pressure chamber (SPC). Our results indicated that the isotopic composition of plant water extracted by CVD and SPC was significantly different. We concluded that plant water extraction by SPC is not an alternative for CVD as SPC mostly extracts the mobile plant water whereas CVD retrieves all water stored in the sampled tissue.
Ruth-Kristina Magh, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Angelika Kübert, Hyungwoo Lim, Tomas Lundmark, and John Marshall
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3573–3587,Short summary
We developed a method of sampling and storing water vapour for isotope analysis, allowing us to infer plant water uptake depth. Measurements can be made at high temporal and spatial resolution even in remote areas. We ensured that all necessary components are easily available, making this method cost efficient and simple to implement. We found our method to perform well in the lab and in the field, enabling it to become a tool for everyone aiming to resolve questions regarding the water cycle.
Jessica Landgraf, Dörthe Tetzlaff, Maren Dubbert, David Dubbert, Aaron Smith, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2073–2092,Short summary
Using water stable isotopes, we studied from which water source (lake water, stream water, groundwater, or soil water) two willows were taking their water. We monitored the environmental conditions (e.g. air temperature and soil moisture) and the behaviour of the trees (water flow in the stem). We found that the most likely water sources of the willows were the upper soil layers but that there were seasonal dynamics.
Andreas Riedl, Yafei Li, Jon Eugster, Nina Buchmann, and Werner Eugster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 91–116,Short summary
The aim of this study was to develop a high-accuracy micro-lysimeter system for the quantification of non-rainfall water inputs that overcomes existing drawbacks. The micro-lysimeter system had a high accuracy and allowed us to quantify and distinguish between different types of non-rainfall water inputs, like dew and fog. Non-rainfall water inputs occurred frequently in a Swiss Alpine grassland ecosystem. These water inputs can be an important water source for grasslands during dry periods.
Veronika Forstner, Jannis Groh, Matevz Vremec, Markus Herndl, Harry Vereecken, Horst H. Gerke, Steffen Birk, and Thomas Pütz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6087–6106,Short summary
Lysimeter-based manipulative and observational experiments were used to identify responses of water fluxes and aboveground biomass (AGB) to climatic change in permanent grassland. Under energy-limited conditions, elevated temperature actual evapotranspiration (ETa) increased, while seepage, dew, and AGB decreased. Elevated CO2 mitigated the effect on ETa. Under water limitation, elevated temperature resulted in reduced ETa, and AGB was negatively correlated with an increasing aridity.
David Mennekes, Michael Rinderer, Stefan Seeger, and Natalie Orlowski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4513–4530,Short summary
In situ stable water isotope measurements are a recently developed method to measure water movement from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere in high resolution and precision. Here, we present important advantages of the new method in comparison to commonly used measurement methods in an experimental setup. Overall, this method can help to answer research questions such as plant responses to climate change with potentially shifting water availability or temperatures.
Ying Zhao and Li Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3975–3989,Short summary
At our study site during the experimental period, trunk water was only isotopically similar to root water at 100–160 cm depths. The isotopic composition of root water deviated from that of bulk soil water but overlapped with the composition derived for less mobile water. These findings suggest that the isotopic offset between bulk soil water and trunk water was due to the isotopic mismatch between root water and bulk soil water associated with soil water heterogeneity.
Yafei Li, Franziska Aemisegger, Andreas Riedl, Nina Buchmann, and Werner Eugster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2617–2648,Short summary
During dry spells, dew and fog potentially play an increasingly important role in temperate grasslands. Research on the combined mechanisms of dew and fog inputs to ecosystems and distillation of water vapor from soil to plant surfaces is rare. Our results using stable water isotopes highlight the importance of dew and fog inputs to temperate grasslands during dry spells and reveal the complexity of the local water cycling in such conditions, including different pathways of dew and fog inputs.
