Articles | Volume 21, issue 6
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ross scheme, Newton–Raphson iterative methods and time-stepping strategies for solving the mixed form of Richards' equation
Fadji Hassane Maina
Laboratoire d'Hydrologie et de Géochimie de Strasbourg, Univ. Strasbourg/EOST – CNRS, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg, France
CEA-Laboratoire de Modélisation des Transferts dans l'Environnement, Bât. 225, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex, France
Laboratoire d'Hydrologie et de Géochimie de Strasbourg, Univ. Strasbourg/EOST – CNRS, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg, France
No articles found.
Nolwenn Lesparre, Sylvain Pasquet, and Philippe Ackerer
Vertical maps of seismic velocity reflect variations of the subsurface porosity. We use such images to design the geometry of subsurface compartments delimited by velocity thresholds. The obtained patterns are inserted in a hydrogeological model to test the influence of: random geometries, velocity thresholds and hydraulic parameters on data estimated from the model: the depth of the groundwater and magnetic resonance sounding, a geophysical method sensitive to the subsurface water content.
Dimitri Rambourg, Raphaël Di Chiara, and Philippe Ackerer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 6147–6162,Short summary
The reproduction of flows and contaminations underground requires a good estimation of the parameters of the geological environment (mainly permeability and porosity), in three dimensions. While most researchers rely on geophysical methods, which are costly and difficult to implement in the field, this study proposes an alternative using data that are already widely available: piezometric records (monitoring of the water table) and the lithological description of the piezometric wells.
Kouamé Auguste Kouassi, William Francis Kouassi, Oi Mangoua Jules Mangoua, Philippe Ackerer, Gountôh Aristide Douagui, and Issiaka Savané
Proc. IAHS, 384, 49–56,Short summary
La caractérisation des aquifères est importante pour la compréhension des eaux souterraines. La modélisation hydrodynamique par approche inverse se présente comme une solution appropriée pour déterminer un paramètre hydrodynamique tel que la transmissivité sur l'ensemble d'une nappe. Les valeurs de transmissivité identifiées dans ce travail présentent une bonne structure dans l'ensemble en comparaison des champs de transmissivités publiées dans des études en Afrique et dans le monde.
Jean-Pierre Vergnes, Nicolas Roux, Florence Habets, Philippe Ackerer, Nadia Amraoui, François Besson, Yvan Caballero, Quentin Courtois, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Pierre Etchevers, Nicolas Gallois, Delphine J. Leroux, Laurent Longuevergne, Patrick Le Moigne, Thierry Morel, Simon Munier, Fabienne Regimbeau, Dominique Thiéry, and Pascal Viennot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 633–654,Short summary
The AquiFR hydrogeological modelling platform aims to provide short-term-to-seasonal hydrological forecasts over France for daily water management and long-term simulations for climate impact studies. The results described in this study confirm the feasibility of gathering independent groundwater models into the same numerical tool. This new tool encourages the development of groundwater modelling, and it has the potential to be valuable for many operational and research applications.
Anis Younes, Thierry Mara, Marwan Fahs, Olivier Grunberger, and Philippe Ackerer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2263–2275,Short summary
The estimation of flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil is essential for quantifying groundwater resources or pollution. Usual column laboratory experiments and a new method are analyzed using a global sensitivity analysis. The data sets are composed of water pressure and water content measured inside the column and water flow rate and solute BTC measured at the outflow. Non-invasive methods (using flow rate and BTC only) provide comparable results than usual invasive methods.
Related subject area
Subject: Vadose Zone Hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesModelling groundwater recharge, actual evaporation, and transpiration in semi-arid sites of the Lake Chad basin: the role of soil and vegetation in groundwater rechargePredicting soil hydraulic properties for binary mixtures – concept and application for constructed TechnosolsApplication of an improved distributed hydrological model based on the soil–gravel structure in the Niyang River basin, Qinghai–Tibet PlateauAssessment of the interactions between soil–biosphere–atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model soil hydrology, using four closed-form soil water relationships and several lysimetersSoil–vegetation–water interactions controlling solute flow and chemical weathering in volcanic ash soils of the high AndesEstimating vadose zone water fluxes from soil water monitoring data: a comprehensive field study in AustriaSemi-continuum modeling of unsaturated porous media flow to explain Bauters' paradoxEffects of dynamic changes of desiccation cracks on preferential flow: experimental investigation and numerical modelingNumerical assessment of morphological and hydraulic properties of moss, lichen and peat from a permafrost peatlandA robust upwind mixed hybrid finite element method for transport in variably saturated porous mediaStepping beyond perfectly mixed conditions in soil hydrological modelling using a Lagrangian approachUsing machine learning to predict optimal electromagnetic induction instrument configurations for characterizing the shallow subsurfaceGravity as a tool to improve the hydrologic mass budget in karstic areasA scaling procedure for straightforward computation of sorptivityFrom hydraulic root architecture models to macroscopic representations of root hydraulics in soil water flow and land surface modelsSimulated or measured soil moisture: which one is adding more value to regional landslide early warning?Interaction of soil water and groundwater during the freezing–thawing cycle: field observations and numerical modelingAssessing the dynamics of soil salinity with time-lapse inversion of electromagnetic data guided by hydrological modellingSimulation of reactive solute transport in the critical zone: a Lagrangian model for transient flow and preferential transportInvestigating