Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
Research article 03 Jan 2012
Research article | 03 Jan 2012
A multi-source satellite data approach for modelling Lake Turkana water level: calibration and validation using satellite altimetry data
N. M. Velpuri et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Rivers and Lakes | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesA global algorithm for identifying changing streamflow regimes: application to Canadian natural streams (1966–2010)Streamflow drought: implication of drought definitions and its application for drought forecastingQuantifying floodwater impacts on a lake water budget via volume-dependent transient stable isotope mass balanceRiver runoff in Switzerland in a changing climate – changes in moderate extremes and their seasonalityRiver runoff in Switzerland in a changing climate – runoff regime changes and their time of emergenceMachine-learning methods for stream water temperature predictionBathymetry and latitude modify lake warming under iceLake thermal structure drives interannual variability in summer anoxia dynamics in a eutrophic lake over 37 yearsReservoir evaporation in a Mediterranean climate: comparing direct methods in Alqueva Reservoir, PortugalDiverging hydrological drought traits over Europe with global warmingAnthropogenic influence on the Rhine water temperaturesA new form of the Saint-Venant equations for variable topographySimulations of future changes in thermal structure of Lake Erken: proof of concept for ISIMIP2b lake sector local simulation strategyAssessment of the geomorphic effectiveness of controlled floods in a braided river using a reduced-complexity numerical modelWorldwide lake level trends and responses to background climate variationModeling inorganic carbon dynamics in the Seine River continuum in FranceA data-based predictive model for spatiotemporal variability in stream water qualityFlooding in the Mekong Delta: the impact of dyke systems on downstream hydrodynamicsReconstruction of the 1941 GLOF process chain at Lake Palcacocha (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)Historical modelling of changes in Lake Erken thermal conditionsImproving lake mixing process simulations in the Community Land Model by using K profile parameterizationUpgraded global mapping information for earth system modelling: an application to surface water depth at the ECMWFSediment transport modelling in riverine environments: on the importance of grain-size distribution, sediment density, and suspended sediment concentrations at the upstream boundaryReplication of ecologically relevant hydrological indicators following a modified covariance approach to hydrological model parameterizationLidar-based approaches for estimating solar insolation in heavily forested streamsNumerical study on the response of the largest lake in China to climate changeUnraveling the hydrological budget of isolated and seasonally contrasted subtropical lakesFuture projections of temperature and mixing regime of European temperate lakesConservative finite-volume forms of the Saint-Venant equations for hydrology and urban drainageModelling Lake Titicaca's daily and monthly evaporationPrincipal components of thermal regimes in mountain river networksModelling the water balance of Lake Victoria (East Africa) – Part 1: Observational analysisModelling the water balance of Lake Victoria (East Africa) – Part 2: Future projectionsBreeze effects at a large artificial lake: summer case studyImpacts of changing hydrology on permanent gully growth: experimental resultsExtrapolating regional probability of drying of headwater streams using discrete observations and gauging networksPassive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noiseCan riparian vegetation shade mitigate the expected rise in stream temperatures due to climate change during heat waves in a human-impacted pre-alpine river?Tributaries affect the thermal response of lakes to climate changeParameter sensitivity analysis of a 1-D cold region lake model for land-surface schemesResponse of water temperatures and stratification to changing climate in three lakes with different morphometryImpacts of changes in groundwater recharge on the isotopic composition and geochemistry of seasonally ice-covered lakes: insights for sustainable managementModel simulations of potential contribution of the proposed Huangpu Gate to flood control in the Lake Taihu basin of ChinaConsistent initial conditions for the Saint-Venant equations in river network modelingCan spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?Climate and basin drivers of seasonal river water temperature dynamicsExamining the impacts of precipitation isotope input (δ18Oppt) on distributed, tracer-aided hydrological modellingSeasonal thermal regime and climatic trends in lakes of the Tibetan highlandsThe internal seiche field in the changing South Aral Sea (2006–2013)A practical approach to lake water density from electrical conductivity and temperature
Masoud Zaerpour, Shadi Hatami, Javad Sadri, and Ali Nazemi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5193–5217,Short summary
Streamflow regimes are changing globally particularly in cold regions. We develop a novel algorithm for detecting shifting streamflow regimes using changes in first and second moments of ensemble streamflow features. This algorithm is generic and can be used globally. To showcase its application, we assess alterations in Canadian natural streams from 1966 to 2010 to provide the first temporally consistent, pan-Canadian assessment of change in natural streamflow regimes, coast to coast to coast.
