Articles | Volume 24, issue 10
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-4813-2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-4813-2020
Research article
 | 
12 Oct 2020
Research article |  | 12 Oct 2020

Understanding the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the frozen soil with three levels of model complexities

Lianyu Yu, Yijian Zeng, and Zhongbo Su

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Latest update: 21 Feb 2024
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Short summary
Soil mass and heat transfer processes were represented in three levels of model complexities to understand soil freeze–thaw mechanisms. Results indicate that coupled mass and heat transfer models considerably improved simulations of the soil hydrothermal regime. Vapor flow and thermal effects on water flow are the main mechanisms for the improvements. Given the explicit consideration of airflow, vapor flow and its effects on heat transfer were enhanced during the freeze–thaw transition period.