Articles | Volume 25, issue 9
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Technical note: Introduction of a superconducting gravimeter as novel hydrological sensor for the Alpine research catchment Zugspitze
Institute for Hydrology and Water Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Institute for Hydrology and Water Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Institute of Geography, Augsburg University, Alter Postweg 118, 86159 Augsburg, Germany
Institute of Geodesy, Leibniz University Hannover (LUH), Schneiderberg 50, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS), Zugspitze 5, 82475 Zugspitze, Germany
Section 1.2 Global Geomonitoring and Gravity Field, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences,Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Section 1.2 Global Geomonitoring and Gravity Field, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences,Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Section 1.2 Global Geomonitoring and Gravity Field, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences,Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin (TUB), Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 104–106, 10553 Berlin, Germany
No articles found.
Achille Capelli, Franziska Koch, Patrick Henkel, Markus Lamm, Florian Appel, Christoph Marty, and Jürg Schweizer
The Cryosphere, 16, 505–531,Short summary
Snow occurrence, snow amount, snow density and liquid water content (LWC) can vary considerably with climatic conditions and elevation. We show that low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sensors as GPS can be used for reliably measuring the amount of water stored in the snowpack or snow water equivalent (SWE), snow depth and the LWC under a broad range of climatic conditions met at different elevations in the Swiss Alps.
Christoph Klingler, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4529–4565,Short summary
LamaH-CE is a large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Central Europe. The dataset contains hydrometeorological time series (daily and hourly resolution) and various attributes for 859 gauged basins. Sticking closely to the CAMELS datasets, LamaH includes additional basin delineations and attributes for describing a large interconnected river network. LamaH further contains outputs of a conceptual hydrological baseline model for plausibility checking of the inputs and for benchmarking.
Pirmin Philipp Ebner, Franziska Koch, Valentina Premier, Carlo Marin, Florian Hanzer, Carlo Maria Carmagnola, Hugues François, Daniel Günther, Fabiano Monti, Olivier Hargoaa, Ulrich Strasser, Samuel Morin, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 15, 3949–3973,Short summary
A service to enable real-time optimization of grooming and snow-making at ski resorts was developed and evaluated using both GNSS-measured snow depth and spaceborne snow maps derived from Copernicus Sentinel-2. The correlation to the ground observation data was high. Potential sources for the overestimation of the snow depth by the simulations are mainly the impact of snow redistribution by skiers, compensation of uneven terrain, or spontaneous local adaptions of the snow management.
Josef Fürst, Hans Peter Nachtnebel, Josef Gasch, Reinhard Nolz, Michael Paul Stockinger, Christine Stumpp, and Karsten Schulz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4019–4034,Short summary
Rosalia is a 222 ha forested research watershed in eastern Austria to study water, energy and solute transport processes. The paper describes the site, monitoring network, instrumentation and the datasets: high-resolution (10 min interval) time series starting in 2015 of four discharge gauging stations, seven rain gauges, and observations of air and water temperature, relative humidity, and conductivity, as well as soil water content and temperature, at different depths at four profiles.
Moritz Feigl, Katharina Lebiedzinski, Mathew Herrnegger, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2951–2977,Short summary
In this study we developed machine learning approaches for daily river water temperature prediction, using different data preprocessing methods, six model types, a range of different data inputs and 10 study catchments. By comparing to current state-of-the-art models, we could show a significant improvement of prediction performance of the tested approaches. Furthermore, we could gain insight into the relationships between model types, input data and predicted stream water temperature.
Michael Weber, Franziska Koch, Matthias Bernhardt, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2869–2894,Short summary
We compared a suite of globally available meteorological and DEM data with in situ data for physically based snow hydrological modelling in a small high-alpine catchment. Although global meteorological data were less suited to describe the snowpack properly, transferred station data from a similar location in the vicinity and substituting single variables with global products performed well. In addition, using 30 m global DEM products as model input was useful in such complex terrain.
Martin Lasser, Ulrich Meyer, Adrian Jäggi, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, Andreas Kvas, Karl Hans Neumayer, Christoph Dahle, Frank Flechtner, Jean-Michel Lemoine, Igor Koch, Matthias Weigelt, and Jakob Flury
Adv. Geosci., 55, 1–11,Short summary
Correctly determining the orbit of Earth-orbiting satellites requires to account multiple background effects which appear in the system Earth. Usually, these effects are introduced by various complex force models, which are not always easy to handle. We publish and validate a data set of commonly used models to make it easier to track down potential issues when applying such background forces in orbit and gravity field determination.
Christoph Schürz, Bano Mehdi, Jens Kiesel, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4463–4489,Short summary
The USLE is a commonly used model to estimate soil erosion by water. It quantifies soil loss as a product of six inputs representing rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, plant cover, and support practices. Many methods exist to derive these inputs, which can, however, lead to substantial differences in the estimated soil loss. Here, we analyze the effect of different input representations on the estimated soil loss in a large-scale study in Kenya and Uganda.
Benjamin Müller, Matthias Bernhardt, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Time series of thermal remote sensing images include more information than usually used. Land surface related processes are combined into a single image. Activity of these processes change from image to image. Thus, information on land surface characteristics is to be found
somewhere in betweenthe images. We provide an algorithm to test the presence of such characteristics within a set of images. The algorithm can be used for process understanding, model evaluation, data assimilation, etc.