Samuel J. Sutanto and Henny A. J. Van Lanen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3991–4023,Short summary
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the differences within streamflow droughts derived using different identification approaches, namely the variable threshold, fixed threshold, and the Standardized Streamflow Index, including an analysis of both historical drought and implications for forecasting. Our results clearly show that streamflow droughts derived from different approaches deviate from each other in terms of drought occurrence, timing, duration, and deficit volume.
Janie Masse-Dufresne, Florent Barbecot, Paul Baudron, and John Gibson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3731–3757,Short summary
A volume-dependent transient isotopic mass balance model was developed for an artificial lake in Canada, in a context where direct measurements of surface water fluxes are difficult. It revealed that floodwater inputs affected the dynamics of the lake in spring but also significantly influenced the long-term water balance due to temporary subsurface storage of floodwater. Such models are paramount for understanding the vulnerability of lakes to changes in groundwater quantity and quality.
Regula Muelchi, Ole Rössler, Jan Schwanbeck, Rolf Weingartner, and Olivia Martius
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3577–3594,Short summary
This study analyses changes in magnitude, frequency, and seasonality of moderate low and high flows for 93 catchments in Switzerland. In lower-lying catchments (below 1500 m a.s.l.), moderate low-flow magnitude (frequency) will decrease (increase). In Alpine catchments (above 1500 m a.s.l.), moderate low-flow magnitude (frequency) will increase (decrease). Moderate high flows tend to occur more frequent, and their magnitude increases in most catchments except some Alpine catchments.
Regula Muelchi, Ole Rössler, Jan Schwanbeck, Rolf Weingartner, and Olivia Martius
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3071–3086,Short summary
Runoff regimes in Switzerland will change significantly under climate change. Projected changes are strongly elevation dependent with earlier time of emergence and stronger changes in high-elevation catchments where snowmelt and glacier melt play an important role. The magnitude of change and the climate model agreement on the sign increase with increasing global mean temperatures and stronger emission scenarios. This amplification highlights the importance of climate change mitigation.
Moritz Feigl, Katharina Lebiedzinski, Mathew Herrnegger, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2951–2977,Short summary
In this study we developed machine learning approaches for daily river water temperature prediction, using different data preprocessing methods, six model types, a range of different data inputs and 10 study catchments. By comparing to current state-of-the-art models, we could show a significant improvement of prediction performance of the tested approaches. Furthermore, we could gain insight into the relationships between model types, input data and predicted stream water temperature.
Cintia L. Ramón, Hugo N. Ulloa, Tomy Doda, Kraig B. Winters, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1813–1825,Short summary
When solar radiation penetrates the frozen surface of lakes, shallower zones underneath warm faster than deep interior waters. This numerical study shows that the transport of excess heat to the lake interior depends on the lake circulation, affected by Earth's rotation, and controls the lake warming rates and the spatial distribution of the heat flux across the ice–water interface. This work contributes to the understanding of the circulation and thermal structure patterns of ice-covered lakes.
Robert Ladwig, Paul C. Hanson, Hilary A. Dugan, Cayelan C. Carey, Yu Zhang, Lele Shu, Christopher J. Duffy, and Kelly M. Cobourn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1009–1032,Short summary
Using a modeling framework applied to 37 years of dissolved oxygen time series data from Lake Mendota, we identified the timing and intensity of thermal energy stored in the lake water column, the lake's resilience to mixing, and surface primary production as the most important drivers of interannual dynamics of low oxygen concentrations at the lake bottom. Due to climate change, we expect an increase in the spatial and temporal extent of low oxygen concentrations in Lake Mendota.