the impact of exit effects on solute transport in macroporous mediaComparison of root water uptake models in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes and growth of wheatUnderstanding the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the frozen soil with three levels of model complexitiesA field-validated surrogate crop model for predicting root-zone moisture and salt content in regions with shallow groundwaterCharacterizing uncertainty in the hydraulic parameters of oil sands mine reclamation covers and its influence on water balance predictionsSimulating preferential soil water flow and tracer transport using the Lagrangian Soil Water and Solute Transport ModelAssessment of simulated soil moisture from WRF Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM land surface schemes for landslide hazard applicationEfficient estimation of effective hydraulic properties of stratal undulating surface layer using time-lapse multi-channel GPRPartitioning snowmelt and rainfall in the critical zone: effects of climate type and soil propertiesA unique vadose zone model for shallow aquifers: the Hetao irrigation district, ChinaModelling of shallow water table dynamics using conceptual and physically based integrated surface-water–groundwater hydrologic modelsCapturing soil-water and groundwater interactions with an iterative feedback coupling scheme: new HYDRUS package for MODFLOWCaffeine vs. carbamazepine as indicators of wastewater pollution in a karst aquiferPredicting the soil water retention curve from the particle size distribution based on a pore space geometry containing slit-shaped spacesTechnical note: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and textural heterogeneity of soilsWater ages in the critical zone of long-term experimental sites in northern latitudesEcohydrological particle model based on representative domainsImpact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yieldsSoil hydraulic material properties and layered architecture from time-lapse GPRRoot growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditionsUsing lagged dependence to identify (de)coupled surface and subsurface soil moisture valuesShallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistributionShallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertaintyA pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic propertiesMonitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawaterEffect of unrepresented model errors on estimated soil hydraulic material propertiesSaturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soilsFeasibility analysis of using inverse modeling for estimating field-scale evapotranspiration in maize and soybean fields from soil water content monitoring networksA case study of field-scale maize irrigation patterns in western Nebraska: implications for water managers and recommendations for hyper-resolution land surface modelingBenchmarking test of empirical root water uptake modelsiCRESTRIGRS: a coupled modeling system for cascading flood–landslide disaster forecasting
Christoph Neukum, Angela Morales-Santos, Melanie Ronelngar, Aminu Bala, and Sara Vassolo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3601–3619,Short summary
A generalized approach that requires limited field data and well-established models is tested for assessing groundwater recharge in the southern Lake Chad basin. E and T coefficients are estimated with the FAO-dual Kc concept at six locations. Measured soil water content and chloride concentrations along vertical soil profiles together with different scenarios for E and T partitioning and a Bayesian calibration approach are used to simulate water flow and chloride transport using Hydrus-1D.
Moreen Willaredt, Thomas Nehls, and Andre Peters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3125–3142,Short summary
This study proposes a model to predict soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) of constructed Technosols for urban greening. The SHPs are determined by the Technosol composition and describe their capacity to store and supply water to plants. The model predicts SHPs of any binary mixture based on the SHPs of its two pure components, facilitating simulations of flow and transport processes before production. This can help create Technosols designed for efficient urban greening and water management.
Pengxiang Wang, Zuhao Zhou, Jiajia Liu, Chongyu Xu, Kang Wang, Yangli Liu, Jia Li, Yuqing Li, Yangwen Jia, and Hao Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2681–2701,Short summary
Considering the impact of the special geological and climatic conditions of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau on the hydrological cycle, this study established the WEP-QTP hydrological model. The snow cover and gravel layers affected the temporal and spatial changes in frozen soil and improved the regulation of groundwater on the flow process. Ignoring he influence of special underlying surface conditions has a great impact on the hydrological forecast and water resource utilization in this area.
Antoine Sobaga, Bertrand Decharme, Florence Habets, Christine Delire, Noële Enjelvin, Paul-Olivier Redon, Pierre Faure-Catteloin, and Patrick Le Moigne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2437–2461,Short summary
Seven instrumented lysimeters are used to assess the simulation of the soil water dynamic in one land surface model. Four water potential and hydraulic conductivity closed-form equations, including one mixed form, are evaluated. One form is more relevant for simulating drainage, especially during intense drainage events. The soil profile heterogeneity of one parameter of the closed-form equations is shown to be important.
Sebastián Páez-Bimos, Armando Molina, Marlon Calispa, Pierre Delmelle, Braulio Lahuatte, Marcos Villacís, Teresa Muñoz, and Veerle Vanacker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1507–1529,Short summary
This study analyzes how vegetation influences soil hydrology, water fluxes, and chemical weathering rates in the high Andes. There are clear differences in the A horizon. The extent of soil chemical weathering varies depending on vegetation type. This difference is attributed mainly to the water fluxes. Our findings reveal that vegetation can modify soil properties in the uppermost horizon, altering the water balance, solutes, and chemical weathering throughout the entire soil profile.