Armin Sigmund, Korbinian Freier, Till Rehm, Ludwig Ries, Christian Schunk, Anette Menzel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12477–12494,Short summary
Air masses at the Schneefernerhaus mountain site at Zugspitze Mountain, Germany, were classified with respect to the atmospheric layer from which they originated and their degree of pollution. Measurements of several gases, particulate matter, and standard meteorological quantities indicated that polluted air was lifted to the site in 31 % of cases and clean air descended to the site in approximately 14 % cases while most of the remaining cases were ambiguous.
Martin Schnaiter, Claudia Linke, Inas Ibrahim, Alexei Kiselev, Fritz Waitz, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Till Rehm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10829–10844,Short summary
When combustion particles are deposited to the ground, they darken Earth's snow and ice surfaces by even tiny quantities. This darkening reduces the back reflection of sunlight and induces an additional climate warming. Particles from fresh snow samples were investigated according to their light absorption strength. Enhanced absorption was found in the snow that cannot fully be attributed to combustion particles. Dust and biogenic matter are likely the cause of this additional snow darkening.
E. Sinem Ince, Franz Barthelmes, Sven Reißland, Kirsten Elger, Christoph Förste, Frank Flechtner, and Harald Schuh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 647–674,Short summary
ICGEM is a non-profit scientific service that contributes to any research area in which the use of gravity information is essential. ICGEM offers the largest collection of global gravity field models, interactive calculation and visualisation services and delivers high-quality datasets to researchers and students in geodesy, geophysics, glaciology, hydrology, oceanography, and climatology and most importantly general public. Static, temporal, and topographic gravity field models are available.
Christoph Schürz, Brigitta Hollosi, Christoph Matulla, Alexander Pressl, Thomas Ertl, Karsten Schulz, and Bano Mehdi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1211–1244,Short summary
For two Austrian catchments we simulated discharge and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) considering future changes of climate, land use, and point source emissions together with the impact of different setups and parametrizations of the implemented eco-hydrological model. In a comprehensive analysis we identified the dominant sources of uncertainty for the simulation of discharge and NO3-N and further examined how specific properties of the model inputs control the future simulation results.
Abolanle E. Odusanya, Bano Mehdi, Christoph Schürz, Adebayo O. Oke, Olufiropo S. Awokola, Julius A. Awomeso, Joseph O. Adejuwon, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1113–1144,Short summary
The main objective was to calibrate and validate the eco-hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with satellite-based actual evapotranspiration (AET) data for the data-sparse Ogun River Basin (20 292 km2) located in southwestern Nigeria. The SWAT model, composed of the Hargreaves PET equation and calibrated using the GLEAM_v3.0a data (GS1), performed well for the simulation of AET and provided a good level of confidence for using the SWAT model as a decision support tool.
Maik Renner, Claire Brenner, Kaniska Mallick, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Luigi Conte, Ivonne Trebs, Jianhui Wei, Volker Wulfmeyer, Karsten Schulz, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 515–535,Short summary
We estimate the phase lag of surface states and heat fluxes to incoming solar radiation at the sub-daily timescale. While evapotranspiration reveals a minor phase lag, the vapor pressure deficit used as input by Penman–Monteith approaches shows a large phase lag. The surface-to-air temperature gradient used by energy balance residual approaches shows a small phase shift in agreement with the sensible heat flux and thus explains the better correlation of these models at the sub-daily timescale.
Lu Gao, Jianhui Wei, Lingxiao Wang, Matthias Bernhardt, Karsten Schulz, and Xingwei Chen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2097–2114,Short summary
High-resolution temperature data sets are important for the Chinese Tian Shan, which has a complex ecological environment system. This study presents a unique high-resolution (1 km, 6-hourly) air temperature data set for this area from 1979 to 2016 based on a robust statistical downscaling framework. The strongest advantage of this method is its independence of local meteorological stations due to a model internal, vertical lapse rate scheme. This method was validated for other mountains.
Frederik Kratzert, Daniel Klotz, Claire Brenner, Karsten Schulz, and Mathew Herrnegger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6005–6022,Short summary
In this paper, we propose a novel data-driven approach for rainfall–runoff modelling, using the long short-term memory (LSTM) network, a special type of recurrent neural network. We show in three different experiments that this network is able to learn to predict the discharge purely from meteorological input parameters (such as precipitation or temperature) as accurately as (or better than) the well-established Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model, coupled with the Snow-17 snow model.
Ben T. Gouweleeuw, Andreas Kvas, Christian Gruber, Animesh K. Gain, Thorsten Mayer-Gürr, Frank Flechtner, and Andreas Güntner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2867–2880,Short summary
Daily GRACE gravity field solutions have been evaluated against daily river runoff data for major flood events in the Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta in 2004 and 2007. Compared to the monthly gravity field solutions, the trends over periods of a few days in the daily gravity field solutions are able to reflect temporal variations in river runoff during major flood events. This implies that daily gravity field solutions released in near-real time may support flood monitoring for large events.