Carlos Miranda Rodrigues, Madalena Moreira, Rita Cabral Guimarães, and Miguel Potes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5973–5984,Short summary
In Mediterranean environments, evaporation is a key component of reservoir water budgets. Prediction of surface evaporation becomes crucial for adequate reservoir water management. This study provides an applicable method for calculating evaporation based on pan measurements applied at Alqueva Reservoir (southern Portugal), one of the largest artificial lakes in Europe. Moreover, the methodology presented here could be applied to other Mediterranean reservoirs.
Carmelo Cammalleri, Gustavo Naumann, Lorenzo Mentaschi, Bernard Bisselink, Emiliano Gelati, Ad De Roo, and Luc Feyen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5919–5935,Short summary
Climate change is anticipated to alter the demand and supply of water at the earth's surface. This study shows how hydrological droughts will change across Europe with increasing global warming levels, showing that at 3 K global warming an additional 11 million people and 4.5 ×106 ha of agricultural land will be exposed to droughts every year, on average. These effects are mostly located in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of Europe.
Alex Zavarsky and Lars Duester
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5027–5041,Short summary
River water temperature is an important parameter for water quality and an important variable for physical, chemical and biological processes. River water is also used as a cooling agent by power plants and production facilities. We study long-term trends in river water temperature and correlate them to meteorological influences and power production or economic indices.
Cheng-Wei Yu, Ben R. Hodges, and Frank Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4001–4024,Short summary
This study investigates the effects of bottom slope discontinuity on the stability of numerical solutions for the Saint-Venant equations. A new reference slope concept is proposed to ensure smooth source terms and eliminate potential numerical oscillations. It is shown that a simple algebraic transformation of channel geometry provides a smooth reference slope while preserving the correct cross-sectional flow area and the piezometric pressure gradient that drives the flow.
Ana I. Ayala, Simone Moras, and Donald C. Pierson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3311–3330,Short summary
The impacts of different levels of global warming on the thermal structure of Lake Erken are assessed. We used the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) to simulate water temperature driven by meteorological scenarios supplied by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) and tested its ability at different frequencies. Then, daily ISIMIP meteorological scenarios were disaggregated and assessed for the effects of climate change on lake thermal structure.
Luca Ziliani, Nicola Surian, Gianluca Botter, and Luca Mao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3229–3250,Short summary
Although geomorphic recovery is a key issue in many rivers worldwide, controlled floods have been rarely designed using geomorphological criteria. An integrated approach is used to assess the effects of different controlled-flood scenarios in a strongly regulated river. None of the controlled-flood strategies provide significant morphological benefits. Nevertheless, this study represents a significant contribution for the management and restoration of highly disturbed rivers.
Benjamin M. Kraemer, Anton Seimon, Rita Adrian, and Peter B. McIntyre
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2593–2608,Short summary
Lake levels go up and down due to natural variability in the climate. But the effects of natural variability on lake levels can sometimes be confused for the influence of humans. Here we used long-term data from 200 globally distributed lakes and an advanced statistical approach to show that the effects of natural variability on lake levels can be disentangled from other effects leading to better estimates of long-term changes that may be partially caused by humans.
Audrey Marescaux, Vincent Thieu, Nathalie Gypens, Marie Silvestre, and Josette Garnier
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2379–2398,Short summary
Rivers have been recognized as an active part of the carbon cycle where transformations are associated with CO2 outgassing. To understand it, we propose a modeling approach with the biogeochemical model, pyNuts-Riverstrahler. We implemented it on the human-impacted Seine River. Sources of carbon to the river were characterized by field measurements in groundwater and in wastewater. Outgassing was the most important in streams, and peaks were simulated downstream of wastewater treatment effluent.
Danlu Guo, Anna Lintern, J. Angus Webb, Dongryeol Ryu, Ulrike Bende-Michl, Shuci Liu, and Andrew William Western
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 827–847,Short summary
This study developed predictive models to represent the spatial and temporal variation of stream water quality across Victoria, Australia. The model structures were informed by a data-driven approach, which identified the key controls of water quality variations from long-term records. These models are helpful to identify likely future changes in water quality and, in turn, provide critical information for developing management strategies to improve stream water quality.