Marleen Schübl, Giuseppe Brunetti, Gabriele Fuchs, and Christine Stumpp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1431–1455,Short summary
Estimating groundwater recharge through the unsaturated zone is a difficult task that is fundamentally associated with uncertainties. One of the few methods available is inverse modeling based on soil water measurements. Here, we used a nested sampling algorithm within a Bayesian probabilistic framework to assess model uncertainties at 14 sites in Austria. Further, we analyzed simulated recharge rates to identify factors influencing groundwater recharge rates and their temporal variability.
Jakub Kmec, Miloslav Šír, Tomáš Fürst, and Rostislav Vodák
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1279–1300,Short summary
When rain falls on the ground, most of the water subsequently flows through the soil. The movement of water through the partially wet soil layer is surprisingly complicated. For decades, no mathematical model has been able to capture this process in its entire complexity. Here, we present a model that aims to solve this long-standing problem. In this paper, we show that the model correctly reproduces the transition between diffusion and preferential flow regimes.
Yi Luo, Jiaming Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Juan P. Aguilar-Lopez, Roberto Greco, and Thom Bogaard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 783–808,Short summary
This paper describes an experiment and modeling of the hydrological response of desiccation cracks under long-term wetting–drying cycles. We developed a new dynamic dual-permeability model to quantify the dynamic evolution of desiccation cracks and associated preferential flow and moisture distribution. Compared to other models, the dynamic dual-permeability model could describe the experimental data much better, but it also provided an improved description of the underlying physics.
Simon Cazaurang, Manuel Marcoux, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey V. Loiko, Artem G. Lim, Stéphane Audry, Liudmila S. Shirokova, and Laurent Orgogozo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 431–451,Short summary
Moss, lichen and peat samples are reconstructed using X-ray tomography. Most samples can be cut down to a representative volume based on porosity. However, only homogeneous samples could be reduced to a representative volume based on hydraulic conductivity. For heterogeneous samples, a devoted pore network model is computed. The studied samples are mostly highly porous and water-conductive. These results must be put into perspective with compressibility phenomena occurring in field tests.
Anis Younes, Hussein Hoteit, Rainer Helmig, and Marwan Fahs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5227–5239,Short summary
Despite its advantages for the simulation of flow in heterogeneous and fractured porous media, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been rarely used for transport as it suffers from strong unphysical oscillations. We develop here a new upwind scheme for the mixed hybrid finite element that can avoid oscillations. Numerical examples confirm the robustness of this new scheme for the simulation of contaminant transport in both saturated and unsaturated conditions.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Brian Berkowitz, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1615–1629,Short summary
We present a (physically based) Lagrangian approach to simulate diffusive mixing processes on the pore scale beyond perfectly mixed conditions. Results show the feasibility of the approach for reproducing measured mixing times and concentrations of isotopes over pore sizes and that typical shapes of breakthrough curves (normally associated with non-uniform transport in heterogeneous soils) may also occur as a result of imperfect subscale mixing in a macroscopically homogeneous soil matrix.
Kim Madsen van't Veen, Ty Paul Andrew Ferré, Bo Vangsø Iversen, and Christen Duus Børgesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 55–70,Short summary
Geophysical instruments are often used in hydrological surveys. A geophysical model that couples electrical conductivity in the subsurface layers with measurements from an electromagnetic induction instrument was combined with a machine learning algorithm. The study reveals that this combination can estimate the identifiability of electrical conductivity in a layered soil and provide insight into the best way to configure the instrument for a specific field site.
Tommaso Pivetta, Carla Braitenberg, Franci Gabrovšek, Gerald Gabriel, and Bruno Meurers
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6001–6021,Short summary
Gravimetry offers a valid complement to classical hydrologic measurements in order to characterize karstic systems in which the recharge process causes fast accumulation of large water volumes in the voids of the epi-phreatic system. In this contribution we show an innovative integration of gravimetric and hydrologic observations to constrain a hydrodynamic model of the Škocjan Caves (Slovenia). We demonstrate how the inclusion of gravity observations improves the water mass budget estimates.
Laurent Lassabatere, Pierre-Emmanuel Peyneau, Deniz Yilmaz, Joseph Pollacco, Jesús Fernández-Gálvez, Borja Latorre, David Moret-Fernández, Simone Di Prima, Mehdi Rahmati, Ryan D. Stewart, Majdi Abou Najm, Claude Hammecker, and Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5083–5104,Short summary
Soil sorptivity is a crucial parameter for the modeling of water infiltration into soils. The standard equation used to compute sorptivity from the soil water retention curve, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and initial and final water contents may lead to erroneous estimates due to its complexity. This study proposes a new straightforward scaling procedure for estimations of sorptivity for four famous and commonly used hydraulic models.
Jan Vanderborght, Valentin Couvreur, Felicien Meunier, Andrea Schnepf, Harry Vereecken, Martin Bouda, and Mathieu Javaux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4835–4860,Short summary
Root water uptake is an important process in the terrestrial water cycle. How this process depends on soil water content, root distributions, and root properties is a soil–root hydraulic problem. We compare different approaches to implementing root hydraulics in macroscopic soil water flow and land surface models.