Stefan Härer, Matthias Bernhardt, Matthias Siebers, and Karsten Schulz
The Cryosphere, 12, 1629–1642,Short summary
The paper presents an approach which can be used to process satellite-based snow cover maps with a higher-than-today accuracy at the local scale. Many of the current satellite-based snow maps are using the NDSI with a threshold as a tool for deciding if there is snow on the ground or not. The presented study has shown that, firstly, using the standard threshold of 0.4 can result in significant derivations at the local scale and that, secondly, the deviations become smaller for coarser scales.
Karsten Schulz, Reinhard Burgholzer, Daniel Klotz, Johannes Wesemann, and Mathew Herrnegger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2607–2613,Short summary
The unit hydrograph has been one of the most widely employed modelling techniques to predict rainfall-runoff behaviour of hydrological catchments. We developed a lecture theatre experiment including some student involvement to illustrate the principles behind this modelling technique. The experiment only uses very simple and cheap material including a set of plastic balls (representing rainfall), magnetic stripes (tacking the balls to the white board) and sieves (for ball/water gauging).
Benjamin Müller, Matthias Bernhardt, Conrad Jackisch, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3765–3775,Short summary
A technology for the spatial derivation of soil texture classes is presented. Information about soil texture is key for predicting the local and regional hydrological cycle. It is needed for the calculation of soil water movement, the share of surface runoff, the evapotranspiration rate and others. Nevertheless, the derivation of soil texture classes is expensive and time-consuming. The presented technique uses soil samples and remotely sensed data for estimating their spatial distribution.
S. Härer, M. Bernhardt, and K. Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 307–321,Short summary
This paper describes a new method to produce spatially and temporally calibrated NDSI-based satellite snow cover maps utilizing simultaneously captured terrestrial photographs as in situ information. First results confirm a high quality of the produced satellite snow cover maps and emphasize the need for calibration of the NDSI threshold value to ensure a high accuracy and reproduciblity. The software "PRACTISE V.2.1" was developed to automatically process the photographs and satellite images.
O. Böhm, J. Jacobeit, R. Glaser, and K.-F. Wetzel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4721–4734,
M. Herrnegger, H. P. Nachtnebel, and K. Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4619–4639,Short summary
Especially in alpine catchments, areal rainfall estimates often exhibit large errors. Runoff measurements are, on the other hand, one of the most robust observations within the hydrological cycle. We therefore calculate mean catchment rainfall by inverting an HBV-type rainfall-runoff model, using runoff observations as input. The inverse model may e.g. be used to analyse rainfall conditions of extreme flood events or estimation of snowmelt contribution.
B. Müller, M. Bernhardt, and K. Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5345–5359,Short summary
We present a method to define hydrological landscape units by a time series of thermal infrared satellite data. Land surface temperature is calculated for 28 images in 12 years for a catchment in Luxembourg. Pattern measures show spatio-temporal persistency; principle component analysis extracts relevant patterns. Functional units represent similar behaving entities based on a representative set of images. Resulting classification and patterns are discussed regarding potential applications.
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, L. Pfister, T. Blume, B. Schröder, M. Westhoff, C. Jackisch, S. J. Schymanski, M. Weiler, K. Schulz, N. Allroggen, J. Tronicke, L. van Schaik, P. Dietrich, U. Scherer, J. Eccard, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4635–4655,
S. Härer, M. Bernhardt, J. G. Corripio, and K. Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 837–848,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven hypersedimentation in the Poechos Reservoir, northern PeruIsotope-derived young water fractions in streamflow across the tropical Andes mountains and Amazon floodplainSeasonal variation and influence factors of river water isotopes in the East Asian monsoon region: A case study in Xiangjiang River basin spanning 13 hydrological yearsAdaptively monitoring streamflow using a stereo computer vision systemTechnical Note: Combining undisturbed soil monoliths for hydrological indoor experimentsSpatial–Seasonal Isotopic Variations in a Surface–Groundwater System in an Extremely Arid Basin and the Associated Hydrogeological IndicationsHydrodynamics of a high Alpine catchment characterized by four natural tracersSeasonal variation and release of soluble reactive phosphorus in an agricultural upland headwater in central GermanyImproving the understanding of N transport in a rural catchment under Atlantic climate conditions from the analysis of the concentration–discharge relationship derived from a high-frequency data setSources and mean transit times of stream water in an intermittent river system: the upper Wimmera River, southeast AustraliaBedrock depth influences spatial patterns of summer baseflow, temperature and flow disconnection for mountainous headwater streamsAgricultural intensification vs. climate change: what drives long-term changes in sediment load?Evaporation from a large lowland reservoir – observed dynamics and drivers during a warm summerComment on “A comparison of catchment travel times and storage deduced from deuterium and tritium tracers using StorAge Selection functions” by Rodriguez et al. (2021)Use of water isotopes and chemistry to infer the type and degree of exchange between groundwater and lakes in an esker complex of northeastern Ontario, CanadaCABra: a novel large-sample dataset for Brazilian catchmentsBenefits from high-density rain gauge observations for hydrological response analysis in a small alpine catchmentHydrologic regimes drive nitrate export behavior in human-impacted watershedsIntensive landscape-scale remediation improves water quality of an alluvial gully located in a Great Barrier Reef catchmentEnvironmental DNA simultaneously informs hydrological and biodiversity characterization of an Alpine catchmentTechnical note: Evaluation of a low-cost evaporation protection method for portable water samplersNew flood frequency estimates for the largest river in Norway based on the combination of short and long time seriesThe pulse of a montane ecosystem: coupling between daily cycles in solar flux, snowmelt, transpiration, groundwater, and streamflow at Sagehen Creek and Independence