Jenna R. Snelgrove, James M. Buttle, Matthew J. Kohn, and Dörthe Tetzlaff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2169–2186,Short summary
Co-evolution of plant and soil water isotopic composition throughout the growing season in a little-studied northern mixed forest landscape was explored. Marked inter-specific differences in the isotopic composition of xylem water relative to surrounding soil water occurred, despite thin soil cover constraining inter-species differences in rooting depths. We provide potential explanations for differences in temporal evolution of xylem water isotopic composition in this northern landscape.
César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Bart Schilperoort, Adriana del Pilar González-Angarita, and Hubert Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 619–635,Short summary
During rainfall events, evaporation from tropical forests is usually ignored. However, the water retained in the canopy during rainfall increases the evaporation despite the high-humidity conditions. In a tropical wet forest in Costa Rica, it was possible to depict vapor plumes rising from the forest canopy during rainfall. These plumes are evidence of forest evaporation. Also, we identified the conditions that allowed this phenomenon to happen using time-lapse videos and meteorological data.
Miao Zhang and Xing Yuan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5579–5593,Short summary
We identify flash drought events by considering the decline rate of soil moisture and the drought persistency, and we detect the response of ecosystem carbon and water fluxes to flash droughts based on FLUXNET observations. We find rapid declines in carbon assimilation within 16–24 d of flash drought onset, where savannas show the highest sensitivity. Water use efficiency increases for forests but decreases for herbaceous ecosystems during the recovery stage of flash droughts.
Juan Pinos, Jérôme Latron, Kazuki Nanko, Delphis F. Levia, and Pilar Llorens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4675–4690,Short summary
Water that drips or splashes from a canopy or passes through it is termed throughfall. This is the first known study to examine interrelationships between throughfall isotopic fractionation and throughfall drop size. Working in a mountainous Scots pine forest, we found that throughfall splash droplets were more prevalent at the onset of rain when vapour pressure deficits were larger. This finding has important implications for water mixing in the canopy and for theories of canopy interception.
D. Alex R. Gordon, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Brent A. Sellers, S. M. Moein Sadeghi, and John T. Van Stan II
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4587–4599,Short summary
Where plants exist, rain must pass through canopies to reach soils. We studied how rain interacts with dogfennel – a highly problematic weed that is abundant in pastures, grasslands, rangelands, urban forests and along highways. Dogfennels evaporated large portions (approx. one-fifth) of rain and drained significant (at times > 25 %) rain (and dew) down their stems to their roots (via stemflow). This may explain how dogfennel survives and even invades managed landscapes during extended droughts.
Matthias Beyer, Kathrin Kühnhammer, and Maren Dubbert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4413–4440,Short summary
Water isotopes are a scientific tool that can be used to identify sources of water and answer questions such as
From which soil depths do plants take up water?, which are highly relevant under changing climatic conditions. In the past, the measurement of water isotopes required tremendous effort. In the last decade methods have advanced and can now be applied in the field. Herein, we review the current status of direct field measurements of water isotopes and discuss future applications.
Yannick Colin, Rayan Bouchali, Laurence Marjolet, Romain Marti, Florian Vautrin, Jérémy Voisin, Emilie Bourgeois, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Didier Blaha, Thierry Winiarski, Florian Mermillod-Blondin, and Benoit Cournoyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4257–4273,Short summary
Stormwater infiltration systems (SISs) are a source of pollution that may have adverse ecological and sanitary impacts. The incidence of a SIS on the coalescence of microbial communities from runoff waters and aboveground sediments with those of an aquifer was investigated. Aquifer waters showed lower coalescence with aboveground bacterial taxa than aquifer biofilms. These biofilms were colonized by bacterial hydrocarbon degraders and harboured undesirable human-opportunistic pathogens.
William H. Bowers, Jason J. Mercer, Mark S. Pleasants, and David G. Williams
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4045–4060,Short summary
Determining the chemical composition of soil water can help to address questions concerning water transport and use. However, there are many observations of incompletely mixed soil water within various soil pore domains. We applied two contrasting waters to soil samples and then removed water from the soils with three sequential and increasing applied energy steps to assess soil water mixing and equilibration over time. We found it took more than 3 d for soil water to mix and equilibrate.
