Articles | Volume 25, issue 10
28 Oct 2021
Research article | 28 Oct 2021
Vegetation greening weakened the capacity of water supply to China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project
Jiehao Zhang et al.
No articles found.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
S. Y. Li and Q. F. Zhang
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Ecohydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesCoupled modelling of hydrological processes and grassland production in two contrasting climatesDoes maximization of net carbon profit enable the prediction of vegetation behaviour in savanna sites along a precipitation gradient?Modelling the artificial forest (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) root–soil water interactions in the Loess Plateau, ChinaA deep learning hybrid predictive modeling (HPM) approach for estimating evapotranspiration and ecosystem respirationStructural changes to forests during regeneration affect water flux partitioning, water ages and hydrological connectivity: Insights from tracer-aided ecohydrological modellingHow does water yield respond to mountain pine beetle infestation in a semiarid forest?Daily soil temperature modeling improved by integrating observed snow cover and estimated soil moisture in the USA Great PlainsPlant hydraulic transport controls transpiration sensitivity to soil water stressDrought onset and propagation into soil moisture and grassland vegetation responses during the 2012–2019 major drought in Southern CaliforniaQuantifying the effects of urban green space on water partitioning and ages using an isotope-based ecohydrological modelLow and contrasting impacts of vegetation CO2 fertilization on global terrestrial runoff over 1982–2010: accounting for aboveground and belowground vegetation–CO2 effectsGlobal ecosystem-scale plant hydraulic traits retrieved using model–data fusionQuantifying the effects of land use and model scale on water partitioning and water ages using tracer-aided ecohydrological modelsQuantification of ecohydrological sensitivities and their influencing factors at the seasonal scaleCanopy temperature and heat stress are increased by compound high air temperature and water stress and reduced by irrigation – a modeling analysisEvaluating a landscape-scale daily water balance model to support spatially continuous representation of flow intermittency throughout stream networksTesting water fluxes and storage from two hydrology configurations within the ORCHIDEE land surface model across US semi-arid sitesNovel Keeling-plot-based methods to estimate the isotopic composition of ambient water vaporDisentangling temporal and population variability in plant root water uptake from stable isotopic analysis: when rooting depth matters in labeling studiesCalibration of hydrological models for ecologically relevant streamflow predictions: a trade-off between fitting well to data and estimating consistent parameter sets?Spatial variability of mean daily estimates of actual evaporation from remotely sensed imagery and surface reference dataQuantification of soil water balance components based on continuous soil moisture measurement and the Richards equation in an irrigated agricultural field of a desert oasisMapping the suitability of groundwater-dependent vegetation in a semi-arid Mediterranean areaModeling boreal forest evapotranspiration and water balance at stand and catchment scales: a spatial approachThe 18O ecohydrology of a grassland ecosystem – predictions and observationsA comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for discharge and nitrate-nitrogen loads involving multiple discrete model inputs under future changing conditionsDynamic responses of DOC and DIC transport to different flow regimes in a subtropical small mountainous riverEvaluation of ORCHIDEE-MICT-simulated soil moisture over China and impacts of different atmospheric forcing dataTesting an optimality-based model of rooting zone water storage capacity in temperate forestsA regional-scale ecological risk framework for environmental flow evaluationsClimate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado RiverDominant effect of increasing forest biomass on evapotranspiration: interpretations of movement in Budyko spaceModeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United StatesCalibration of a parsimonious distributed ecohydrological daily model in a data-scarce basin by exclusively using the spatio-temporal variation of NDVIImportance of considering riparian vegetation requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows in aquatic microhabitatsWaning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fishCosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interceptionEstimation of surface energy fluxes in the Arctic tundra using the remote sensing thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance modelEnvironmental controls on seasonal ecosystem evapotranspiration/potential evapotranspiration ratio as determined by the global eddy flux measurementsAttributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China PlainA Budyko framework for estimating how spatial heterogeneity and lateral moisture redistribution affect average evapotranspiration rates as seen from the atmosphereRegionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patterns in SwitzerlandCanopy-scale biophysical controls of transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon BasinTechnical note: Fourier approach for estimating the thermal attributes of streamsDominant controls of transpiration along a hillslope transect inferred from ecohydrological measurements and thermodynamic limitsCombined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sitesProjecting water yield and ecosystem productivity across the United States by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate dataThe effect of assimilating satellite-derived soil moisture data in SiBCASA on simulated carbon fluxes in Boreal EurasiaSubsurface storage capacity influences climate–evapotranspiration interactions in three western United States catchmentsReconstructing the natural hydrology of the San Francisco Bay–Delta watershed
Nicholas Jarvis, Jannis Groh, Elisabet Lewan, Katharina H. E. Meurer, Walter Durka, Cornelia Baessler, Thomas Pütz, Elvin Rufullayev, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2277–2299,Short summary
We apply an eco-hydrological model to data on soil water balance and grassland growth obtained at two sites with contrasting climates. Our results show that the grassland in the drier climate had adapted by developing deeper roots, which maintained water supply to the plants in the face of severe drought. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering such plastic responses of plant traits to environmental stress in the modelling of soil water balance and plant growth under climate change.
Remko C. Nijzink, Jason Beringer, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Stanislaus J. Schymanski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 525–550,Short summary
Most models that simulate water and carbon exchanges with the atmosphere rely on information about vegetation, but optimality models predict vegetation properties based on general principles. Here, we use the Vegetation Optimality Model (VOM) to predict vegetation behaviour at five savanna sites. The VOM overpredicted vegetation cover and carbon uptake during the wet seasons but also performed similarly to conventional models, showing that vegetation optimality is a promising approach.
Hongyu Li, Yi Luo, Lin Sun, Xiangdong Li, Changkun Ma, Xiaolei Wang, Ting Jiang, and Haoyang Zhu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 17–34,Short summary
Drying soil layers (DSLs) have been extensively reported in artificial forestland in the Loess Plateau, China, which has limited water resources and deep loess. To address this issue relating to plant root–soil water interactions, this study developed a root growth model that simulates both the dynamic rooting depth and fine-root distribution. Evaluation vs. field data proved a positive performance. Long-term simulation reproduced the evolution process of the DSLs and revealed their mechanisms.
Jiancong Chen, Baptiste Dafflon, Anh Phuong Tran, Nicola Falco, and Susan S. Hubbard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6041–6066,Short summary
The novel hybrid predictive modeling (HPM) approach uses a long short-term memory recurrent neural network to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) with only meteorological and remote-sensing inputs. We developed four use cases to demonstrate the applicability of HPM. The results indicate HPM is capable of providing ET and Reco estimations in challenging mountainous systems and enhances our understanding of watershed dynamics at sparsely monitored watersheds.