Vo Quoc Thanh, Dano Roelvink, Mick van der Wegen, Johan Reyns, Herman Kernkamp, Giap Van Vinh, and Vo Thi Phuong Linh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 189–212,Short summary
The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) is a rice bowl of not only Vietnam, but also the world; agriculture is the main source of livelihood in the delta. The VMD is facing threats related to water management and hydraulic structures. Dykes are built to protect agricultural crops in the floodplains and may influence water regimes downstream in the VMD. If the VMD floodplains are completely protected by dykes, yearly mean water levels could increase by 3 cm (at Can Tho) and 1.5 cm (at My Thuan).
Martin Mergili, Shiva P. Pudasaini, Adam Emmer, Jan-Thomas Fischer, Alejo Cochachin, and Holger Frey
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 93–114,Short summary
In 1941, the glacial lagoon Lake Palcacocha in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) drained suddenly. The resulting outburst flood/debris flow consumed another lake and had a disastrous impact on the town of Huaraz 23 km downstream. We reconstuct this event through a numerical model to learn about the possibility of prediction of similar processes in the future. Remaining challenges consist of the complex process interactions and the lack of experience due to the rare occurrence of such process chains.
Simone Moras, Ana I. Ayala, and Don C. Pierson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5001–5016,Short summary
We used a hydrodynamic model to reconstruct daily historical water temperature of Lake Erken (Sweden) between 1961 and 2017 to demonstrate the ongoing effect of climate change on lake thermal conditions. The results show that the lake has warmed most rapidly in the last 30 years and that it is now subject to a longer and more stable stratification. The methods used here to reconstruct historical water temperature records can be easily extended to other lakes.
Qunhui Zhang, Jiming Jin, Xiaochun Wang, Phaedra Budy, Nick Barrett, and Sarah E. Null
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4969–4982,Short summary
We improved lake mixing process simulations by applying a vertical mixing scheme, K profile parameterization (KPP), in the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5, developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The current vertical mixing scheme in CLM requires an arbitrarily enlarged eddy diffusivity to enhance water mixing. The coupled CLM-KPP considers a boundary layer for eddy development. The improved lake model provides an important tool for lake hydrology and ecosystem studies.
Margarita Choulga, Ekaterina Kourzeneva, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Souhail Boussetta, and Nils Wedi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4051–4076,Short summary
Lakes influence weather and climate of regions, especially if several of them are located close by. Just by using upgraded lake depths, based on new or more recent measurements and geological methods of depth estimation, errors of lake surface water forecasts produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts became 12–20 % lower compared with observations for 27 lakes collected by the Finnish Environment Institute. For ice-off date forecasts errors changed insignificantly.
Jérémy Lepesqueur, Renaud Hostache, Núria Martínez-Carreras, Emmanuelle Montargès-Pelletier, and Christophe Hissler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3901–3915,Short summary
This article evaluates the influence of sediment representation in a sediment transport model. A short-term simulation is used to assess how far changing the sediment characteristics in the modelling experiment changes riverbed evolution and sediment redistribution during a small flood event. The study shows in particular that representing sediment with extended grain-size and grain-density distributions allows for improving model accuracy and performances.
Annie Visser-Quinn, Lindsay Beevers, and Sandhya Patidar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3279–3303,Short summary
The ecological impact of changes in river flow may be explored through the simulation of ecologically relevant flow indicators. Traditional approaches to model parameterization are not well-suited for this. To this end, this paper considers the ability of a
modified covariance approach, applied to five hydrologically diverse catchments. An overall improvement in consistency is observed, whilst timing and rate of change represent the best and worst replicated indicators respectively.
Jeffrey J. Richardson, Christian E. Torgersen, and L. Monika Moskal
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2813–2822,Short summary
High stream temperatures can be detrimental to the survival of aquatic species such as endangered salmon. Stream temperatures can be reduced by shade provided by trees in riparian areas. Two lidar-based methods were effective at assessing stream shading. These methods can be used in place of expensive field measurements.