Lukas Kleine, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Aaron Smith, Hailong Wang, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3737–3752,Short summary
We investigated the effects of the 2018 drought on water partitioning in a lowland catchment under grassland and forest in north-eastern Germany. Conditions resulted in drying up of streams, yield losses, and lower groundwater levels. Oak trees continued to transpire during the drought. We used stable isotopes to assess the fluxes and ages of water. Sustainable use of resource water requires such understanding of ecohydrological water partitioning.
Nataliia Kozii, Kersti Haahti, Pantana Tor-ngern, Jinshu Chi, Eliza Maher Hasselquist, Hjalmar Laudon, Samuli Launiainen, Ram Oren, Matthias Peichl, Jörgen Wallerman, and Niles J. Hasselquist
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2999–3014,Short summary
The hydrologic cycle is one of the greatest natural processes on Earth and strongly influences both regional and global climate as well as ecosystem functioning. Results from this study clearly show the central role trees play in regulating the water cycle of boreal catchments, implying that forest management impacts on stand structure as well as climate change effects on tree growth are likely to have large cascading effects on the way water moves through boreal forested landscapes.
Elisabeth K. Larsen, Jose Luis Palau, Jose Antonio Valiente, Esteban Chirino, and Juan Bellot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2755–2767,Short summary
To improve long-term sap flow measurements when using the heat ratio method, this study introduces a dynamic probe misalignment correction method. This work uses sap flow data from four Aleppo pines from April 2017 to December 2018 and shows how a classical probe correction approach declines in accuracy over time. Additionally, it is proposed that a new set of statistical information be recorded along with the sap flow readings to ensure the quality of the raw data.
César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Jochen Wenninger, Adriana Gonzalez-Angarita, and Hubert Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2179–2206,Short summary
Tropical forest ecosystems are able to export a lot of water to the atmosphere by means of evaporation. However, little is known on how their complex structure affects this water flux. This paper analyzes the contribution of three canopy layers in terms of water fluxes and stable water isotope signatures. During the dry season in 2018 the two lower canopy layers provide 20 % of measured evaporation, highlighting the importance of knowing how forest structure can affect the hydrological cycle.
Lyssette Elena Muñoz-Villers, Josie Geris, María Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Friso Holwerda, and Todd Dawson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1649–1668,Short summary
Our research showed, consistently, a complementary use of soil water sources between coffee (Coffea Arabica var. typica) plants and shade tree species during the dry and wet seasons in a traditional agroforestry ecosystem in central Veracruz, Mexico. However, more variability in plant water sources was observed among species in the rainy season when higher soil moisture conditions were present and water stress was largely absent.
Jannis Groh, Jan Vanderborght, Thomas Pütz, Hans-Jörg Vogel, Ralf Gründling, Holger Rupp, Mehdi Rahmati, Michael Sommer, Harry Vereecken, and Horst H. Gerke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1211–1225,
Johanna C. Metzger, Jens Schumacher, Markus Lange, and Anke Hildebrandt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4433–4452,Short summary
Variation in stemflow (rain water running down the stem) enhances the formation of flow hot spots at the forest floor. Investigating drivers based on detailed measurements, we find that forest structure affects stemflow, both for individual trees and small communities. Densely packed forest patches received more stemflow, due to a higher proportion of woody structure and canopy morphology adjustments, which increase the potential for flow path generation connecting crowns and soil.
Annie L. Putman and Gabriel J. Bowen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4389–4396,Short summary
We describe an open-access, global database of stable water isotope ratios of various water types. The database facilitates data archiving, supports standardized metadata collection, and decreases the time investment for metanalyses. To promote data discovery and collaboration, the database exposes metadata and data owner contact information for private data but only permits download of public data. Two companion apps support digital data collection and processing and upload of analyzed data.