Aaron J. Neill, Christian Birkel, Marco P. Maneta, Doerthe Tetzlaff, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4861–4886,Short summary
Structural changes (cover and height of vegetation plus tree canopy characteristics) to forests during regeneration on degraded land affect how water is partitioned between streamflow, groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration. Partitioning most strongly deviates from baseline conditions during earlier stages of regeneration with dense forest, while recovery may be possible as the forest matures and opens out. This has consequences for informing sustainable landscape restoration strategies.
Jianning Ren, Jennifer C. Adam, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Erin J. Hanan, Christina L. Tague, Mingliang Liu, Crystal A. Kolden, and John T. Abatzoglou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4681–4699,Short summary
Mountain pine beetle outbreaks have caused widespread tree mortality. While some research shows that water yield increases after trees are killed, many others document no change or a decrease. The climatic and environmental mechanisms driving hydrologic response to tree mortality are not well understood. We demonstrated that the direction of hydrologic response is a function of multiple factors, so previous studies do not necessarily conflict with each other; they represent different conditions.
Haidong Zhao, Gretchen F. Sassenrath, Mary Beth Kirkham, Nenghan Wan, and Xiaomao Lin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4357–4372,Short summary
This study was done to develop an improved soil temperature model for the USA Great Plains by using common weather station variables as inputs. After incorporating knowledge of estimated soil moisture and observed daily snow depth, the improved model showed a near 50 % gain in performance compared to the original model. We conclude that our improved model can better estimate soil temperature at the surface soil layer where most hydrological and biological processes occur.
Brandon P. Sloan, Sally E. Thompson, and Xue Feng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4259–4274,Short summary
Plants affect the global water and carbon cycles by modifying their water use and carbon intake in response to soil moisture. Global climate models represent this response with either simple empirical models or complex physical models. We reveal that the latter improves predictions in plants with large flow resistance; however, adding dependence on atmospheric moisture demand to the former matches performance of the latter, leading to a new tool for improving carbon and water cycle predictions.
Maria Magdalena Warter, Michael Bliss Singer, Mark O. Cuthbert, Dar Roberts, Kelly K. Caylor, Romy Sabathier, and John Stella
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3713–3729,Short summary
Intensified drying of soil and grassland vegetation is raising the impact of fire severity and extent in Southern California. While browned grassland is a common sight during the dry season, this study has shown that there is a pronounced shift in the timing of senescence, due to changing climate conditions favoring milder winter temperatures and increased precipitation variability. Vegetation may be limited in its ability to adapt to these shifts, as drought periods become more frequent.
Mikael Gillefalk, Dörthe Tetzlaff, Reinhard Hinkelmann, Lena-Marie Kuhlemann, Aaron Smith, Fred Meier, Marco P. Maneta, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3635–3652,Short summary
We used a tracer-aided ecohydrological model to quantify water flux–storage–age interactions for three urban vegetation types: trees, shrub and grass. The model results showed that evapotranspiration increased in the order shrub < grass < trees during one growing season. Additionally, we could show how
infiltration hotspotscreated by runoff from sealed onto vegetated surfaces can enhance both evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge.
Yuting Yang, Tim R. McVicar, Dawen Yang, Yongqiang Zhang, Shilong Piao, Shushi Peng, and Hylke E. Beck
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3411–3427,Short summary
This study developed an analytical ecohydrological model that considers three aspects of vegetation response to eCO2 (i.e., stomatal response, LAI response, and rooting depth response) to detect the impact of eCO2 on continental runoff over the past 3 decades globally. Our findings suggest a minor role of eCO2 on the global runoff changes, yet highlight the negative runoff–eCO2 response in semiarid and arid regions which may further threaten the limited water resource there.
Yanlan Liu, Nataniel M. Holtzman, and Alexandra G. Konings
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2399–2417,Short summary
The flow of water through plants varies with species-specific traits. To determine how they vary across the world, we mapped the traits that best allowed a model to match microwave satellite data. We also defined average values across a few clusters of trait behavior. These form a tractable solution for use in large-scale models. Transpiration estimates using these clusters were more accurate than if using plant functional types. We expect our maps to improve transpiration forecasts.
Aaron Smith, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Lukas Kleine, Marco Maneta, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2239–2259,Short summary
We used a tracer-aided ecohydrological model on a mixed land use catchment in northeastern Germany to quantify water flux–storage–age interactions at four model grid resolutions. The model's ability to reproduce spatio-temporal flux–storage–age interactions decreases with increasing model grid sizes. Similarly, larger model grids showed vegetation-influenced changes in blue and green water partitioning. Simulations reveal the value of measured soil and stream isotopes for model calibration.
Yiping Hou, Mingfang Zhang, Xiaohua Wei, Shirong Liu, Qiang Li, Tijiu Cai, Wenfei Liu, Runqi Zhao, and Xiangzhuo Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1447–1466,Short summary
Ecohydrological sensitivity, defined as the response intensity of streamflow to vegetation change, indicates the hydrological sensitivity to vegetation change. The study revealed seasonal ecohydrological sensitivities were highly variable, depending on climate condition and watershed attributes. Dry season ecohydrological sensitivity was mostly determined by topography, soil and vegetation, while wet season ecohydrological sensitivity was mainly controlled by soil, landscape and vegetation.
Xiangyu Luan and Giulia Vico
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1411–1423,Short summary
Crop yield is reduced by heat and water stress, particularly when they co-occur. We quantify the joint effects of (unpredictable) air temperature and soil water availability on crop heat stress via a mechanistic model. Larger but more infrequent precipitation increased crop canopy temperatures. Keeping crops well watered via irrigation could reduce canopy temperature but not enough to always exclude heat damage. Thus, irrigation is only a partial solution to adapt to warmer and drier climates.
Songyan Yu, Hong Xuan Do, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Nick R. Bond, Peirong Lin, and Mark J. Kennard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5279–5295,Short summary
There is a growing interest globally in the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of intermittently flowing streams and rivers. We developed an approach to quantify catchment-wide flow intermittency over long time frames. Modelled patterns of flow intermittency in eastern Australia revealed highly dynamic behaviour in space and time. The developed approach is transferable to other parts of the world and can inform hydro-ecological understanding and management of intermittent streams.
Natasha MacBean, Russell L. Scott, Joel A. Biederman, Catherine Ottlé, Nicolas Vuichard, Agnès Ducharne, Thomas Kolb, Sabina Dore, Marcy Litvak, and David J. P. Moore
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5203–5230,
Yusen Yuan, Taisheng Du, Honglang Wang, and Lixin Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4491–4501,Short summary
The isotopic composition of ambient water vapor is an important source of atmospheric water vapor and has not been able to be estimated to date using the Keeling plot approach. Here we proposed two new methods to estimate the isotopic composition of ambient water vapor: one using the intersection point method and another relying on the intermediate value theorem.
