Articles | Volume 22, issue 5
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2669–2688, 2018
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2669–2688, 2018

Research article 07 May 2018

Research article | 07 May 2018

A simple temperature-based method to estimate heterogeneous frozen ground within a distributed watershed model

Michael L. Follum et al.

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Cited articles

Aldrich Jr., H. P.: Frost penetration below highway and airfield pavements, Highway Research Board Bulletin, 135, 124–149, 1956. 
Allen, R. G., Walter, I. A., Elliott, R., Howell, T., Itenfisu, D., and Jensen, M.: The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation, ASCE, New York, 2005. 
Anderson, E. A.: National Weather Service River Forecast System – Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model, Technical Memorandum NWS Hydro-17, November 1973, 217 pp., Silver Spring, Maryland, 1973. 
Anderson, E. A.: A Point Energy and Mass Balance Model of a Snow Cover, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Technical Report NWS 9, Silver Spring, Maryland, 1976. 
Anderson, E. A.: Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model – SNOW-17, NWSRFS User Documentation, U.S. National Weather Service, Silver Springs, MD, 2006. 
Short summary
Spatial patterns of snow and frozen ground within watersheds can impact the volume and timing of runoff. Commonly used snow and frozen ground simulation methods were modified to better account for the effects of topography and land cover on the spatial patterns of snow and frozen ground. When tested using a watershed in Vermont the modifications resulted in more accurate temporal and spatial simulation of both snow and frozen ground.