Adrian Wicki, Per-Erik Jansson, Peter Lehmann, Christian Hauck, and Manfred Stähli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4585–4610,Short summary
Soil moisture information was shown to be valuable for landslide prediction. Soil moisture was simulated at 133 sites in Switzerland, and the temporal variability was compared to the regional occurrence of landslides. We found that simulated soil moisture is a good predictor for landslides, and that the forecast goodness is similar to using in situ measurements. This encourages the use of models for complementing existing soil moisture monitoring networks for regional landslide early warning.
Hong-Yu Xie, Xiao-Wei Jiang, Shu-Cong Tan, Li Wan, Xu-Sheng Wang, Si-Hai Liang, and Yijian Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4243–4257,Short summary
Freezing-induced groundwater migration and water table decline are widely observed, but quantitative understanding of these processes is lacking. By considering wintertime atmospheric conditions and occurrence of lateral groundwater inflow, a model coupling soil water and groundwater reproduced field observations of soil temperature, soil water content, and groundwater level well. The model results led to a clear understanding of the balance of the water budget during the freezing–thawing cycle.
Mohammad Farzamian, Dario Autovino, Angelo Basile, Roberto De Mascellis, Giovanna Dragonetti, Fernando Monteiro Santos, Andrew Binley, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1509–1527,Short summary
Soil salinity is a serious threat in numerous arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Given this threat, efficient field assessment methods are needed to monitor the dynamics of soil salinity in salt-affected lands efficiently. We demonstrate that rapid and non-invasive geophysical measurements modelled by advanced numerical analysis of the signals and coupled with hydrological modelling can provide valuable information to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil salinity over large areas.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Julian Klaus, Brian Berkowitz, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1483–1508,Short summary
The key innovation of the study is a method to simulate reactive solute transport in the vadose zone within a Lagrangian framework. We extend the LAST-Model with a method to account for non-linear sorption and first-order degradation processes during unsaturated transport of reactive substances in the matrix and macropores. Model evaluations using bromide and pesticide data from irrigation experiments under different flow conditions on various timescales show the feasibility of the method.
Jérôme Raimbault, Pierre-Emmanuel Peyneau, Denis Courtier-Murias, Thomas Bigot, Jaime Gil Roca, Béatrice Béchet, and Laurent Lassabatère
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 671–683,Short summary
Contaminant transport in soils is known to be affected by soil heterogeneities such as macropores. The transport properties of heterogeneous porous media can be studied in laboratory columns. However, the results reported in this study (a combination of breakthrough experiments, magnetic resonance imaging and computer simulations of transport) show that these properties can be largely affected by the boundary devices of the columns, thus highlighting the need to take their effect into account.
Thuy Huu Nguyen, Matthias Langensiepen, Jan Vanderborght, Hubert Hüging, Cho Miltin Mboh, and Frank Ewert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4943–4969,Short summary
The mechanistic Couvreur root water uptake (RWU) model that is based on plant hydraulics and links root system properties to RWU, water stress, and crop development can evaluate the impact of certain crop properties on crop performance in different environments and soils, while the Feddes RWU approach does not possess such flexibility. This study also shows the importance of modeling root development and how it responds to water deficiency to predict the impact of water stress on crop growth.
Lianyu Yu, Yijian Zeng, and Zhongbo Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4813–4830,Short summary
Soil mass and heat transfer processes were represented in three levels of model complexities to understand soil freeze–thaw mechanisms. Results indicate that coupled mass and heat transfer models considerably improved simulations of the soil hydrothermal regime. Vapor flow and thermal effects on water flow are the main mechanisms for the improvements. Given the explicit consideration of airflow, vapor flow and its effects on heat transfer were enhanced during the freeze–thaw transition period.
Zhongyi Liu, Zailin Huo, Chaozi Wang, Limin Zhang, Xianghao Wang, Guanhua Huang, Xu Xu, and Tammo Siert Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4213–4237,Short summary
We have developed an integrated surrogate model for arid irrigated areas with shallow groundwater that links crop growth with soil water and salinity in the vadose zone. The model recognizes that field capacity is reached when the matric potential is equal to the height above the groundwater table. The model applies areas with shallow groundwater for which only very few surrogate models are available for most surface irrigation systems in the world without suffering from high groundwater.
M. Shahabul Alam, S. Lee Barbour, and Mingbin Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 735–759,Short summary
This study quantifies uncertainties in the prediction of long-term water balance for mine reclamation soil covers using random sampling of model parameter distributions. Parameter distributions were obtained from model optimization for field monitoring data. Variability in climate is a greater source of uncertainty than the model parameters in evaporation predictions, while climate variability and model parameters exert similar uncertainty on predictions of net percolation.