Valentin Couvreur, Youri Rothfuss, Félicien Meunier, Thierry Bariac, Philippe Biron, Jean-Louis Durand, Patricia Richard, and Mathieu Javaux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3057–3075,Short summary
Isotopic labeling of soil water is a broadly used tool for tracing the origin of water extracted by plants and computing root water uptake (RWU) profiles with multisource mixing models. In this study, we show how a method such as this may misconstrue time series of xylem water isotopic composition as the temporal dynamics of RWU by simulating data collected during a tall fescue rhizotron experiment with an isotope-enabled physical soil–root model accounting for variability in root traits.
Thibault Hallouin, Michael Bruen, and Fiachra E. O'Loughlin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1031–1054,Short summary
A hydrological model was used to compare different parameterisation strategies in view of predicting ecologically relevant streamflow indices in 33 Irish catchments. Compared for 14 different periods, a strategy fitting simulated and observed streamflow indices yielded better performance than fitting simulated and observed streamflow, but it also yielded a less consistent ensemble of parameter sets, suggesting that these indices may not be hydrologically relevant for model parameterisation.
Robert N. Armstrong, John W. Pomeroy, and Lawrence W. Martz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4891–4907,Short summary
Digital and thermal images taken near midday were used to scale daily point observations of key factors driving actual-evaporation estimates across a complex Canadian Prairie landscape. Point estimates of actual evaporation agreed well with observed values via eddy covariance. Impacts of spatial variations on areal estimates were minor, and no covariance was found between model parameters driving the energy term. The methods can be applied further to improve land surface parameterisations.
Zhongkai Li, Hu Liu, Wenzhi Zhao, Qiyue Yang, Rong Yang, and Jintao Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4685–4706,Short summary
A database of soil moisture measurements from the middle Heihe River basin of China was used to test the potential of a soil moisture database in estimating the soil water balance components (SWBCs). We determined SWBCs using a method that combined the soil water balance method and the inverse Richards equation. This work confirmed that relatively reasonable estimations of the SWBCs in coarse-textured sandy soils can be derived using soil moisture measurements.
Inês Gomes Marques, João Nascimento, Rita M. Cardoso, Filipe Miguéns, Maria Teresa Condesso de Melo, Pedro M. M. Soares, Célia M. Gouveia, and Cathy Kurz Besson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3525–3552,Short summary
Mediterranean cork woodlands are very particular agroforestry systems present in a confined area of the Mediterranean Basin. They are of great importance due to their high socioeconomic value; however, a decrease in water availability has put this system in danger. In this paper we build a model that explains this system's tree-species distribution in southern Portugal from environmental variables. This could help predict their future distribution under changing climatic conditions.
Samuli Launiainen, Mingfu Guan, Aura Salmivaara, and Antti-Jussi Kieloaho
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3457–3480,Short summary
Boreal forest evapotranspiration and water cycle is modeled at stand and catchment scale using physiological and physical principles, open GIS data and daily weather data. The approach can predict daily evapotranspiration well across Nordic coniferous-dominated stands and successfully reproduces daily streamflow and annual evapotranspiration across boreal headwater catchments in Finland. The model is modular and simple and designed for practical applications over large areas using open data.
Regina T. Hirl, Hans Schnyder, Ulrike Ostler, Rudi Schäufele, Inga Schleip, Sylvia H. Vetter, Karl Auerswald, Juan C. Baca Cabrera, Lisa Wingate, Margaret M. Barbour, and Jérôme Ogée
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2581–2600,Short summary
We evaluated the system-scale understanding of the propagation of the oxygen isotope signal (δ18O) of rain through soil and xylem to leaf water in a temperate drought-prone grassland. Biweekly δ18O observations of the water pools made during seven growing seasons were accurately reproduced by the 18O-enabled process-based model MuSICA. While water uptake occurred from shallow soil depths throughout dry and wet periods, leaf water 18O enrichment responded to both soil and atmospheric moisture.
Christoph Schürz, Brigitta Hollosi, Christoph Matulla, Alexander Pressl, Thomas Ertl, Karsten Schulz, and Bano Mehdi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1211–1244,Short summary
For two Austrian catchments we simulated discharge and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) considering future changes of climate, land use, and point source emissions together with the impact of different setups and parametrizations of the implemented eco-hydrological model. In a comprehensive analysis we identified the dominant sources of uncertainty for the simulation of discharge and NO3-N and further examined how specific properties of the model inputs control the future simulation results.
Yu-Ting Shih, Pei-Hao Chen, Li-Chin Lee, Chien-Sen Liao, Shih-Hao Jien, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Tsung-Yu Lee, Thomas Hein, Franz Zehetner, Chung-Te Chang, and Jr-Chuan Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6579–6590,Short summary
DOC and DIC export in Taiwan shows that the annual DOC and DIC fluxes were 2.7–4.8 and 48.4–54.3 ton C km2 yr1, respectively, which were approximately 2 and 20 times higher than the global means of 1.4 and 2.6 ton C km2 yr1, respectively.
Zun Yin, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Ciais, Matthieu Guimberteau, Xuhui Wang, Dan Zhu, Fabienne Maignan, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Jan Polcher, Feng Zhou, Hyungjun Kim, and other China-Trend-Stream project members
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5463–5484,Short summary
Simulations in China were performed in ORCHIDEE driven by different forcing datasets: GSWP3, PGF, CRU-NCEP, and WFDEI. Simulated soil moisture was compared to several datasets to evaluate the ability of ORCHIDEE in reproducing soil moisture dynamics. Results showed that ORCHIDEE soil moisture coincided well with other datasets in wet areas and in non-irrigated areas. It suggested that the ORCHIDEE-MICT was suitable for further hydrological studies in China.
Matthias J. R. Speich, Heike Lischke, and Massimiliano Zappa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4097–4124,Short summary
To simulate the water balance of, e.g., a forest plot, it is important to estimate the maximum volume of water available to plants. This depends on soil properties and the average depth of roots. Rooting depth has proven challenging to estimate. Here, we applied a model assuming that plants dimension their roots to optimize their carbon budget. We compared its results with values obtained by calibrating a dynamic water balance model. In most cases, there is good agreement between both methods.
Gordon C. O'Brien, Chris Dickens, Eleanor Hines, Victor Wepener, Retha Stassen, Leo Quayle, Kelly Fouchy, James MacKenzie, P. Mark Graham, and Wayne G. Landis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 957–975,Short summary
In global water resource allocation, robust tools are required to establish environmental flows. In addition, tools should characterize past, present and future consequences of altered flows and non-flow variables to social and ecological management objectives. PROBFLO is a risk assessment method designed to meet best practice principles for regional-scale holistic E-flow assessments. The approach has been developed in Africa and applied across the continent.
Katrina E. Bennett, Theodore J. Bohn, Kurt Solander, Nathan G. McDowell, Chonggang Xu, Enrique Vivoni, and Richard S. Middleton
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 709–725,Short summary
We applied the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model to examine scenarios of change under climate and landscape disturbances in the San Juan River basin, a major sub-watershed of the Colorado River basin. Climate change coupled with landscape disturbance leads to reduced streamflow in the San Juan River basin. Disturbances are expected to be widespread in this region. Therefore, accounting for these changes within the context of climate change is imperative for water resource planning.