Creek, Sierra Nevada, USATechnical note: A time-integrated sediment trap to sample diatoms for hydrological tracingDo stream water solute concentrations reflect when connectivity occurs in a small, pre-Alpine headwater catchment?Soil moisture sensor network design for hydrological applicationsCatchment-scale drought: capturing the whole drought cycle using multiple indicatorsField-based estimation and modelling of distributed groundwater recharge in a Mediterranean karst catchment, Wadi Natuf, West BankSurface water as a cause of land degradation from dryland salinityTechnical note: A microcontroller-based automatic rain sampler for stable isotope studiesControls on spatial and temporal variability in streamflow and hydrochemistry in a glacierized catchmentOpen-source Arduino-compatible data loggers designed for field researchWater-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the summer rainfall zone of South AfricaTechnical note: Mapping surface-saturation dynamics with thermal infrared imageryValue of uncertain streamflow observations for hydrological modellingWhy has catchment evaporation increased in the past 40 years? A data-based study in AustriaTechnical note: GUARD – an automated fluid sampler preventing sample alteration by contamination, evaporation and gas exchange, suitable for remote areas and harsh conditionsHydrological processes and permafrost regulate magnitude, source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon export in a peatland catchment of northeastern ChinaExploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)Comment on “Can assimilation of crowdsourced data in hydrological modelling improve flood prediction?” by Mazzoleni et al. (2017)Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, FranceTree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpirationThe potamochemical symphony: new progress in the high-frequency acquisition of stream chemical dataImpact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradientHuman amplified changes in precipitation–runoff patterns in large river basins of the Midwestern United StatesLandscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosureA site-level comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements of evapotranspirationA lab in the field: high-frequency analysis of water quality and stable isotopes in stream water and precipitationHigh-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750Water yield following forest–grass–forest transitions
Anthony Foucher, Sergio Morera, Michael Sanchez, Jhon Orrillo, and Olivier Evrard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3191–3204,Short summary
The current research investigated, as a representative study case, the sediment accumulated in the Poechos Reservoir (located on the west coast of northern Peru) for retrospectively reconstructing the impact on sediment dynamics (1978–2019) of extreme phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, land cover changes after humid periods and agricultural expansion along the riverine system.
Emily I. Burt, Daxs Herson Coayla Rimachi, Adan Julian Ccahuana Quispe, Abra Atwood, and A. Joshua West
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2883–2898,Short summary
Mountains store and release water, serving as water towers for downstream regions and affecting global sediment and carbon fluxes. We use stream and rain chemistry to calculate how much streamflow comes from recent rainfall across seven sites in the Andes mountains and the nearby Amazon lowlands. We find that the type of rock and the intensity of rainfall control water retention and release, challenging assumptions that mountain topography exerts the primary effect on watershed hydrology.
Xiong Xiao, Xinping Zhang, Zhuoyong Xiao, Zhiguo Rao, Xinguang He, and Cicheng Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
For the aim to improve the understanding of seasonal variations in water stable isotopes and catchment hydrological processes, we compared the temporal variations of precipitation and river water isotopes with the hydrometeorological factors in the Xiangjiang River over 13 years. Results showed that the changes in river water isotopes can be a variable that reflects the seasonal variations in local environments and the extreme events, and may provide implications for paleoclimate reconstruction.
Nicholas Reece Hutley, Ryan Beecroft, Daniel Wagenaar, Josh Soutar, Blake Edwards, Nathaniel Deering, Alistair Grinham, and Simon Albert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2051–2073,Short summary
Measuring flows in streams allows us to manage crucial water resources. This work shows the automated application of a dual camera computer vision stream gauging (CVSG) system for measuring streams. Comparing between state-of-the-art technologies demonstrated that camera-based methods were capable of performing within the best available error margins. CVSG offers significant benefits towards improving stream data and providing a safe way for measuring floods while adapting to changes over time.
David Ramler and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1745–1754,Short summary
Undisturbed soil monoliths combine advantages of outdoor and indoor experiments; however, there are often size limitations. A promising approach is the combination of smaller blocks to form a single large monolith. We compared the runoff properties of monoliths cut in half and recombined with uncut blocks. The effect of the combination procedure was negligible compared to the inherent soil heterogeneity, and we conclude that advantages outweigh possible adverse effects.
Yu Zhang, Hongbing Tan, Peixin Cong, Dongping Shi, Wenbo Rao, and Xiying Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Rapid climate warming creates barriers for us to investigate the water resources states. Using stable and radioactive isotopes, we identified the seasonality and spatiality of the water cycle in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Climate warming-humidification accelerates water cycle in alpine area. Precipitation and meltwater infiltrate along active tectonic tunnels to facilitate rapid groundwater recharge. Total water resources may show an initially increasing and then decreasing trend.
Anthony Michelon, Natalie Ceperley, Harsh Beria, Joshua Larsen, Torsten Vennemann, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1403–1430,Short summary
Streamflow generation processes in high-elevation catchments are largely influenced by snow accumulation and melt. For this work, we collected and analyzed more than 2800 water samples (temperature, electric conductivity, and stable isotopes of water) to characterize the hydrological processes in such a high Alpine environment. Our results underline the critical role of subsurface flow during all melt periods and the presence of snowmelt even during the winter periods.