Alexander Sternagel, Ralf Loritz, Wolfgang Wilcke, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4249–4267,Short summary
We present our hydrological LAST-Model to simulate preferential soil water flow and tracer transport in macroporous soils. It relies on a Lagrangian perspective of the movement of discrete water particles carrying tracer masses through the subsoil and is hence an alternative approach to common models. Sensitivity analyses reveal the physical validity of the model concept and evaluation tests show that LAST can depict well observed tracer mass profiles with fingerprints of preferential flow.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Dawei Han, Ningsheng Chen, and Binru Zhao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4199–4218,Short summary
This study assesses the usability of WRF model-simulated soil moisture for landslide monitoring in northern Italy. In particular, three advanced land surface model schemes (Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM4) are used to provide multi-layer soil moisture data. The results have shown Noah-MP can provide the best landslide monitoring performance. It is also demonstrated that a single soil moisture sensor located in plain area has a high correlation with a significant proportion of the study area.
Xicai Pan, Stefan Jaumann, Jiabao Zhang, and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3653–3663,Short summary
This study suggests an efficient approach to obtain plot-scale soil hydraulic properties for the shallow structural soils via non-invasive ground-penetrating radar measurements. Facilitated by spatial information of lateral water flow, this approach is more efficient than the widely used inversion approaches relying on intensive soil moisture monitoring. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of great interest to fields such as hydrology and precision agriculture.
John C. Hammond, Adrian A. Harpold, Sydney Weiss, and Stephanie K. Kampf
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3553–3570,Short summary
Streamflow in high-elevation and high-latitude areas may be vulnerable to snow loss, making it important to quantify how snowmelt and rainfall are divided between soil storage, drainage below plant roots, evapotranspiration and runoff. We examine this separation in different climates and soils using a physically based model. Results show runoff may be reduced with snowpack decline in all climates. The mechanisms responsible help explain recent observations of streamflow sensitivity to snow loss.
Zhongyi Liu, Xingwang Wang, Zailin Huo, and Tammo Siert Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3097–3115,Short summary
A novel approach is taken in simulating the hydrology of the vadose zone in areas with shallow groundwater. The model recognizes that field capacity is reached when the matric potential is equal to the height above the groundwater table. The model can be used in areas with shallow groundwater to optimize irrigation water use and minimize tailwater losses.
Mohammad Bizhanimanzar, Robert Leconte, and Mathieu Nuth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2245–2260,Short summary
Modelling of shallow water table fluctuations is usually carried out using physically based numerical models. These models have notable limitations regarding intensive required data and computational burden. This paper presents an alternative modelling approach for modelling of such cases by introducing modifications to the calculation of groundwater recharge and saturated flow of a conceptual hydrologic model.
Jicai Zeng, Jinzhong Yang, Yuanyuan Zha, and Liangsheng Shi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 637–655,Short summary
Accurately capturing the soil-water–groundwater interaction is vital for all disciplines related to subsurface flow but is difficult when undergoing significant nonlinearity in the modeling system. A new soil-water flow package is developed to solve the switching-form Richards’ equation. A multi-scale water balance analysis joins unsaturated–saturated models at separated scales. The whole system is solved efficiently with an iterative feedback coupling scheme.
Noam Zach Dvory, Yakov Livshitz, Michael Kuznetsov, Eilon Adar, Guy Gasser, Irena Pankratov, Ovadia Lev, and Alexander Yakirevich
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6371–6381,Short summary
This research is paramount given the significance of karst aquifers as essential drinking water sources. While CBZ is considered conservative, CAF is subject to sorption and degradation, and therefore each of these two pollutants can be considered effective tracers for specific assessment of aquifer contamination. The model presented in this paper shows how each of the mentioned contaminants could serve as a better tool for aquifer contamination characterization and its treatment.
Chen-Chao Chang and Dong-Hui Cheng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4621–4632,Short summary
The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is fundamental to researching water flow and chemical transport in unsaturated media. However, the traditional prediction models underestimate the water content in the dry range of the SWRC. A method was therefore proposed to improve the estimation of the SWRC using a pore model containing slit-shaped spaces. The results show that the predicted SWRCs using the improved method reasonably approximated the measured SWRCs.
Carlos García-Gutiérrez, Yakov Pachepsky, and Miguel Ángel Martín
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3923–3932,Short summary
Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is an important soil parameter that highly depends on soil's particle size distribution (PSD). The nature of this dependency is explored in this work in two ways, (1) by using the information entropy as a heterogeneity parameter of the PSD and (2) by using descriptions of PSD in forms of textural triplets, different than the usual description in terms of the triplet of sand, silt, and clay contents.
Matthias Sprenger, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Jim Buttle, Hjalmar Laudon, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3965–3981,Short summary
We estimated water ages in the upper critical zone with a soil physical model (SWIS) and found that the age of water stored in the soil, as well as of water leaving the soil via evaporation, transpiration, or recharge, was younger the higher soil water storage (inverse storage effect). Travel times of transpiration and evaporation were different. We conceptualized the subsurface into fast and slow flow domains and the water was usually half as young in the fast as in the slow flow domain.
Conrad Jackisch and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3639–3662,Short summary
We present a Lagrangian model for non-uniform soil water dynamics. It handles 2-D diffusion (based on a spatial random walk and implicit pore space redistribution) and 1-D advection in representative macropores (as film flow with dynamic interaction with the soil matrix). The interplay between the domains is calculated based on an energy-balance approach which does not require any additional parameterisation. Model tests give insight into the evolution of the non-uniform infiltration patterns.