Fernando Jaramillo, Neil Cory, Berit Arheimer, Hjalmar Laudon, Ype van der Velde, Thomas B. Hasper, Claudia Teutschbein, and Johan Uddling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 567–580,Short summary
Which is the dominant effect on evapotranspiration in northern forests, an increase by recent forests expansion or a decrease by the water use response due to increasing CO2 concentrations? We determined the dominant effect during the period 1961–2012 in 65 Swedish basins. We used the Budyko framework to study the hydroclimatic movements in Budyko space. Our findings suggest that forest expansion is the dominant driver of long-term and large-scale evapotranspiration changes.
Jie Zhu, Ge Sun, Wenhong Li, Yu Zhang, Guofang Miao, Asko Noormets, Steve G. McNulty, John S. King, Mukesh Kumar, and Xuan Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6289–6305,Short summary
Forested wetlands provide myriad ecosystem services threatened by climate change. This study develops empirical hydrologic models by synthesizing hydrometeorological data across the southeastern US. We used global climate projections to model hydrological changes for five wetlands. We found all wetlands are predicted to become drier by the end of this century. This study suggests that climate change may substantially affect wetland biogeochemical cycles and other functions in the future.
Guiomar Ruiz-Pérez, Julian Koch, Salvatore Manfreda, Kelly Caylor, and Félix Francés
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6235–6251,Short summary
Plants are shaping the landscape and controlling the hydrological cycle, particularly in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Remote sensing data appears as an appealing source of information for vegetation monitoring, in particular in areas with a limited amount of available field data. Here, we present an example of how remote sensing data can be exploited in a data-scarce basin. We propose a mathematical methodology that can be used as a springboard for future applications.
Rui Rivaes, Isabel Boavida, José M. Santos, António N. Pinheiro, and Teresa Ferreira
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5763–5780,Short summary
We analyzed the influence of considering riparian requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows. After a decade, environmental flows disregarding riparian requirements promoted riparian degradation and consequently the change in the hydraulic characteristics of the river channel and the modification of the available habitat area for fish species. Environmental flows regarding riparian vegetation requirements were able to sustain the fish habitat close to the natural condition.
José María Santiago, Rafael Muñoz-Mas, Joaquín Solana-Gutiérrez, Diego García de Jalón, Carlos Alonso, Francisco Martínez-Capel, Javier Pórtoles, Robert Monjo, and Jaime Ribalaygua
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4073–4101,Short summary
High-time-resolution models for streamflow and stream temperature are used in this study to predict future brown trout habitat loss. Flow reductions falling down to 51 % of current values and water temperature increases growing up to 4 ºC are predicted. Streamflow and temperature will act synergistically affecting fish. We found that the thermal response of rivers is influenced by basin geology and, consequently, geology will be also an influent factor in the cold-water fish distribution shift.
Mie Andreasen, Karsten H. Jensen, Darin Desilets, Marek Zreda, Heye R. Bogena, and Majken C. Looms
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1875–1894,Short summary
The cosmic-ray method holds a potential for quantifying canopy interception and biomass. We use measurements and modeling of thermal and epithermal neutron intensity in a forest to examine this potential. Canopy interception is a variable important to forest hydrology, yet difficult to monitor remotely. Forest growth impacts the carbon-cycle and can be used to mitigate climate changes by carbon sequestration in biomass. An efficient method to monitor tree growth is therefore of high relevance.
Jordi Cristóbal, Anupma Prakash, Martha C. Anderson, William P. Kustas, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, and Douglas L. Kane
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1339–1358,Short summary
Quantifying trends in surface energy fluxes is crucial for forecasting ecological responses in Arctic regions. An extensive evaluation using a thermal-based remote sensing model and ground measurements was performed in Alaska's Arctic tundra for 5 years. Results showed an accurate temporal trend of surface energy fluxes in concert with vegetation dynamics. This work builds toward a regional implementation over Arctic ecosystems to assess response of surface energy fluxes to climate change.
Chunwei Liu, Ge Sun, Steven G. McNulty, Asko Noormets, and Yuan Fang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 311–322,Short summary
The paper aimed at deriving Kc (AET/PET) for multiple vegetation types and understanding its environmental controls by analyzing the accumulated global eddy flux (FLUXNET) data. We established multiple linear equations for different land covers and seasons to model the dynamics of Kc as function of LAI, site latitude, and precipitation. Our study extended the applications of the traditional Kc method for estimating crop water use to estimating AET rates for natural ecosystems.
Xingguo Mo, Xuejuan Chen, Shi Hu, Suxia Liu, and Jun Xia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 295–310,Short summary
Attributing changes in ET and GPP is crucial to impact and adaptation assessment of climate change over the NCP. Simulations with the VIP ecohydrological model illustrated relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to ET and GPP. Global radiation was the cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced plant productivity in spring. Agronomical improvement was the main driver of crop productivity enhancement.
Elham Rouholahnejad Freund and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 217–233,Short summary
Our analysis shows that averaging over sub-grid heterogeneity in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ET), as typical earth system models do, overestimates the average of the spatially variable ET. We also show when aridity index increases with altitude, lateral redistribution would transfer water from more humid uplands to more arid lowlands, resulting in a net increase in ET. Therefore, the Earth system models that neglect lateral transfer underestimate ET in those regions.
Simon Schmidt, Christine Alewell, Panos Panagos, and Katrin Meusburger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4359–4373,Short summary
We present novel research on the seasonal dynamics of the impact of rainfall (R-factor) on the mobilization of topsoil as soil erosion by water for Switzerland. A modeling approach was chosen that enables the dynamical mapping of the R-factor. Based on the maps and modeling results, we could investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of that factor, which is high for Switzerland. With these results, agronomists can introduce selective erosion control measures.
Kaniska Mallick, Ivonne Trebs, Eva Boegh, Laura Giustarini, Martin Schlerf, Darren T. Drewry, Lucien Hoffmann, Celso von Randow, Bart Kruijt, Alessandro Araùjo, Scott Saleska, James R. Ehleringer, Tomas F. Domingues, Jean Pierre H. B. Ometto, Antonio D. Nobre, Osvaldo Luiz Leal de Moraes, Matthew Hayek, J. William Munger, and Steven C. Wofsy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4237–4264,Short summary
While quantifying vegetation water use over multiple plant function types in the Amazon Basin, we found substantial biophysical control during drought as well as a water-stress period and dominant climatic control during a water surplus period. This work has direct implication in understanding the resilience of the Amazon forest in the spectre of frequent drought menace as well as the role of drought-induced plant biophysical functioning in modulating the water-carbon coupling in this ecosystem.
Masahiro Ryo, Marie Leys, and Christopher T. Robinson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3411–3418,Short summary
We developed an analytical method to estimate thermal attributes (seasonal and diel periodicities as well as irregularities) in stream temperature at data-poor sites. We extrapolated the thermal attributes of a glacier-fed stream in the Swiss Alps using 2 years of hourly recorded temperature to the data-poor sites. The R scripts used in this study are available in the Supplement.