Dongsheng Su, Xiuqing Hu, Lijuan Wen, Shihua Lyu, Xiaoqing Gao, Lin Zhao, Zhaoguo Li, Juan Du, and Georgiy Kirillin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2093–2109,Short summary
In this study, freshwater lake model simulation results, verified by satellite and buoy observation data, were used to quantify recent climate change effects on the thermal regime of the largest lake in China. Results indicate that the FLake model can reproduce the lake thermal pattern nicely. The lake surface is warming, while the lake bottom has no significant trend. Climate change also caused an earlier ice-off and later ice-on, leading to an obvious change in the energy balance of the lake.
Chloé Poulin, Bruno Hamelin, Christine Vallet-Coulomb, Guinbe Amngar, Bichara Loukman, Jean-François Cretaux, Jean-Claude Doumnang, Abdallah Mahamat Nour, Guillemette Menot, Florence Sylvestre, and Pierre Deschamps
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1705–1724,Short summary
This study investigates the water budget of two intertropical lake systems in the absence of long-term hydrological monitoring. By coupling dry season isotopic data with satellite imagery, we were able to provide quantitative constrains on the hydrological balance and show that these two lake systems can be considered miniature analogs of Lake Chad, making them important targets in the future setup of any large-scale program on the hydro-climatic evolution in the Sahel region.
Tom Shatwell, Wim Thiery, and Georgiy Kirillin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1533–1551,Short summary
We used models to project future temperature and mixing in temperate lakes. Lakes will probably warm faster in winter than in summer, making ice less frequent and altering mixing. We found that the layers that form seasonally in lakes (ice, stratification) and water clarity affect how lakes accumulate heat. Seasonal changes in climate were thus important. This helps us better understand how different lake types respond to warming and which physical changes to expect in the future.
Ben R. Hodges
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1281–1304,Short summary
A new derivation of the equations for one-dimensional open-channel flow in rivers and storm drainage systems has been developed. The new approach solves some long-standing problems for obtaining well-behaved solutions with conservation forms of the equations. This research was motivated by the need for highly accurate models of large-scale river networks and the storm drainage systems in megacities. Such models are difficult to create with existing equation forms.
Ramiro Pillco Zolá, Lars Bengtsson, Ronny Berndtsson, Belen Martí-Cardona, Frederic Satgé, Franck Timouk, Marie-Paule Bonnet, Luis Mollericon, Cesar Gamarra, and José Pasapera
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 657–668,Short summary
The evaporation was computed at a daily time step and compared with the estimated evaporation using mean monthly meteorological observations. We found that the most reliable method of determining the annual lake evaporation is using the heat balance approach.
Daniel J. Isaak, Charles H. Luce, Gwynne L. Chandler, Dona L. Horan, and Sherry P. Wollrab
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6225–6240,Short summary
Description of thermal regimes in flowing waters is key to understanding physical processes and improving bioassessments, but has been limited by sparse data sets. Using a large annual temperature data set from a mountainous area of the western U.S., we explored thermal regimes using principle component analysis. A small number of summary metrics adequately represented most of the variation in this data set given strong temporal coherence among sites.
Inne Vanderkelen, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, and Wim Thiery
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5509–5525,Short summary
Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and one of the two major sources of the Nile river. The water level of Lake Victoria is determined by its water balance, consisting of lake precipitation and evaporation, inflow from rivers and lake outflow, controlled by two hydropower dams. Here, we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria, which closely represents the observed lake levels. The model results highlight the sensitivity of the lake level to human operations at the dam.
Inne Vanderkelen, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, and Wim Thiery
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5527–5549,Short summary
Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and one of the major sources of the Nile River, which is controlled by two hydropower dams. In this paper we estimate the potential consequences of climate change for future water level fluctuations of Lake Victoria. Our results reveal that the operating strategies at the dam are the main controlling factors of future lake levels and that regional climate simulations used in the projections encompass large uncertainties.