Michael Rode, Jörg Tittel, Frido Reinstorf, Michael Schubert, Kay Knöller, Benjamin Gilfedder, Florian Merensky-Pöhlein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1261–1277,Short summary
Agricultural catchments show elevated phosphorus (P) concentrations during summer low flow. In an agricultural stream, we found that phosphorus in groundwater was a major source of stream water phosphorus during low flow, and stream sediments derived from farmland are unlikely to have increased stream phosphorus concentrations during low water. We found no evidence that riparian wetlands contributed to soluble reactive (SR) P loads. Agricultural phosphorus was largely buffered in the soil zone.
María Luz Rodríguez-Blanco, María Teresa Taboada-Castro, and María Mercedes Taboada-Castro
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1243–1259,Short summary
We examine the N dynamics in an Atlantic headwater catchment in the NW Iberian Peninsula, using high-frequency measurements of NO3 and TKN (total Kjeldahl N) during runoff events. The divergence dynamics observed between N components exemplifies the complexity of and variability in NO3 and TKN processes, highlighting the need to understand dominant hydrological pathways for the development of N-specific management plans to ensure that control measures are most effective at the catchment scale.
Zibo Zhou, Ian Cartwright, and Uwe Morgenstern
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4497–4513,Short summary
Streams may receive water from different sources in their catchment. There is limited understanding of which water stores intermittent streams are connected to. Using geochemistry we show that the intermittent streams in southeast Australia are connected to younger smaller near-river water stores rather than regional groundwater. This makes these streams more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and requires management of the riparian zone for their protection.
Martin A. Briggs, Phillip Goodling, Zachary C. Johnson, Karli M. Rogers, Nathaniel P. Hitt, Jennifer B. Fair, and Craig D. Snyder
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3989–4011,Short summary
The geologic structure of mountain watersheds may control how groundwater and streamwater exchange, influencing where streams dry. We measured bedrock depth at 191 locations along eight headwater streams paired with stream temperature records, baseflow separation and observations of channel dewatering. The data indicated a prevalence of shallow bedrock generally less than 3 m depth, and local variation in that depth can drive stream dewatering but also influence stream baseflow supply.
Shengping Wang, Borbala Szeles, Carmen Krammer, Elmar Schmaltz, Kepeng Song, Yifan Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Günter Blöschl, and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3021–3036,Short summary
This study explored the quantitative contribution of agricultural intensification and climate change to the sediment load of a small agricultural watershed. Rather than a change in climatic conditions, changes in the land structure notably altered sediment concentrations under high-flow conditions, thereby contributing most to the increase in annual sediment loads. More consideration of land structure improvement is required when combating the transfer of soil from land to water.
Femke A. Jansen, Remko Uijlenhoet, Cor M. J. Jacobs, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2875–2898,Short summary
We studied the controls on open water evaporation with a focus on Lake IJssel, the Netherlands, by analysing eddy covariance observations over two summer periods at two locations at the borders of the lake. Wind speed and the vertical vapour pressure gradient can explain most of the variation in observed evaporation, which is in agreement with Dalton's model. We argue that the distinct characteristics of inland waterbodies need to be taken into account when parameterizing their evaporation.
Michael Kilgour Stewart, Uwe Morgenstern, and Ian Cartwright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6333–6338,Short summary
The combined use of deuterium and tritium to determine travel time distributions in streams is an important development in catchment hydrology (Rodriguez et al., 2021). This comment, however, argues that their results do not generally invalidate the truncation hypothesis of Stewart et al. (2010) (i.e. that stable isotopes underestimate travel times through catchments), as they imply, but asserts instead that the hypothesis still applies to many other catchments.
Maxime P. Boreux, Scott F. Lamoureux, and Brian F. Cumming
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6309–6332,Short summary
The investigation of groundwater–lake-water interactions in highly permeable boreal terrain using several indicators showed that lowland lakes are embedded into the groundwater system and are thus relatively resilient to short-term hydroclimatic change, while upland lakes rely more on precipitation as their main water input, making them more sensitive to evaporative drawdown. This suggests that landscape position controls the vulnerability of lake-water levels to hydroclimatic change.
André Almagro, Paulo Tarso S. Oliveira, Antônio Alves Meira Neto, Tirthankar Roy, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3105–3135,Short summary
We have collected and synthesized catchment attributes from multiple sources into an extensive dataset, the Catchment Attributes for Brazil (CABra). CABra contains streamflow and climate daily series for 735 catchments in the 1980–2010 period, aside from dozens of attributes of topography, climate, streamflow, groundwater, soil, geology, land cover, and hydrologic disturbance. The CABra intends to pave the way for a better understanding of catchments' behavior in Brazil and the world.
Anthony Michelon, Lionel Benoit, Harsh Beria, Natalie Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2301–2325,Short summary
Rainfall observation remains a challenge, particularly in mountain environments. Unlike most studies which are model based, this analysis of the rainfall–runoff response of a 13.4 km2 alpine catchment is purely data based and relies on measurements from a network of 12 low-cost rain gauges over 3 months. It assesses the importance of high-density rainfall observations in informing hydrological processes and helps in designing a permanent rain gauge network.