Maik Renner, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, Anke Hildebrandt, Marcus Guderle, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2063–2083,Short summary
We estimated forest transpiration (European beech) along a steep valley cross section. Atmospheric demand, obtained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power, is the dominant control of transpiration at all sites. To our surprise we find that transpiration is rather similar across sites with different aspect (north vs. south) and different stand structure due to systematically varying sap velocities. Such a compensation effect is highly relevant for modeling and upscaling of transpiration.
Congsheng Fu, Guiling Wang, Michael L. Goulden, Russell L. Scott, Kenneth Bible, and Zoe G. Cardon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2001–2018,Short summary
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of plant root has important hydrological impact (on evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio, and soil moisture) in ecosystems that have a pronounced dry season but are not overall so dry that sparse vegetation and very low soil moisture limit HR.
Shanlei Sun, Ge Sun, Erika Cohen, Steven G. McNulty, Peter V. Caldwell, Kai Duan, and Yang Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 935–952,Short summary
This study links an ecohydrological model with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) dynamically downscaled climate projections of the HadCM3 model under the IPCC SRES A2 emission scenario. Water yield and ecosystem productivity response to climate change were highly variable with an increasing trend across the 82 773 watersheds. Results are useful for policy-makers and land managers in formulating appropriate watershed-specific strategies for sustaining water and carbon sources.
M. K. van der Molen, R. A. M. de Jeu, W. Wagner, I. R. van der Velde, P. Kolari, J. Kurbatova, A. Varlagin, T. C. Maximov, A. V. Kononov, T. Ohta, A. Kotani, M. C. Krol, and W. Peters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 605–624,Short summary
Boreal Eurasia contains extensive forests, which play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Droughts can modify this cycle considerably, although very few ground-based observations are available in the region. We test whether satellite-observed soil moisture may be used to improve carbon cycle models in this region. This paper explains when and where this works best. The interpretation of satellite soil moisture is best in summer conditions, and is hampered by snow, ice and ponding.
E. S. Garcia and C. L. Tague
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4845–4858,Short summary
In forests of the western United States, annual evapotranspiration (ET) varies with precipitation and temperature; geologically mediated drainage and storage properties may influence the relationship between climate and ET. A process-based model is used to evaluate how water storage capacity influences model estimates of ET-climate relationships for three snow-dominated basins. Results show that uncertainty in subsurface properties can strongly influence model estimates of watershed-scale ET.
P. Fox, P. H. Hutton, D. J. Howes, A. J. Draper, and L. Sears
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4257–4274,Short summary
The development of California was facilitated by redistributing water from the natural landscape to other uses. This development was accompanied by declines in native aquatic species, which have been attributed to reductions in Delta outflow. By reconstructing the natural landscape and using water balances to estimate natural Delta outflow, this flow is shown to be consistent with current outflow on a long-term annual average basis.
Anderson, R. M., Koren, V. I., and Reed, S. M.: Using SSURGO data to improve Sacramento Model a priori parameter estimates, J. Hydrol., 320, 103–116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.07.020, 2006.
Bai, M., Shen, B., Song, X., Mo, S., Huang, L., and Quan, Q.: Multi-Temporal Variabilities of Evapotranspiration Rates and Their Associations with Climate Change and Vegetation Greening in the Gan River Basin, China, Water, 11, 2568, https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122568, 2019.
Bai, P., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., and Liu, C.: Assessing the impacts of vegetation greenness change on evapotranspiration and water yield in China, Water Resour. Res., 56, e2020WR027965 https://doi.org/10.1029/2019WR027019, 2020.
Baker, T. J. and Miller, S. N.: Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess land use impact on water resources in an East African watershed, J. Hydrol., 486, 100–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.041, 2013.
Barnett, J., Rogers, S., Webber, M., Finlayson, B., and Wang, M.: Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China's water needs, Nature, 527, 295–297, https://doi.org/10.1038/527295a, 2015.
Bosch, J. M. and Hewlett, J. D.: A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration, J. Hydrol., 55, 3–23, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(82)90117-2, 1982.
Burnash, R.: The NWS river forecast system-catchment modeling, Computer models of watershed hydrology, 311–366, 1995.
Burnash, R., Ferral, L., and McGuire, R.: A generalized streamflow simulation system: Conceptual modeling for digital computers, US Department of Commerce, National Weather Service, Sacramento, California, US, 1973.
Caldwell, P. V., Sun, G., McNulty, S. G., Cohen, E. C., and Moore Myers, J. A.: Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2839–2857, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-2839-2012, 2012.
Cao, S., Sun, G., Zhang, Z., Chen, L., Feng, Q., Fu, B., McNulty, S., Shankman, D., Tang, J., Wang, Y., and Wei, X.: Greening China naturally, Ambio, 40, 828–831, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0150-8, 2011.
Cao, S., Zhang, J., Chen, L., and Zhao, T.: Ecosystem water imbalances created during ecological restoration by afforestation in China, and lessons for other developing countries, J. Environ. Manage., 183, 843–849, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.07.096, 2016.
Chen, C., Park, T., Wang, X., Piao, S., Xu, B., Chaturvedi, R. K., Fuchs, R., Brovkin, V., Ciais, P., Fensholt, R., Tømmervik, H., Bala, G., Zhu, Z., Nemani, R. R., and Myneni, R. B.: China and India lead in greening of the world through land-use management, Nature Sustainability, 2, 122–129, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0220-7, 2019.
Chen, H., Guo, S., Xu, C., and Singh, V. P.: Historical temporal trends of hydro-climatic variables and runoff response to climate variability and their relevance in water resource management in the Hanjiang basin, J. Hydrol., 344, 171–184, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.06.034, 2007.
China Meteorological Administration: Yearbook of Meteorological Disasters in China (2019), Meteorological Press, Beijing, ISBN 978-7-5029-7187-8, 2020.
Cook, B. I., Smerdon, J. E., Seager, R., and Coats, S.: Global warming and 21st century drying, Clim. Dynam., 43, 2607–2627, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2075-y, 2014.
Cook, B. I., Mankin, J. S., Marvel, K., Williams, A. P., Smerdon, J. E., and Anchukaitis, K. J.: Twenty-First Century Drought Projections in the CMIP6 Forcing Scenarios, Earth's Future, 8, e2019EF001461, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EF001461, 2020.
Department of Water Sources of Hubei Province, China: Water resources information retrieval system, Department of Water Sources of Hubei Province, China [data set], available at: http://188.8.131.52:8001/web/Report/BigMSKReport, last access: 31 August 2021.
Ellison, D., Futter, M. N., and Bishop, K., On the forest cover–water yield debate: from demand- to supply-side thinking. Glob. Change Biol., 18, 806–820, https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1365-2486.2011.02589.X, 2012.