Maksim Iakunin, Rui Salgado, and Miguel Potes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5191–5210,Short summary
Lakes and reservoirs can affect local weather regimes but usually it is difficult to trace and assess it. In this work we used the Meso-NH atmospheric model to study the impact of the Alqueva reservoir, one of the largest artificial lakes in western Europe, located in the southeast of Portugal, on meteorological parameters and the formation of a lake breeze system. The magnitude of this impact as well as the intensity of the breeze are shown in the paper.
Stephanie S. Day, Karen B. Gran, and Chris Paola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3261–3273,Short summary
Permanent gullies are deep steep-sided channels that erode as water falls over the upstream end. Erosion of these features is a concern where people and climate change have altered how water moves over the land. This paper analyzes a set of experiments that were used to determine how changing gully flows impact erosion. We found that while increasing the volume of water will increase erosion, changing the flow rate into gullies will not impact the total erosion, but will alter gully shape.
Aurélien Beaufort, Nicolas Lamouroux, Hervé Pella, Thibault Datry, and Eric Sauquet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3033–3051,Short summary
Streams which may stop flowing are poorly gauged. To improve their characterisation, we use an extended network providing monthly visual observations stating whether streams are flowing or not across France. These observations are combined with discharge and groundwater level in models to predict daily regional probability of drying. This approach allows identification of the most impacted regions by flow intermittence and estimation of the probability of drying dynamics over the last 27 years.
Teodor Petrut, Thomas Geay, Cédric Gervaise, Philippe Belleudy, and Sebastien Zanker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 767–787,Short summary
Our interest is focused on developing the hydrophone technique to estimate the size of particles transported in rivers. The analytic spectral solution of the impact between rigid particles is used to model the power spectrum of a sediment mixture, or the sediment-generated noise. Estimations of grain size distributions in the Isère River using real measured spectra are successfully validated by the physical sampling techniques. Moreover, the grain size sorting process is revealed by acoustics.
Heidelinde Trimmel, Philipp Weihs, David Leidinger, Herbert Formayer, Gerda Kalny, and Andreas Melcher
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 437–461,Short summary
In eastern Austria, where air temperature rise is double that recorded globally, stream temperatures of a human-impacted river were simulated during heat waves, as calculated by regional climate models until 2100. An increase of up to 3 °C was predicted – thus exceeding thresholds of resident cold-adapted species. Vegetation management scenarios showed that adding vegetation can reduce both absolute temperatures and its rate of increase but is not able to fully mitigate the expected rise.
Love Råman Vinnå, Alfred Wüest, Massimiliano Zappa, Gabriel Fink, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 31–51,Short summary
Responses of inland waters to climate change vary on global and regional scales. Shifts in river discharge regimes act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing water temperature. The extent of this effect on warming is controlled by the change in river discharge and lake hydraulic residence time. A shift of deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter can potentially counteract the otherwise negative climate effects on deep-water oxygen content.
José-Luis Guerrero, Patricia Pernica, Howard Wheater, Murray Mackay, and Chris Spence
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6345–6362,Short summary
Lakes are sentinels of climate change, and an adequate characterization of their feedbacks to the atmosphere could improve climate modeling. These feedbacks, as heat fluxes, can be simulated but are seldom measured, casting doubt on modeling results. Measurements from a small lake in Canada established that the model parameter modulating how much light penetrates the lake dominates model response. This parameter is measurable: improved monitoring could lead to more robust modeling.
Madeline R. Magee and Chin H. Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6253–6274,Short summary
Water temperatures and stratification in three morphometrically different lakes over the century are examined. Simulations showed that epilimnetic temperatures increased, hypolimnetic temperatures decreased, the length of the stratified season increased due to earlier stratification onset and later fall overturn, and stability increased. Results showed that wind speed has a large effect on temperature and stratification variables, sometimes greater than changes in air temperature.