Joop Kroes, Iwan Supit, Jos van Dam, Paul van Walsum, and Martin Mulder
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2937–2952,Short summary
Impact of upward flow by capillary rise and recirculation on crop yields is often neglected or underestimated. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of this upward flow in the Dutch delta. Neglecting upward flow results in yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes. Half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions; the other half from increased upward capillary rise.
Stefan Jaumann and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2551–2573,Short summary
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive measurement method to monitor the hydraulic processes precisely and efficiently. We analyze synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site and show that the analysis yields accurate estimates for the soil hydraulic material properties as well as for the subsurface architecture by comparing the results to references derived from time domain reflectometry (TDR) and subsurface architecture ground truth data.
Gaochao Cai, Jan Vanderborght, Matthias Langensiepen, Andrea Schnepf, Hubert Hüging, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2449–2470,Short summary
Different crop growths had consequences for the parameterization of root water uptake models. The root hydraulic parameters of the Couvreur model but not the water stress parameters of the Feddes–Jarvis model could be constrained by the field data measured from rhizotron facilities. The simulated differences in transpiration from the two soils and the different water treatments could be confirmed by sap flow measurements. The Couvreur model predicted the ratios of transpiration fluxes better.
Coleen D. U. Carranza, Martine J. van der Ploeg, and Paul J. J. F. Torfs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2255–2267,Short summary
Remote sensing has been popular for mapping surface soil moisture. However, estimating subsurface values using surface soil moisture remains a challenge, as decoupling can occur. Depth-integrated soil moisture values used in hydrological models are affected by vertical variability. Using statistical methods, we investigate vertical variability between the surface (5 cm) and subsurface (40 cm) to quantify decoupling. We also discuss potential controls for decoupling during wet and dry conditions.
Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Claire Lauvernet, and Nadia Carluer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 53–70,Short summary
Seasonal shallow water tables (WTs) in lowlands limit vegetation-buffer efficiency to control runoff pollution. Mechanistic models are needed to quantify true field efficiency. A new simplified algorithm for soil infiltration over WTs is tested against reference models and lab data showing WT effects depend on local settings but are negligible after 2 m depth. The algorithm is coupled to a complete vegetation buffer model in a companion paper to analyze pesticide and sediment control in situ.
Claire Lauvernet and Rafael Muñoz-Carpena
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 71–87,Short summary
Vegetation buffers, often placed in lowlands to control runoff pollution, can exhibit limited efficiency due to seasonal shallow water tables (WTs). A new shallow water table infiltration algorithm developed in a companion paper is coupled to a complete vegetation buffer model to quantify pesticide and sediment control in the field. We evaluated the model on two field experiments in France with and without WT conditions and show WTs can control efficiency depending on land and climate settings.
Tobias Karl David Weber, Sascha Christian Iden, and Wolfgang Durner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6185–6200,
Yonatan Ganot, Ran Holtzman, Noam Weisbrod, Ido Nitzan, Yoram Katz, and Daniel Kurtzman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4479–4493,Short summary
We monitor infiltration at multiple scales during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, while groundwater recharge is evaluated by simplified and numerical models. We found that pond-surface clogging is negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers of the unsaturated zone. We show that a numerical model with a 1-D representative sediment profile is able to capture infiltration and recharge dynamics.
Stefan Jaumann and Kurt Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4301–4322,Short summary
We investigate the quantitative effect of neglected sensor position, small-scale heterogeneity, and lateral flow on soil hydraulic material properties. Thus, we analyze a fluctuating water table experiment in a 2-D architecture (ASSESS) with increasingly complex studies based on time domain reflectometry and hydraulic potential data. We found that 1-D studies may yield biased parameters and that estimating sensor positions as well as small-scale heterogeneity improves the model significantly.
Joseph Alexander Paul Pollacco, Trevor Webb, Stephen McNeill, Wei Hu, Sam Carrick, Allan Hewitt, and Linda Lilburne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2725–2737,Short summary
Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as soil moisture release curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, we developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). We further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structural soils.
Foad Foolad, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, Justin Gibson, Ayse Kilic, Richard G. Allen, and Andrew Suyker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1263–1277,Short summary
Estimates of evapotranspiration are vital for validation of models. However, those datasets are often limited to research applications. Here, we explore using vadose zone modeling with widespread and readily available soil water content monitoring networks. While this work focused on one agricultural site, the framework can be used everywhere there is basic data. The resulting evapotranspiration and soil water content measurements are valuable benchmarks for evaluation of land surface models.
Justin Gibson, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, John Gates, Patricio Grassini, Haishun Yang, and Dean Eisenhauer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1051–1062,Short summary
The human use of water for irrigation is often ignored in models and operational forecasts. We describe four plausible and relatively simple irrigation routines that can be coupled to the next generation of models. The routines are tested against a unique irrigation dataset from western Nebraska. The most aggressive water-saving irrigation routine indicates a potential irrigation savings of 120 mm yr−1 and yield losses of less than 3 % against the crop model benchmark and historical averages.