Chuan Yuan, Guangyao Gao, Bojie Fu, Daming He, Xingwu Duan, and Xiaohua Wei
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4077–4095,Short summary
The stemflow dynamics of two xerophytic shrubs were investigated at the inter- and intra-event scales with high-temporal-resolution data in 54 rain events. Stemflow process was depicted by intensity, duration and time lags to rain events. Funneling ratio was calculated as the ratio of stemflow to rainfall intensities. Rainfall intensity and raindrop momentum controlled stemflow intensity and time lags. Influences of rainfall characteristics on stemflow variables showed temporal dependence.
Linhua Wang, Haw Yen, Xinhui E, Liding Chen, and Yafeng Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3141–3153,Short summary
A high-frequency approach was used to monitor dynamic changes of DOC exported during the concentrated rainfall season in LPR, China. DOC concentration and flux from an ecologically restored catchment in the LPR was investigated. Hysteresis analysis indicated non-linear relationships between DOC concentration and discharge rate in a rainfall event. DOC export is substantially affected by the interaction of rainfall and antecedent conditions for a rainfall event.
François Ritter, Max Berkelhammer, and Daniel Beysens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1179–1197,Short summary
There currently is no standardized approach for measuring dew formation, making it difficult to compare its frequency and importance across ecosystems. Recently, canopy surface temperature data from 30 sites in the US were measured continuously using in situ infrared radiometers. The analysis presented here provides the first continental-scale standardized synthesis of dew formation. This work provides a basis for considering how changing climate and land use will influence dew formation.
Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, and Gregory R. Goldsmith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1199–1210,Short summary
We used stable isotopes of xylem water to study differences in the seasonal origin of water in more than 900 individual trees from three dominant species in 182 Swiss forested sites. We discovered that midsummer transpiration was mostly supplied by winter precipitation across diverse humid climates. Our findings provide new insights into tree vulnerability to droughts, transport of water (and thus solutes) in soils, and the climatic information conveyed by plant-tissue isotopes.
Fumitoshi Imaizumi, Ryoko Nishii, Kenichi Ueno, and Kousei Kurobe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 155–170,Short summary
We investigated seasonal changes in sediment transport activities following forest harvesting in a humid periglacial area. Removal of the forest canopy by forest harvesting alters the type of winter soil creep. Winter creep velocity of the ground surface sediment in the harvested site was significantly higher than that in the non-harvested site. Meanwhile, sediment flux on the hillslopes decreased in the harvested site because of capture of sediment by branches of harvested trees.
Martin A. Briggs, Judson W. Harvey, Stephen T. Hurley, Donald O. Rosenberry, Timothy McCobb, Dale Werkema, and John W. Lane Jr.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6383–6398,Short summary
Brook trout are known to seek out groundwater-discharge zones for spawning. However, in a groundwater-dominated system, we observed trout using a few locations for repeatedly laying eggs. To improve the management of this cold-water species, we wanted to know why these specific groundwater-discharge zones were desirable. Through a combination of geophysical and chemical measurements, we found that locations where the stream intersects the sandy valley wall create oxygen-rich seepage zones.
Rizwana Rumman, James Cleverly, Rachael H. Nolan, Tonantzin Tarin, and Derek Eamus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4875–4889,Short summary
Groundwater is a significant water resource for humans and for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Several challenges to managing both groundwater resources and dependent vegetation include defining the location of dependent vegetation, the rate of groundwater use, and the depth of roots accessing groundwater. In this study we demonstrate a novel application of measurements of stable isotopes of carbon that can be used to identify the location, the rooting depth, and the rate of groundwater use.
Natalie C. Ceperley, Theophile Mande, Nick van de Giesen, Scott Tyler, Hamma Yacouba, and Marc B. Parlange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4149–4167,Short summary
We relate land cover (savanna forest and agriculture) to evaporation in Burkina Faso, west Africa. We observe more evaporation and temperature movement over the savanna forest in the headwater area relative to the agricultural section of the watershed. We find that the fraction of available energy converted to evaporation relates to vegetation cover and soil moisture. From the results, evaporation can be calculated where ground-based measurements are lacking, frequently the case across Africa.
