Articles | Volume 24, issue 10
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-4813-2020

Special issue: Data acquisition and modelling of hydrological, hydrogeological...

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-4813-2020

Research article 12 Oct 2020

Research article | 12 Oct 2020

Understanding the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the frozen soil with three levels of model complexities

Lianyu Yu et al.

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Latest update: 27 Oct 2021
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Short summary
Soil mass and heat transfer processes were represented in three levels of model complexities to understand soil freeze–thaw mechanisms. Results indicate that coupled mass and heat transfer models considerably improved simulations of the soil hydrothermal regime. Vapor flow and thermal effects on water flow are the main mechanisms for the improvements. Given the explicit consideration of airflow, vapor flow and its effects on heat transfer were enhanced during the freeze–thaw transition period.