Articles | Volume 24, issue 10
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830, 2020

Special issue: Data acquisition and modelling of hydrological, hydrogeological...

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830, 2020

Research article 12 Oct 2020

Research article | 12 Oct 2020

Understanding the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the frozen soil with three levels of model complexities

Lianyu Yu et al.

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Cited articles

Bao, H., Koike, T., Yang, K., Wang, L., Shrestha, M., and Lawford, P.: Development of an enthalpy-based frozen soil model and its validation in a cold region in China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 5259–5280,, 2016. 
Boone, A., Masson, V., Meyers, T., and Noilhan, J.: The Influence of the Inclusion of Soil Freezing on Simulations by a Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 1544–1569,<1544:TIOTIO>2.0.CO;2, 2000. 
Burke, E. J., Jones, C. D., and Koven, C. D.: Estimating the Permafrost-Carbon Climate Response in the CMIP5 Climate Models Using a Simplified Approach, J. Climate, 26, 4897–4909,, 2013. 
Cheng, G. and Wu, T.: Responses of permafrost to climate change and their environmental significance, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 112, F02S03,, 2007. 
Short summary
Soil mass and heat transfer processes were represented in three levels of model complexities to understand soil freeze–thaw mechanisms. Results indicate that coupled mass and heat transfer models considerably improved simulations of the soil hydrothermal regime. Vapor flow and thermal effects on water flow are the main mechanisms for the improvements. Given the explicit consideration of airflow, vapor flow and its effects on heat transfer were enhanced during the freeze–thaw transition period.