Erik Oerter, Molly Malone, Annie Putman, Dina Drits-Esser, Louisa Stark, and Gabriel Bowen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3799–3810,Short summary
Fruits take up soil water as they grow, and thus the fruit water is related to the rain or irrigation the crop receives. We used a novel sampling system to measure the stable isotopes of H and O in the fruit water to determine its geographic origin by comparing it to maps of isotopes in rain. We used this approach to teach an audience of science students and teachers about water cycle concepts and how humans may modify the water cycle through agriculture and irrigation water diversions.
Stanislaus J. Schymanski, Daniel Breitenstein, and Dani Or
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3377–3400,Short summary
Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes at the small scale that have strong effects on the water cycle and climate at the large scale. In this technical note, we present a novel experimental set-up that enables detailed study of these coupled processes in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Results document the abilities of the experimental set-up to confirm or challenge our understanding of these processes.
Jingyi Ding, Wenwu Zhao, Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Hao Fan, Qiang Feng, and Yaping Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2405–2419,Short summary
In this study, we focused on exploring the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors based on field experiment and remote sensing data. Our result revealed how the environmental factors shape the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forest in the downstream Heihe river. The results of this study provide support for the effective restoration of desert riparian forest in the hyperarid zone.
Tao Pan, Shuai Hou, Shaohong Wu, Yujie Liu, Yanhua Liu, Xintong Zou, Anna Herzberger, and Jianguo Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2249–2261,Short summary
This study shows that soil hydraulic properties, especially those of the top soil, varied greatly with alpine swamp meadow degradation. Soil porosity is the dominant influencing factor of soil hydraulic properties. The results suggest that alpine swamp meadow degradation would inevitably lead to negative hydrological effects. Hydrological modelling in the Tibetan Plateau and similar regions are recommended to understand the effects of degradation on soil hydraulic properties.
Tanja Broder, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and Harald Biester
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2035–2051,Short summary
This study elucidates controls on temporal variability in DOM concentration and quality in stream water draining a bog and a forested peaty riparian zone, particularly considering drought and storm flow events. DOM quality was monitored using spectrofluorometric indices (SUVA254, SR and FI) and PARAFAC modeling of EEMs. DOM quality depended clearly on hydrologic preconditions and season. Moreover, the forested peaty riparian zone generated most variability in headwater DOM quantity and quality.
Chuan Yuan, Guangyao Gao, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1421–1438,Short summary
We computed stemflow yield and efficiency, and analyzed the influential mechanism at smaller scales of leaf and raindrop. We found that precipitation was the most influential meteorological feature on stemflow. The smaller threshold precipitation to start stemflow and the more beneficial leaf traits might partly explain the larger and more efficient stemflow production. At defoliated period, the newly exposed stems replaced leaves to intercept raindrops and might really matter in stemflow yield.
Xing Zhou, Guang-Heng Ni, Chen Shen, and Ting Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 999–1015,Short summary
We develop a fusion framework to improve precipitation estimation by jointly utilizing the gauge precipitation and vegetation index and then applying them to mountainous areas of the Nu River basin. The results demonstrate the reliability of the framework in reproducing the high-resolution precipitation regime and capturing its high spatial variability in the Nu River basin. The framework can significantly reduce the errors in precipitation estimates as compared with the IDW and TRMM methods.
Tingting Gong, Huimin Lei, Dawen Yang, Yang Jiao, and Hanbo Yang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 863–877,Short summary
Seasonal and inter-annual features of ET were analyzed over four periods. A normalization method was adopted to exclude the effects of potential evapotranspiration and soil water stress on ET. During the land degradation process, when natural vegetation (including leaves and branches), sand dunes, dry sand layers, and BSCs were all bulldozed, ET was observed to increase at a mild rate. In a vegetation rehabilitation process with sufficient groundwater, ET also increased at a faster rate.