Marcos Alex dos Santos, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, Jos C. van Dam, and Andre Herman Freire Bezerra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 473–493,Short summary
Some empirical root water uptake (RWU) models were assessed under varying environmental conditions predicted from numerical simulations with a detailed physical model. The widely used empirical RWU model by Feddes only performs well in scenarios of low RWU compensation. The RWU model by Jarvis cannot mimic the RWU patterns predicted by the physical model for high root length density scenarios. The two proposed models are more capable of predicting similar RWU patterns.
Ke Zhang, Xianwu Xue, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Ning Lu, Zhanming Wan, Zhen Hong, and Rick Wooten
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 5035–5048,Short summary
We developed a new approach to couple a distributed hydrological model, CREST, to a geotechnical landslide model, TRIGRS, to simulate both flood- and rainfall-triggered landslide hazards. By implementing more sophisticated and realistic representations of hydrological processes in the coupled model system, it shows better performance than the standalone landslide model in the case study. It highlights the important physical connection between rainfall, hydrological processes and slope stability.
Bause, M. and Knabner, P.: Computation of variably saturated subsurface flow by adaptive mixed hybrid finite element methods, Adv. Water Resour., 27, 565–581, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2004.03.005, 2004.
Belfort, B., Younes, A., Fahs, M., and Lehmann, F.: On equivalent hydraulic conductivity for oscillation–free solutions of Richard's equation, J. Hydrol., 505, 202–217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.09.047, 2013.
Bergamaschi, L. and Putti, M.: Mixed finite elements and Newton-type linearizations for the solution of Richards' equation, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 45, 1025–1046, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(19990720), 1999.
Bouchemella, S., Seridi, A., and Alimi-Ichola, I.: Numerical simulation of water flow in unsaturated soils: comparative study of different forms of Richards's equation, Eur. J. Environ. Civ. Eng. 19, 1–26, https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2014.926294, 2015.
Celia, M. A., Bouloutas, E. T., and Zarba, R. L.: A general mass-conservative numerical solution for the unsaturated flow equation, Water Resour. Res., 26, 1483–1496, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR026i007p01483, 1990.
Clark, M. P., Fan, Y., Lawrence, D. M., Adam, J. C., Bolster, D., Gochis, D. J., Hooper, R. P., Kumar, M., Leung, L. R., Mackay, D. S., Maxwell, R. M., Shen, C., Swenson, S. C., and Zeng, X.: Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5929–5956, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017096, 2015.
Crevoisier, D., Chanzy, A., and Voltz, M.: Evaluation of the Ross fast solution of Richards' equation in unfavourable conditions for standard finite element methods, Adv. Water Resour. 32, 936–947, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2009.03.008, 2009.
Diersch, H.-J. G. and Perrochet, P.: On the primary variable switching technique for simulating unsaturated–saturated flows, Adv. Water Resour., 23, 271–301, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(98)00057-8, 1999.
El Kadi, A. I. and Ling, G.: The Courant and Peclet Number criteria for the numerical solution of the Richards Equation, Water Resour. Res., 29, 3485–3494, https://doi.org/10.1029/93WR00929, 1993.
Fahs, M., Younes, A., and Lehmann, F.: An easy and efficient combination of the Mixed Finite Element Method and the Method of Lines for the resolution of Richards' Equation, Environ. Model. Softw., 24, 1122–1126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.02.010, 2009.
Farthing, M. W., Kees, C. E., and Miller, C. T.: Mixed finite element methods and higher order temporal approximations for variably saturated groundwater flow, Adv. Water Resour., 26, 373–394, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00187-2, 2003.
Feddes, R. A., Kabat, P., Van Bakel, P. J. T., Bronswijk, J. J. B., and Halbertsma, J.: Modelling soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone – State of the art, J. Hydrol., 100, 69–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(88)90182-5, 1988.
Forsyth, P. A., Wu, Y. S., and Pruess, K.: Robust numerical methods for saturated-unsaturated flow with dry initial conditions in heterogeneous media, Adv. Water Resour., 18, 25–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1708(95)00020-J, 1995.
Gottardi, G. and Venutelli, M.: UPF: two-dimensional finite-element groundwater flow model for saturated–unsaturated soils, Comput. Geosci., 27, 179–189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-3004(00)00082-0, 2001.
Hills, R. G., Porro, I., Hudson, D. B., and Wierenga, P. J.: Modeling one-dimensional infiltration into very dry soils: 1. Model development and evaluation, Water Resour. Res., 25, 1259–1269, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR025i006p01259, 1989.
Hirthe, E. M. and Graf, T.: Non-iterative adaptive time-stepping scheme with temporal truncation error control for simulating variable-density flow, Adv. Water Resour., 49, 46–55, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.07.021, 2012.
Kavetski, D. and Binning, P.: Adaptive backward Euler time stepping with truncation error control for numerical modelling of unsaturated fluid flow, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 53, 1301–1322, https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.329, 2002a.
Kavetski, D. and Binning, P.: Noniterative time stepping schemes with adaptive truncation error control for the solution of Richards equation, Water Resour. Res., 38, 29:1–29:19, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001WR000720, 2002b.
Kavetski, D. and Binning, P.: Truncation error and stability analysis of iterative and non-iterative Thomas–Gladwell methods for first-order non-linear differential equations, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 60, 2031–2043, https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.1035, 2004.