Galen Gorski and Margaret A. Zimmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1333–1345,Short summary
Understanding when, where, and how nitrate is exported from watersheds is the key to addressing the challenges that excess nutrients pose. We analyzed daily nitrate and streamflow data for five nested, agricultural watersheds that export high levels of nitrate over a 4-year time period. Nutrient export patterns varied seasonally during baseflow but were stationary during stormflow. Additionally, anthropogenic and geologic factors drove nutrient export during both baseflow and stormflow.
Nicholas J. C. Doriean, William W. Bennett, John R. Spencer, Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, Joanne M. Burton, Peter R. Teasdale, David T. Welsh, and Andrew P. Brooks
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 867–883,Short summary
Gully erosion is a major contributor to suspended sediment and associated nutrient pollution (e.g. gullies generate approximately 40 % of the sediment pollution impacting the Great Barrier Reef). This study used a new method of monitoring to demonstrate how large-scale earthworks used to remediated large gullies (i.e. eroding landforms > 1 ha) can drastically improve the water quality of connected waterways and, thus, protect vulnerable ecosystems in downstream-receiving waters.
Elvira Mächler, Anham Salyani, Jean-Claude Walser, Annegret Larsen, Bettina Schaefli, Florian Altermatt, and Natalie Ceperley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 735–753,Short summary
In this study, we collected water from an Alpine catchment in Switzerland and compared the genetic information of eukaryotic organisms conveyed by eDNA with the hydrologic information conveyed by naturally occurring hydrologic tracers. At the intersection of two disciplines, our study provides complementary knowledge gains and identifies the next steps to be addressed for using eDNA to achieve complementary insights into Alpine water sources.
Jana von Freyberg, Julia L. A. Knapp, Andrea Rücker, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5821–5834,Short summary
Automated water samplers are often used to collect precipitation and streamwater samples for subsequent isotope analysis, but the isotopic signal of these samples may be altered due to evaporative fractionation occurring during the storage inside the autosamplers in the field. In this article we present and evaluate a cost-efficient modification to the Teledyne ISCO automated water sampler that prevents isotopic enrichment through evaporative fractionation of the water samples.
Kolbjørn Engeland, Anna Aano, Ida Steffensen, Eivind Støren, and Øyvind Paasche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5595–5619,Short summary
We combine systematic, historical, and paleo information to obtain flood information from the last 10 300 years for the Glomma River in Norway. We identify periods with increased flood activity (4000–2000 years ago and the recent 1000 years) that correspond broadly to periods with low summer temperatures and glacier growth. The design floods in Glomma were more than 20 % higher during the 18th century than today. We suggest that trends in flood variability are linked to snow in late spring.
James W. Kirchner, Sarah E. Godsey, Madeline Solomon, Randall Osterhuber, Joseph R. McConnell, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5095–5123,Short summary
Streams and groundwaters often show daily cycles in response to snowmelt and evapotranspiration. These typically have a roughly 6 h time lag, which is often interpreted as a travel-time lag. Here we show that it is instead primarily a phase lag that arises because aquifers integrate their inputs over time. We further show how these cycles shift seasonally, mirroring the springtime retreat of snow cover to higher elevations and the seasonal advance and retreat of photosynthetic activity.
Jasper Foets, Carlos E. Wetzel, Núria Martínez-Carreras, Adriaan J. Teuling, Jean-François Iffly, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4709–4725,Short summary
Diatoms (microscopic algae) are regarded as useful tracers in catchment hydrology. However, diatom analysis is labour-intensive; therefore, only a limited number of samples can be analysed. To reduce this number, we explored the potential for a time-integrated mass-flux sampler to provide a representative sample of the diatom assemblage for a whole storm run-off event. Our results indicate that the Phillips sampler did indeed sample representative communities during two of the three events.
Leonie Kiewiet, Ilja van Meerveld, Manfred Stähli, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3381–3398,Short summary
The sources of stream water are important, for instance, for predicting floods. The connectivity between streams and different (ground-)water sources can change during rain events, which affects the stream water composition. We investigated this for stream water sampled during four events and found that stream water came from different sources. The stream water composition changed gradually, and we showed that changes in solute concentrations could be partly linked to changes in connectivity.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Binru Zhao, and Dawei Han
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2577–2591,Short summary
Soil moisture plays an important role in hydrological modelling. However, most existing in situ observation networks rarely provide sufficient coverage to capture soil moisture variations. Clearly, there is a need to develop a systematic approach, so that with the minimal number of sensors the soil moisture information could be captured accurately. In this study, a simple and low-data requirement method is proposed (WRF, PCA, CA), which can provide very efficient soil moisture estimations.
Abraham J. Gibson, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Greg R. Hancock, and Garry Willgoose
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1985–2002,Short summary
To be better prepared for drought, we need to be able to characterize how they begin, translate to on-ground impacts and how they end. We created a 100-year drought record for an area on the east coast of Australia and compared this with soil moisture and vegetation data. Drought reduces vegetation and soil moisture, but recovery rates are different across different catchments. Our methods can be universally applied and show the need to develop area-specific data to inform drought management.
