Spatio-temporal variability of snow water equivalent in the extra-tropical Andes Cordillera from distributed energy balance modeling and remotely sensed snow cover
- 1Advanced Mining Technology Center, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
- 2Department of Geography and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
- 3Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
- 4Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Abstract. Seasonal snow cover is the primary water source for human use and ecosystems along the extratropical Andes Cordillera. Despite its importance, relatively little research has been devoted to understanding the properties, distribution and variability of this natural resource. This research provides high-resolution (500 m), daily distributed estimates of end-of-winter and spring snow water equivalent over a 152 000 km2 domain that includes the mountainous reaches of central Chile and Argentina. Remotely sensed fractional snow-covered area and other relevant forcings are combined with extrapolated data from meteorological stations and a simplified physically based energy balance model in order to obtain melt-season melt fluxes that are then aggregated to estimate the end-of-winter (or peak) snow water equivalent (SWE). Peak SWE estimates show an overall coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68 and RMSE of 274 mm compared to observations at 12 automatic snow water equivalent sensors distributed across the model domain, with R2 values between 0.32 and 0.88. Regional estimates of peak SWE accumulation show differential patterns strongly modulated by elevation, latitude and position relative to the continental divide. The spatial distribution of peak SWE shows that the 4000–5000 m a.s.l. elevation band is significant for snow accumulation, despite having a smaller surface area than the 3000–4000 m a.s.l. band. On average, maximum snow accumulation is observed in early September in the western Andes, and in early October on the eastern side of the continental divide. The results presented here have the potential of informing applications such as seasonal forecast model assessment and improvement, regional climate model validation, as well as evaluation of observational networks and water resource infrastructure development.