Roy C. Sidle and Alan D. Ziegler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 651–667,Short summary
Rainwater intercepted by forest canopies has been suggested to moderate peak pulses of rainfall and resultant pore pressure within soils, thus reducing the risk of shallow landslides. Three years of data in a tropical secondary forest in northern Thailand show that average canopy interception during large storms was only 7 % of rainfall. These peak rain inputs had little effect on soil moisture pulses below 1 m. Thus, canopy interception would have little effect in mitigating shallow landslides.
D. Eamus, S. Zolfaghar, R. Villalobos-Vega, J. Cleverly, and A. Huete
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4229–4256,Short summary
In this review, we discuss a range of techniques, including remote sensing, for identifying groundwater-dependent ecosystems and determining rates of water use by GDEs. In addition, gravity recovery satellite data are discussed in relation to changes in soil and groundwater stores. Ecophysiological and structural attributes of GDEs are reviewed, from which we present an integrated ecosystem-scale response as a function of differences in depth-to-groundwater.
G. Goyenola, M. Meerhoff, F. Teixeira-de Mello, I. González-Bergonzoni, D. Graeber, C. Fosalba, N. Vidal, N. Mazzeo, N. B. Ovesen, E. Jeppesen, and B. Kronvang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4099–4111,Short summary
Climate and hydrology are relevant control factors determining the timing and amount of nutrient losses from land to aquatic systems, in particular of phosphorus (P) from agricultural lands. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in P export patterns and the performance of alternative monitoring strategies in streams under contrasting climate-driven flow regimes: temperate and stable discharge conditions (Denmark) and sub-tropical and flashy conditions (Uruguay).
N. Martínez-Carreras, C. E. Wetzel, J. Frentress, L. Ector, J. J. McDonnell, L. Hoffmann, and L. Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3133–3151,Short summary
We tested the hypothesis that different diatom species assemblages inhabit specific moisture domains of the catchment and, consequently, the presence of certain species assemblages in the stream during runoff events offers the potential for recording whether there was hydrological connectivity between these domains or not. In the Weierbach catchment, the transport of aerial diatoms during events suggested a rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream.
G. Cassiani, J. Boaga, D. Vanella, M. T. Perri, and S. Consoli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2213–2225,Short summary
The paper presents an integrated approach to monitoring root water uptake and link this information to the plant transpiration measured by sap flow and eddy covariance. The monitoring of soil conditions is achieved using 3-D electrical resistivity tomography. This ensemble of data can be used jointly to model the soil-plant interactions and identify the extent and efficiency of the root zone in front of existing irrigation schemes. A case study is presented regarding an orange orchard in Sicily.
R. G. Anderson, D. Wang, R. Tirado-Corbalá, H. Zhang, and J. E. Ayars
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 583–599,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) was measured and compared to reference ET over irrigated sugarcane in Hawaii, USA: reference ET increasingly diverged from measured ET with higher wind conditions; custom bulk canopy resistance improved reference ET observations; the Priestley-Taylor equation performed better than reference ET to estimate actual ET; bulk canopy resistance was over 150 s/m, but there was no evidence of water stress in the field.
M. Guderle and A. Hildebrandt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 409–425,Short summary
This paper is the result of a numerical study to test the application of water balance methods for estimating evapotranspiration and water extraction profiles based on measured soil water content data. The advantage of the tested methods is that they do not rely on a priori information of any root distribution parameters. Our research shows the potential of water balance methods for derivation of water extraction profiles, but their application may be challenging in realistic conditions.
K. Džubáková, P. Molnar, K. Schindler, and M. Trizna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 195–208,Short summary
We use a high-resolution ground-based camera system with near-infrared sensitivity to quantify the response of riparian vegetation in an Alpine river to floods with the use of vegetation indices. The vegetation showed both damage and enhancement within 1 week following floods, with a selective impact determined by pre-flood vegetation vigour, morphological setting and intensity of flood forcing. The tested vegetation indices differed in the direction of predicted change in the range 0.7-35.8%.
C. P. Ghimire, L. A. Bruijnzeel, M. W. Lubczynski, and M. Bonell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4933–4949,
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