Ellison, D., Morris, C. E., Locatelli, B., Sheil, D., Cohen, J., Murdiyarso, D., Gutierrez, V., Noordwijk, M. van, Creed, I. F., Pokorny, J., Gaveau, D., Spracklen, D. v., Tobella, A. B., Ilstedt, U., Teuling, A. J., Gebrehiwot, S. G., Sands, D. C., Muys, B., Verbist, B., Springgay, E., Sugandi, Y., and Sullivan, C. A.: Trees, forests and water: Cool insights for a hot world, Global Environ. Chang., 43, 51–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.GLOENVCHA.2017.01.002, 2017.
Emanuel, R. E., Buckley, J. J., Caldwell, P. V., McNulty, S. G., and Sun, G.: Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: Displacing a problem, Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 124005, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124005, 2015.
Farley, K. A., Jobbágy, E. G., and Jackson, R. B.: Effects of afforestation on water yield: A global synthesis with implications for policy, Global Change Biol., 11, 1565–1576, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01011.x, 2005.
Feng, X., Fu, B., Piao, S., Wang, S., Ciais, P., Zeng, Z., Lü, Y., Zeng, Y., Li, Y., Jiang, X., and Wu, B.: Revegetation in China's Loess Plateau is approaching sustainable water resource limits, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 1019–1022, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3092, 2016.
Feng, X., Fu, B., Zhang, Y., Pan, N., Zeng, Z., Tian, H., Lyu, Y., Chen, Y., Ciais, P., Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Cheng, L., Maestre, F. T., Fernández-Martínez, M., Sardans, J., and Peñuelas, J.: Recent leveling off of vegetation greenness and primary production reveals the increasing soil water limitations on the greening Earth, 66, 1462–1471, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scib.2021.02.023, 2021.
Frank, D. C., Poulter, B., Saurer, M., Esper, J., Huntingford, C., Helle, G., Treydte, K., Zimmermann, N. E., Schleser, G. H., Ahlström, A., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Levis, S., Lomas, M., Sitch, S., Viovy, N., Andreu-Hayles, L., Bednarz, Z., Berninger, F., Boettger, T., D`Alessandro, C. M., Daux, V., Filot, M., Grabner, M., Gutierrez, E., Haupt, M., Hilasvuori, E., Jungner, H., Kalela-Brundin, M., Krapiec, M., Leuenberger, M., Loader, N. J., Marah, H., Masson-Delmotte, V., Pazdur, A., Pawelczyk, S., Pierre, M., Planells, O., Pukiene, R., Reynolds-Henne, C. E., Rinne, K. T., Saracino, A., Sonninen, E., Stievenard, M., Switsur, V. R., Szczepanek, M., Szychowska-Krapiec, E., Todaro, L., Waterhouse, J. S., and Weigl, M.: Water-use efficiency and transpiration across European forests during the Anthropocene, Nat. Clim. Change, 5, 579–583, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2614, 2015.
Guo, H., Hu, Q., and Jiang, T.: Annual and seasonal streamflow responses to climate and land-cover changes in the Poyang Lake basin, China, J. Hydrol., 355, 106–122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.03.020, 2008.
Hamed, K. H.: Trend detection in hydrologic data: The Mann-Kendall trend test under the scaling hypothesis, J. Hydrol., 349, 350–363, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.11.009, 2008.
Hu, A. Y. and Guo, H. J.: Discussion on ecological environment water demand in the middle-lower reaches of Han River river, China Water Resources, 23, 14–16, 2006 (in Chinese).
Huang, J., Yu, H., Guan, X., Wang, G., and Guo, R.: Accelerated dryland expansion under climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 166–171, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2837, 2016.
Huete, A., Didan, K., Miura, T., Rodriguez, E. P., Gao, X., and Ferreira, L. G.: Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 195–213, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00096-2, 2002.
Ingwersen, J. B.: Fog drip, water yield, and timber harvesting in the bull run municipal watershed, Oregon, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 21, 469–473, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1985.tb00158.x, 1985.
Jackson, R. B., Carpenter, S. R., Dahm, C. N., McKnight, D. M., Naiman, R. J., Postel, S. L., and Running, S. W.: Water in a changing world, Ecol. Appl., 11, 1027–1045, https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[1027:WIACW]2.0.CO;2, 2001.
Jackson, R. B., Jobbágy, E. G., Avissar, R., Roy, S. B., Barrett, D. J., Cook, C. W., Farley, K. A., le Maitre, D. C., McCarl, B. A., and Murray, B. C.: Atmospheric science: Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration, Science, 310, 1944–1947, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1119282, 2005.
Jin, R. and Guo, H.: Water resources assessment in the water source areas of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project and water quantity analysis in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, Yangzte River, 24, 7–12, 1993 (in Chinese).
Jönsson, P. and Eklundh, L.: TIMESAT – A program for analyzing time-series of satellite sensor data, Computers and Geosciences, 30, 833–845, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2004.05.006, 2004.
King, D. A., Turner, D. P., and Ritts, W. D.: Parameterization of a diagnostic carbon cycle model for continental scale application, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 1653–1664, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.024, 2011.
Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Ogée, J., Polcher, J., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., and Prentice, I. C.: A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system, Global Biochem. Cy., 19, GB1015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002199, 2005.
Landsberg, J. J. and Waring, R. H.: A generalised model of forest productivity using simplified concepts of radiation-use efficiency, carbon balance and partitioning, Forest Ecol. Manag., 95, 209–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00026-1, 1997.
Lesk, C., Rowhani, P., and Ramankutty, N.: Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production, Nature, 529, 84–87, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16467, 2016.
Li, S., Gu, S., Liu, W., Han, H., and Zhang, Q.: Water quality in relation to land use and land cover in the upper Han River Basin, China, CATENA, 75, 216–222, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CATENA.2008.06.005, 2008.
Li, Y., Cui, Q., Li, C., Wang, X., Cai, Y., Cui, G., and Yang, Z.: An improved multi-objective optimization model for supporting reservoir operation of China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project, Sci. Total Environ., 575, 970–981, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.165, 2017.
Li, Y., Piao, S., Li, L. Z. X., Chen, A., Wang, X., Ciais, P., Huang, L., Lian, X., Peng, S., Zeng, Z., Wang, K., and Zhou, L.: Divergent hydrological response to large-scale afforestation and vegetation greening in China, Science Advances, 4, eaar4182, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aar4182, 2018.
Liu, B. J., Shao, D. G., Xu, M. X., and Yang, S. M.: Research of the water resources utilization relationship between the middle route of South-to North Water Transfer Project and the middle and lower Basin of Hanjiang River, South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science and Technology, 1, 6–9, 2003 (in Chinese).
Liu, C. and Zheng, H.: South-to-north water transfer schemes for China, Int. J. Water Resour. D., 18, 453–471, https://doi.org/10.1080/0790062022000006934, 2002.