Clemens Messerschmid, Martin Sauter, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 887–917,Short summary
Recharge assessment in the shared transboundary Western Aquifer Basin is highly relevant, scientifically as well as hydropolitically (in Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations). Our unique combination of field-measured soil characteristics and soil moisture time series with soil moisture saturation excess modelling provides a new basis for the spatial differentiation of formation-specific groundwater recharge (at any scale), applicable also in other previously ungauged basins around the world.
J. Nikolaus Callow, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Ryan I. J. Vogwill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 717–734,Short summary
Secondary dryland salinity is a global land degradation issue. Our understanding of causal processes is adapted from wet and hydrologically connected landscapes and concludes that low end-of-catchment runoff indicates land clearing alters water balance in favour of increased infiltration and rising groundwater that bring salts to the surface causing salinity. This study shows surface flows play an important role in causing valley floor recharge and dryland salinity in low-gradient landscapes.
Nils Michelsen, Gerrit Laube, Jan Friesen, Stephan M. Weise, Ali Bakhit Ali Bait Said, and Thomas Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2637–2645,Short summary
Most commercial automatic rain samplers are costly and do not prevent evaporation from the collection bottles. Hence, we have developed a microcontroller-based collector enabling timer-actuated integral rain sampling. The simple, low-cost device is robust and effectively minimizes post-sampling evaporation. The excellent performance of the collector during an evaporation experiment in a lab oven suggests that even multi-week field deployments in warm climates are feasible.
Michael Engel, Daniele Penna, Giacomo Bertoldi, Gianluca Vignoli, Werner Tirler, and Francesco Comiti
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2041–2063,Short summary
Hydrometric and geochemical dynamics are controlled by interplay of meteorological conditions, topography and geological heterogeneity. Nivo-meteorological indicators (such as global solar radiation, temperature and decreasing snow depth) explain monthly conductivity and isotopic dynamics best. These insights are important for better understanding hydrochemical responses of glacierized catchments under a changing cryosphere.
Andrew D. Wickert, Chad T. Sandell, Bobby Schulz, and Gene-Hua Crystal Ng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2065–2076,Short summary
Measuring Earth's changing environment is a critical part of natural science, but to date most of the equipment to do so is expensive, proprietary, and difficult to customize. We addressed this challenge by developing and deploying the ALog, a low-power, lightweight, Arduino-compatible data logger. We present our hardware schematics and layouts, as well as our customizable code library that operates the ALog and helps users to link it to off-the-shelf sensors.
Bruce C. Scott-Shaw and Colin S. Everson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1553–1565,Short summary
The research undertaken for this study has allowed for an accurate direct comparison of indigenous and introduced tree water use. The measurements of trees growing in the understorey indicate significant water use in the subcanopy layer. The results showed that individual tree water use is largely inter-species specific. The introduced species remain active during the dry winter periods, resulting in their cumulative water use being significantly greater than that of the indigenous species.
Barbara Glaser, Marta Antonelli, Marco Chini, Laurent Pfister, and Julian Klaus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5987–6003,Short summary
We demonstrate how thermal infrared images can be used for mapping the appearance and disappearance of water at the surface. The use of thermal infrared images allows for mapping this appearance and disappearance for various temporal and spatial resolutions, and the images can be understood intuitively. We explain the necessary steps in detail, from image acquisition to final processing, by relying on image examples and experience from an 18-month mapping campaign.
Simon Etter, Barbara Strobl, Jan Seibert, and H. J. Ilja van Meerveld
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5243–5257,Short summary
To evaluate the potential value of streamflow estimates for hydrological model calibration, we created synthetic streamflow datasets in various temporal resolutions based on the errors in streamflow estimates of 136 citizens. Our results show that streamflow estimates of untrained citizens are too inaccurate to be useful for model calibration. If, however, the errors can be reduced by training or filtering, the estimates become useful if also a sufficient number of estimates are available.
Doris Duethmann and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5143–5158,Short summary
We analyze changes in catchment evaporation estimated from the water balances of 156 catchments in Austria over 1977–2014, as well as the possible causes of these changes. Our results show that catchment evaporation increased on average by 29 ± 14 mm yr−1 decade−1. We attribute this increase to changes in atmospheric demand (based on reference and pan evaporation), changes in vegetation (quantified by a satellite-based vegetation index), and changes in precipitation.
Arno Hartmann, Marc Luetscher, Ralf Wachter, Philipp Holz, Elisabeth Eiche, and Thomas Neumann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4281–4293,Short summary
We have developed a new mobile automated water sampling device for environmental research and other applications where waters need to be tested for compliance with environmental/health regulations. It has two main advantages over similar devices: firstly, it injects water samples directly into airtight vials to prevent any change in sample properties through contamination, evaporation and gas exchange. Secondly, it can hold up to 160 sample vials, while other devices only hold up to 24 vials.
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, and Yongzheng Lu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1081–1093,Short summary
The study examined dynamics of DOC export from a permafrost peatland catchment located in northeastern China. The findings indicated that the DOC export is a transport-limited process and the DOC load was significant for the net carbon balance in the studied catchment. The flowpath shift process is key to observed DOC concentration, resources and chemical characteristics in discharge. Permafrost degradation would likely elevate the proportion of microbe-originated DOC in baseflow.