Kavetski, D., Binning, P., and Sloan, S. W.: Adaptive time stepping and error control in a mass conservative numerical solution of the mixed form of Richards equation, Adv. Water Resour., 24, 595–605, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(00)00076-2, 2001.
Kirkland, M. R., Hills, R. G., and Wierenga, P. J.: Algorithms for solving Richards' equation for variably saturated soils, Water Resour. Res., 28, 2049–2058, 1992.
Lehmann, F. and Ackerer, P.: Comparison of Iterative Methods for Improved Solutions of the Fluid Flow Equation in Partially Saturated Porous Media, Transp. Porous Media, 31, 275–292, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006555107450, 1998.
Matthews, C. J., Braddock, R. D., and Sander, G. C.: Modeling flow through a one-dimensional multi-layered soil profile using the Method of Lines, Environ. Model. Assess., 9, 103–113, 2004.
Miller, C. T., Williams, G. A., Kelley, C. T., and Tocci, M. D.: Robust solution of Richards' equation for nonuniform porous media, Water Resour. Res., 34, 2599–2610, https://doi.org/10.1029/98WR01673, 1998.
Miller, C. T., Abhishek, C., and Farthing, M. W.: A spatially and temporally adaptive solution of Richards' equation, Adv. Water Resour., 29, 525–545, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.06.008, 2006.
Mualem, Y.: A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media, Water Resour. Res., 12, 513–522, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR012i003p00513, 1976.
Paniconi, C. and Putti, M.: A comparison of Picard and Newton iteration in the numerical solution of multidimensional variably saturated flow problems, Water Resour. Res., 30, 3357–3374, https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR02046, 1994.
Paniconi, C., Aldama, A. A., and Wood, E. F.: Numerical evaluation of iterative and noniterative methods for the solution of the nonlinear Richards equation, Water Resour. Res., 27, 1147–1163, 1991.
Rathfelder, K. and Abriola, L. M.: Mass conservative numerical solutions of the head-based Richards equation, Water Resour. Res., 30, 2579–2586, https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR01302, 1994.
Richards, L. A.: Capillary conduction of liquids through porous medium, J. Appl. Phys., 1, 318–333, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1745010, 1931.
Romano, N., Brunone, B., and Santini, A.: Numerical analysis of one-dimensional unsaturated flow in layered soils, Adv. Water Resour., 21, 315–324, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00059-0, 1998.
Ross, P. J.: Modeling Soil Water and Solute Transport–Fast, Simplified Numerical Solutions, Agron. J., 95, 1352, https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2003.1352, 2003.
Ross, P. J. and Bristow, K. L.: Simulating Water Movement in Layered and Gradational Soils Using the Kirchhoff Transform, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54, 1519, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1990.03615995005400060002x, 1990.
Thomas, R. M. and Gladwell, I.: Variable-order variable-step algorithms for second-order systems, Part 1: The methods, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 26, 39–53, 1988.
Tocci, M. D., Kelley, C. T., and Miller, C. T.: Accurate and economical solution of the pressure-head form of Richards' equation by the method of lines, Adv. Water Resour., 20, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00008-5, 1997.
van Dam, J. C. and Feddes, R. A.: Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow groundwater levels with the Richards equation, J. Hydrol., 233, 72–85, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00227-4, 2000.
van Genuchten, M. T.: A Closed-form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils1, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44, 892, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400050002x, 1980.
Varado, N., Braud, I., and Ross, P. J.: Development and assessment of an efficient vadose zone module solving the 1D Richards' equation and including root extraction by plants, J. Hydrol., 323, 258–275, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.015, 2006a.
Varado, N., Braud, I., Ross, P. J., and Haverkamp, R.: Assessment of an efficient numerical solution of the 1D Richards' equation on bare soil, J. Hydrol., 323, 244–257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.07.052, 2006b.
Vergnes, J. P., Decharme, B., Alkama, R., Martin, E., Habets, F., Douville, H.: A simple groundwater scheme for hydrological and climate applications: Description and offline evaluation over France, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1149–1171, 2012.
Williams, G. A., Miller, C. T., and Kelley, C. T.: Transformation approaches for simulating flow in variably saturated porous media, Water Resour. Res., 36, 923–934, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999WR900349, 2000.
Zha, Y., Shi, L., Ye, M., and Yang, J.: A generalized Ross method for two- and three-dimensional variably saturated flow, Adv. Water Resour., 54, 67–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.01.002, 2013.
Zha, Y., Tso, M. C.-H., Shi, L., and Yang, J.: Comparison of Non iterative Algorithms Based on Different Forms of Richards' Equation, Environ. Model. Assess., 21, 357–370, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-015-9467-1, 2015.
In many fields like climate change, hydrology and agronomy, water movement in unsaturated soils is usually simulated using the Richards equation. However, this equation requires lot of computational effort to be solved due to its highly nonlinear behavior, which hampers its use in simulations. In this paper, we analyze and developed some numerical strategies and we evaluate their reliability and efficiency.
In many fields like climate change, hydrology and agronomy, water movement in unsaturated soils...