Liu, M., Tian, H., Chen, G., Ren, W., Zhang, C., and Liu, J.: Effects of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on Evapotranspiration and Water Yield in China During 1900–2000, JAWRA, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 44, 1193–1207, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00243.x, 2008.
Liu, X., Liu, C., Luo, Y., Zhang, M., and Xia, J.: Dramatic decrease in streamflow from the headwater source in the central route of China's water diversion project: Climatic variation or human influence?, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D06113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016879, 2012.
Liu, X., Luo, Y., Yang, T., Liang, K., Zhang, M., and Liu, C.: Investigation of the probability of concurrent drought events between the water source and destination regions of China's water diversion project, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8424–8431, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065904, 2015.
Makarieva, A. M. and Gorshkov, V. G.: Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrological cycle on land, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1013–1033, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1013-2007, 2007.
McCuen, R. H., Knight, Z., and Cutter, A. G.: Evaluation of the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency Index, J. Hydrol. Eng., 11, 597–602, https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1084-0699(2006)11:6(597), 2006.
Monteith, J. L.: Evaporation and environment, Symposia of the society for experimental biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 19, 205–234, 1965.
Pastorello, G., Trotta, C., Canfora, E. et al.: The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data, Scientific data, 7, 225, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0534-3, 2020.
Penman, H. L.: Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass, P. R. Soc. A, 193, 120–145, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1948.0037, 1948.
Piégay, H., Walling, D. E., Landon, N., He, Q., Liébault, F., and Petiot, R.: Contemporary changes in sediment yield in an alpine mountain basin due to afforestation (the upper Drôme in France), Catena, 55, 183–212, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(03)00118-8, 2004.
Qi, W., Li, H., Zhang, Q., and Zhang, K.: Forest restoration efforts drive changes in land-use/land-cover and water-related ecosystem services in China's Han River basin, Ecol. Eng., 126, 64–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.11.001, 2019.
Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C., and Fereres, E.: Aquacrop-The FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: II. main algorithms and software description, Agron. J., 101, 438–447, https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2008.0140s, 2009.
Raich, J. W., Rastetter, E. B., Melillo, J. M., Kicklighter, D. W., Steudler, P. A., Peterson, B. J., Grace, A. L., Moore, B., and Vorosmarty, C. J.: Potential Net Primary Productivity in South America: Application of a Global Model, Ecol. Appl., 1, 399–429, https://doi.org/10.2307/1941899, 1991.
Running, S. W., Thornton, P. E., Nemani, R., and Glassy, J. M.: Global Terrestrial Gross and Net Primary Productivity from the Earth Observing System, in: Methods in Ecosystem Science, Springer New York, 44–57, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1224-9_4, 2000.
Sasaki, T., Okayasu, T., Jamsran, U., and Takeuchi, K.: Threshold changes in vegetation along a grazing gradient in Mongolian rangelands, J. Ecol., 96, 145–154, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01315.x, 2008.
She, D., Xia, J., Shao, Q., Taylor, J. A., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., and Gu, H.: Advanced investigation on the change in the streamflow into the water source of the middle route of China's water diversion project, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 6950–6961, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025702, 2017.
Shin, H., Park, M., Lee, J., Lim, H., and Kim, S. J.: Evaluation of the effects of climate change on forest watershed hydroecology using the RHESSys model: Seolmacheon catchment, Paddy Water Environ., 17, 581–595, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-018-00683-1, 2019.
Shumilova, O., Tockner, K., Thieme, M., Koska, A., and Zarfl, C.: Global Water Transfer Megaprojects: A Potential Solution for the Water-Food-Energy Nexus?, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6(DEC), 150, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2018.00150, 2018.
Sims, D. A., Rahman, A. F., Cordova, V. D., Baldocchi, D. D., Flanagan, L. B., Goldstein, A. H., Hollinger, D. Y., Misson, L., Monson, R. K., Schmid, H. P., Wofsy, S. C., and Xu, L.: Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean flux, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 131, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.04.006, 2005.
Stone, R.: Hydroengineering: Going Against the Flow, Science, 313, 1034–1037, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.313.5790.1034, 2006.
Sulla-Menashe, D., Gray, J. M., Abercrombie, S. P., and Friedl, M. A.: Hierarchical mapping of annual global land cover 2001 to present: The MODIS Collection 6 Land Cover product, Remote Sens. Environ., 222, 183–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.12.013, 2019.
Sun, G., Caldwell, P., Noormets, A., McNulty, S. G., Cohen, E., Moore Myers, J., Domec, J.-C., Treasure, E., Mu, Q., Xiao, J., John, R., and Chen, J.: Upscaling key ecosystem functions across the conterminous United States by a water-centric ecosystem model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G00J05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001573, 2011.
Tague, C. L. and Band, L. E.: RHESSys: Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System – An Object-Oriented Approach to Spatially Distributed Modeling of Carbon, Water, and Nutrient Cycling, 8, 19, 1–42, https://doi.org/10.1175/1087-3562(2004)8<1:RRHSSO>2.0.CO;2, 2004.
Tang, L.-L., Cai, X.-B., Gong, W.-S., Lu, J.-Z., Chen, X.-L., Lei, Q., and Yu, G.-L.: Increased Vegetation Greenness Aggravates Water Conflicts during Lasting and Intensifying Drought in the Poyang Lake Watershed, China, Forests, 9, 24, https://doi.org/10.3390/f9010024, 2018.
Tian, L., Jin, J., Wu, P., and Niu, G. Y.: Quantifying the impact of climate change and human activities on streamflow in a Semi-Arid Watershed with the Budyko Equation incorporating dynamic vegetation information, Water, 10, 1781, https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121781, 2018.
Trenberth, K. E., Smith, L., Qian, T., Dai, A., and Fasullo, J.: Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model Data, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 758–769, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM600.1, 2007.
Tuinenburg, O. A., Theeuwen, J. J. E., and Staal, A.: High-resolution global atmospheric moisture connections from evaporation to precipitation, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3177–3188, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-3177-2020, 2020.
van Loon, A. F.: Hydrological drought explained, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, 2, 359–392, https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1085, 2015.
van Loon, A. F., Gleeson, T., Clark, J., van Dijk, A. I. J. M., Stahl, K., Hannaford, J., di Baldassarre, G., Teuling, A. J., Tallaksen, L. M., Uijlenhoet, R., Hannah, D. M., Sheffield, J., Svoboda, M., Verbeiren, B., Wagener, T., Rangecroft, S., Wanders, N., and van Lanen, H. A. J.: Drought in the Anthropocene, Nat. Geosci., 9, 89–91, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2646, 2016.
Wang, K. and Dickinson, R. E.: A review of global terrestrial evapotranspiration: Observation, modeling, climatology, and climatic variability, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG2005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011RG000373, 2012.