Maurizio Mazzoleni, Vivian Juliette Cortes Arevalo, Uta Wehn, Leonardo Alfonso, Daniele Norbiato, Martina Monego, Michele Ferri, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 391–416,Short summary
We investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of sensors for different scenarios of citizen involvement levels during the flood event occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment in May 2013. We achieve high model performance by integrating crowdsourced data, in particular from citizens motivated by their feeling of belonging to a community. Satisfactory model performance can still be obtained even for decreasing citizen involvement over time.
Daniele P. Viero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 171–177,
Fayçal Rejiba, Cyril Schamper, Antoine Chevalier, Benoit Deleplancque, Gaghik Hovhannissian, Julien Thiesson, and Pierre Weill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 159–170,Short summary
The internal variability of paleomeanders strongly influence water fluxes in alluvial plains. This study presents the results of a hydrogeophysical investigation that provide a very detailed characterization of the geometry of a wide paleomeander. The presented case study, situated in the Seine River basin (France), represents a common sedimentary and geomorphological structure in alluvial plains worldwide.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Paul Floury, Jérôme Gaillardet, Eric Gayer, Julien Bouchez, Gaëlle Tallec, Patrick Ansart, Frédéric Koch, Caroline Gorge, Arnaud Blanchouin, and Jean-Louis Roubaty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6153–6165,Short summary
We present a new prototype
lab in the fieldnamed River Lab (RL) designed for water quality monitoring to perform a complete analysis at sub-hourly frequency of major dissolved species in river water. The article is an analytical paper to present the proof of concept, its performances and improvements. Our tests reveal a significant improvement of reproducibility compared to conventional analysis in the laboratory. First results are promising for understanding the critical zone.
Vladimir P. Shevchenko, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Ivan V. Krickov, Rinat M. Manasypov, Nadezhda V. Politova, Sergey G. Kopysov, Olga M. Dara, Yves Auda, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Valery A. Zemtsov, and Sergey N. Kirpotin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5725–5746,Short summary
We used a coupled hydrological–hydrochemical approach to assess the impact of snow on river and lake water chemistry across a permafrost gradient in very poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), encompassing > 1.5 million km2. The riverine springtime fluxes of major and trace element in WSL rivers might be strongly overestimated due to previously unknown input from the snow deposition.
Sara A. Kelly, Zeinab Takbiri, Patrick Belmont, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5065–5088,Short summary
Humans have profoundly altered land cover and soil drainage for agricultural purposes in the Midwestern USA. Here we investigate whether climate alone can explain recent increases in observed streamflows throughout the region. Using multiple analyses, including statistical tests and water budgets, we conclude that historical drainage installation has likely amplified the streamflow response to regional precipitation increases. We stress that better documentation of artificial drainage is needed.
Andreas Güntner, Marvin Reich, Michal Mikolaj, Benjamin Creutzfeldt, Stephan Schroeder, and Hartmut Wziontek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3167–3182,Short summary
Monitoring water storage changes beyond the point scale is a challenge. Here, we show that an integrative and non-invasive way is by observing variations of gravity that are induced by water mass changes. A high-precision superconducting gravimeter is successfully operated in the field and allows for direct and continuous monitoring of the water balance and of its components, such as actual evapotranspiration.
Martin Hirschi, Dominik Michel, Irene Lehner, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1809–1825,Short summary
We compare lysimeter and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of evapotranspiration at a research catchment in Switzerland. The measurements are compared on various timescales, and with respect to a 40-year long-term lysimeter time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual timescale. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC data during/after rainfall events significantly contributes to an underestimation of EC evapotranspiration.
Jana von Freyberg, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1721–1739,Short summary
We present a newly developed instrument package that enables the online analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion chemistry at 30 min intervals in the field. The resulting data streams provide an unprecedented view of hydrochemical dynamics on the catchment scale. Based on a detailed analysis of the variable behavior of isotopic and chemical tracers in stream water and precipitation over a 4-week period, we developed a conceptual hypothesis for runoff generation in the studied catchment.
Neil Macdonald and Heather Sangster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1631–1650,Short summary
We use historical records to extend current understanding of flood risk, examining past spatial and temporal variability and ask
are the perceived high-magnitude flood events witnessed in recent years really unprecedented?We identify that there are statistically significant relationships between the British flood index and climatic drivers, whereby the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.
Katherine J. Elliott, Peter V. Caldwell, Steven T. Brantley, Chelcy F. Miniat, James M. Vose, and Wayne T. Swank
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 981–997,Short summary
Our long-term results are relevant to land areas that are in pasture and those that have reverted back to forests. We found that within a deciduous forest, species identity matters in terms of how much precipitation leaves the watershed as evapotranspiration versus water yield. We demonstrate that a shift in tree species composition from species with ring-porous xylem to species with diffuse-porous xylem can increase water use, and in turn, produce a long-term reduction in water yield.
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A continuously operating superconducting gravimeter at the Zugspitze summit is introduced to support hydrological studies of the Partnach spring catchment known as the Zugspitze research catchment. The observed gravity residuals reflect total water storage variations at the observation site. Hydro-gravimetric analysis show a high correlation between gravity and the snow water equivalent, with a gravimetric footprint of up to 4 km radius enabling integral insights into this high alpine catchment.
A continuously operating superconducting gravimeter at the Zugspitze summit is introduced to...