Marie Arnoux, Florent Barbecot, Elisabeth Gibert-Brunet, John Gibson, and Aurélie Noret
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5875–5889,Short summary
Future climate and recharge change scenarios are tested on lake hydrological balances to simulate changes in lake isotopic signature and water quality. Results highlight that lake water evolution depends mainly on the location and the intensity of recharge changes. Lake water isotopic composition appears to be particularly sensitive to future changes in recharge for lakes with between 50 % and 80 % of groundwater in their total inflows.
Hanghui Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Jianchun Ye, and Pat J.-F. Yeh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5339–5355,Short summary
The Huangpu River, an important river of the basin connecting Lake Taihu upstream and the Yangtze River estuary downstream, drains two-fifths of the entire basin. Constructing an estuary gate is considered an effective solution for flood mitigation. The main objective of this paper is to assess the potential contributions of the proposed Huangpu Gate to the flood control capacity of the basin. Results of quantitative analyses show that the Huangpu Gate is effective at evacuating floodwaters.
Cheng-Wei Yu, Frank Liu, and Ben R. Hodges
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4959–4972,Short summary
This research proposes a new method for determining efficient and effective synthetic initial conditions for an unsteady model using the Saint-Venant equations for a large river network. The proposed method increases the efficiency of initial condition convergence up to 3700 times. This can not only help the hydrology research move from empirically based to mechanistic-based models for large river networks but also provide a computationally effective approach for initial conditions for modelers.
Faye L. Jackson, Robert J. Fryer, David M. Hannah, and Iain A. Malcolm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4727–4745,Short summary
River temperature (Tw) is important to fish populations, but one cannot monitor everywhere. Thus, models are used to predict Tw, sometimes in rivers with no data. To date, the accuracy of these predictions has not been determined. We found that models including landscape predictors (e.g. altitude, tree cover) could describe spatial patterns in Tw in other rivers better than those including air temperature. Such findings are critical for developing Tw models that have management application.
Cédric L. R. Laizé, Cristian Bruna Meredith, Michael J. Dunbar, and David M. Hannah
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3231–3247,Short summary
Stream temperature controls many river processes, making it vital to know how climate affects it. Climate and stream temperatures at 35 British sites and associated basin properties were used to model climate–water temperature associations and to assess how they are influenced by basins. Associations vary with season and water temperature range. Basin permeability, size, and elevation have the main influence; smaller upland or impermeable basins are the most sensitive to climate.
Carly J. Delavau, Tricia Stadnyk, and Tegan Holmes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2595–2614,Short summary
Hydrological models have large amounts of uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Using extra data (e.g. isotope tracers) helps evaluate whether the model is getting the right answers for the right reasons. In a Canadian basin, three types of isotope in precipitation input are used to drive a tracer-aided model and assess the resulting model uncertainty. This study shows how a tracer-aided model can be used at the larger scale, and that the model can be of value in such regions.
Georgiy Kirillin, Lijuan Wen, and Tom Shatwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1895–1909,Short summary
We report a first description of the seasonal temperature, mixing, and ice regime in the two largest freshwater lakes of the Tibetan Plateau. We perform a validation of lake model FLake for the parameterization of the Tibetan lake system in regional climate models and present evidence of the absent warming trend in the Tibetan lakes despite significant atmospheric warming. The reason for this unexpected behavior is the significant decrease in solar radiation at the surface.
Elena Roget, Elizaveta Khimchenko, Francesc Forcat, and Peter Zavialov
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1093–1105,Short summary
This is the first work on the internal seiches of the South Aral Sea, which is also of general interest as the lake is considered a paradigm for the lakes whose surface levels are decreasing. It is based on field data and numerical simulations. For autumn 2006 and 2013, the fundamental mode is discussed together with other modes which are found to be higher vertical modes. The importance of sea level variation on the development of higher horizontal modes is also discussed.
Santiago Moreira, Martin Schultze, Karsten Rahn, and Bertram Boehrer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2975–2986,Short summary
Density calculations in lakes are essential in the study of stability, stratification and numerical modelling. However, density equations which use fixed constant coefficients are still common in use, despite their limitations. We present a practical approach which can specifically include the effect of dissolved substances by fitting two coefficients. The method has been tested against density equations and density measurements in lakes.
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