Wang, S., Zhang, Y., Ju, W., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Cescatti, A., Sardans, J., Janssens, I. A., Wu, M., Berry, J. A., Campbell, E., Fernández-Martínez, M., Alkama, R., Sitch, S., Friedlingstein, P., Smith, W. K., Yuan, W., He, W., Lombardozzi, D., Kautz, M., Zhu, D., Lienert, S., Kato, E., Poulter, B., Sanders, T. G. M., Krüger, I., Wang, R., Zeng, N., Tian, H., Vuichard, N., Jain, A. K., Wiltshire, A., Haverd, V., Goll, D. S., and Peñuelas, J.: Recent global decline of CO2 fertilization effects on vegetation photosynthesis, Science, 370, 1295–1300, https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB7772, 2020.
Wang, Y. and Yang, Y.: South-North Water Transfer Project of China, Yangtze River, 7, 2–5, 2005 (in Chinese).
Wang, Y., Liu, Y., and Jin, J.: Contrast Effects of Vegetation Cover Change on Evapotranspiration during a Revegetation Period in the Poyang Lake Basin, China, Forests, 9, 217, https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040217, 2018.
Wei, X., Sun, G., Liu, S., Jiang, H., Zhou, G., and Dai, L.: The Forest-Streamflow Relationship in China: A 40-Year Retrospect 1, JAWRA J. Am. Water Resour. As., 44, 1076–1085, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00237.x, 2008.
Williams, A. P., Cook, E. R., Smerdon, J. E., Cook, B. I., Abatzoglou, J. T., Bolles, K., Baek, S. H., Badger, A. M., and Livneh, B.: Large contribution from anthropogenic warming to an emerging North American megadrought, Science, 368, 314–318, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz9600, 2020.
Xi, Y., Peng, S., Ciais, P., Guimberteau, M., Li, Y., Piao, S., Wang, X., Polcher, J., Yu, J., Zhang, X., Zhou, F., Bo, Y., Ottle, C., and Yin, Z.: Contributions of Climate Change, CO2, Land-Use Change, and Human Activities to Changes in River Flow across 10 Chinese Basins, J. Hydrometeorol., 19, 1899–1914, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-18-0005.1, 2018.
Xu, Y. and Chang, F. X.: Preliminary study on requirement rate of ecological water demand in middle and lower reaches of Hanjiang River, Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute, 26, 1–4, 2009 (in Chinese).
Xu, Y., Lin, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, Q., and Ran, Q.: Drought analysis using multi-scale standardized precipitation index in the Han River Basin, China, Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A, 12, 483–494, https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1000450, 2011.
Yang, Y., Zhou, N., Guo, X., and Hu, Q.: The hydrology characteristics analysis of HanJiang up-streams, Hydrology, 2, 54–56, 1997.
Yang, Z., Chen, S., Liu, X., Xiong, D., Xu, C., Arthur, M. A., McCulley, R. L., Shi, S., and Yang, Y.: Loss of soil organic carbon following natural forest conversion to Chinese fir plantation, Forest Ecol. Manag., 449, 117476, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FORECO.2019.117476, 2019.
Yuan, W., Zheng, Y., Piao, S., Ciais, P., Lombardozzi, D., Wang, Y., Ryu, Y., Chen, G., Dong, W., Hu, Z., Jain, A. K., Jiang, C., Kato, E., Li, S., Lienert, S., Liu, S., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Qin, Z., Quine, T., Sitch, S., Smith, W. K., Wang, F., Wu, C., Xiao, Z., and Yang, S.: Increased atmospheric vapor pressure deficit reduces global vegetation growth, Science Advances, 5, eaax1396, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax1396, 2019.
Zargar, A., Sadiq, R., Naser, B., and Khan, F. I. : A review of drought indices. Environmental Reviews, 19, 333–349, https://doi.org/10.1139/a11-013, 2011.
Zhang, C., Duan, Q., Yeh, P. J. F., Pan, Y., Gong, H., Gong, W., Di, Z., Lei, X., Liao, W., Huang, Z., Zheng, L., and Guo, X.: The Effectiveness of the South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Route Project on Water Delivery and Groundwater Recovery in North China Plain, Water Resour. Res., 56, e2019WR026759, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019WR026759, 2020.
Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Sun, G., Song, C., Dannenberg, M. P., Li, J., Liu, N., Zhang, K., and Zhang, Q.: Vegetation Greening Significantly Reduced the Capacity of Water Supply to China’s South-North Water Diversion Project, available at: https://osf.io/f5bgk/ last access: 31 August 2021.
Zhang, Q.: The South-to-North Water Transfer Project of China: Environmental Implications and Monitoring Strategy, JAWRA J. Am. Water Resour. As., 45, 1238–1247, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2009.00357.x, 2009.
Zhang, Q., Ficklin, D. L., Manzoni, S., Wang, L., Way, D., Phillips, R. P., and Novick, K. A.: Response of ecosystem intrinsic water use efficiency and gross primary productivity to rising vapor pressure deficit, Environ. Res. Lett., 14, 7, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab2603, 2019.
Zhang, Y., Song, C., and Zhang, K.: Effects of land-use/land-cover and climate changes on terrestrial net primary productivity in the Yangtze River Basin, China from 2001 to 2010, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 119, 1092–1109, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JG002616, 2014.
Zhang, Y., Song, C., Sun, G., Band, L. E., McNulty, S., Noormets, A., Zhang, Q., and Zhang, Z.: Development of a coupled carbon and water model for estimating global gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration based on eddy flux and remote sensing data, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 223, 116–131, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.04.003, 2016.
Zhang, Y., Song, C., Band, L. E., Sun, G., and Li, J., Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?, Remote Sens. Environ., 191, 145–155, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.12.018, 2017.
Zhang, Y., Song, C., Band, L. E., and Sun, G.: No Proportional Increase of Terrestrial Gross Carbon Sequestration from the Greening Earth, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 124, 2540–2553, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018jg004917, 2019.
Zhou, S., Yu, B., Huang, Y., and Wang, G.: The effect of vapor pressure deficit on water use efficiency at the subdaily time scale, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5005–5013, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060741, 2014.
Zhu, Z., Piao, S., Myneni, R. B., Huang, M., Zeng, Z., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., Friedlingstein, P., Arneth, A., Cao, C., Cheng, L., Kato, E., Koven, C., Li, Y., Lian, X., Liu, Y., Liu, R., Mao, J., Pan, Y., Peng, S., Peñuelas, J., Poulter, B., Pugh, T. A. M., Stocker, B. D., Viovy, N., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, Z., Yang, H., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N.: Greening of the Earth and its drivers, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 791–795, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3004, 2016.
To quantify how vegetation greening impacts the capacity of water supply, we built a hybrid model and conducted a case study using the upper Han River basin (UHRB) that serves as the water source area to the world’s largest water diversion project. Vegetation greening in the UHRB during 2001–2018 induced annual water yield (WY) greatly decreased. Vegetation greening also increased the possibility of drought and reduced a quarter of WY on average during drought periods.
To quantify how vegetation greening impacts the capacity of water supply, we built a hybrid...