Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
21 Dec 2014
Research article | 21 Dec 2014
The hydrological regime of a forested tropical Andean catchment
K. E. Clark et al.
K. E. Clark, A. J. West, R. G. Hilton, G. P. Asner, C. A. Quesada, M. R. Silman, S. S. Saatchi, W. Farfan-Rios, R. E. Martin, A. B. Horwath, K. Halladay, M. New, and Y. Malhi
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 47–70,Short summary
The key findings of this paper are that landslides in the eastern Andes of Peru in the Kosñipata Valley rapidly turn over the landscape in ~1320 years, with a rate of 0.076% yr-1. Additionally, landslides were concentrated at lower elevations, due to an intense storm in 2010 accounting for ~1/4 of the total landslide area over the 25-year remote sensing study. Valley-wide carbon stocks were determined, and we estimate that 26 tC km-2 yr-1 of soil and biomass are stripped by landslides.
Félicien Meunier, Sruthi M. Krishna Moorthy, Marc Peaucelle, Kim Calders, Louise Terryn, Wim Verbruggen, Chang Liu, Ninni Saarinen, Niall Origo, Joanne Nightingale, Mathias Disney, Yadvinder Malhi, and Hans Verbeeck
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4783–4803,Short summary
We integrated state-of-the-art observations of the structure of the vegetation in a temperate forest to constrain a vegetation model that aims to reproduce such an ecosystem in silico. We showed that the use of this information helps to constrain the model structure, its critical parameters, as well as its initial state. This research confirms the critical importance of the representation of the vegetation structure in vegetation models and proposes a method to overcome this challenge.
Emily Burt, Daxs Herson Coayla Rimachi, Adan Julian Ccahuana Quispe, and A. Joshua West
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Mountains store and release water, serving as water towers for downstream regions and affecting global sediment and carbon fluxes. We use stream and rain chemistry to calculate how much streamflow comes from recent rainfall across seven sites in the Andes mountains and nearby Amazon lowlands. We find that the type of rock and the intensity of rainfall control water retention and release, challenging assumptions that mountain topography exerts the primary effect on watershed hydrology.
Madison M. Douglas, Gen K. Li, Woodward W. Fischer, Joel C. Rowland, Preston C. Kemeny, A. Joshua West, Jon Schwenk, Anastasia P. Piliouras, Austin J. Chadwick, and Michael P. Lamb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 421–435,Short summary
Arctic rivers erode into permafrost and mobilize organic carbon, which can react to form greenhouse gasses or be re-buried in floodplain deposits. We collected samples on a permafrost floodplain in Alaska to determine if more carbon is eroded or deposited by river meandering. The floodplain contained a mixture of young carbon fixed by the biosphere and old, re-deposited carbon. Thus, sediment storage may allow Arctic river floodplains to retain aged organic carbon even when permafrost thaws.
Marina Corrêa Scalon, Imma Oliveras Menor, Renata Freitag, Karine Silva Peixoto, Sami W. Rifai, Beatriz Schwantes Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon, and Yadvinder Malhi
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We investigated dynamic nutrient flow and demand in a typical savanna and a transition forest to understand how similar soils and the same climate dominated by savanna vegetation can also support forest-like formations. Savanna relied in nutrient resorption from wood, and nutrient demand was equally partitioned between leaves, wood and fine roots. Transition forest relied on resorption from the canopy biomass and nutrient demand was predominantly driven by leaves.
Maxwell P. Dahlquist and A. Joshua West
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESurfShort summary
Himalayan rivers are full of giant boulders that almost never move except during glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs therefore must be very important for driving erosion. GLOFs are rare, so little is known about how they control erosion long-term. We analyzed rivers in the Nepal Himalaya and found the slopes and widths of channels and valleys suggest GLOFs as the dominant means of erosion. This is often unaccounted for in erosion and landscape evolution studies and should be considered.
Thomas Croissant, Robert G. Hilton, Gen K. Li, Jamie Howarth, Jin Wang, Erin L. Harvey, Philippe Steer, and Alexander L. Densmore
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 823–844,Short summary
In mountain ranges, earthquake-derived landslides mobilize large amounts of organic carbon (OC) by eroding soil from hillslopes. We propose a model to explore the role of different parameters in the post-seismic redistribution of soil OC controlled by fluvial export and heterotrophic respiration. Applied to the Southern Alps, our results suggest that efficient OC fluvial export during the first decade after an earthquake promotes carbon sequestration.
Florian Hofmann, Emily H. G. Cooperdock, A. Joshua West, Dominic Hildebrandt, Kathrin Strößner, and Kenneth A. Farley
Geochronology, 3, 395–414,Short summary
We use microCT scanning to improve the quality of 3He exposure ages measured in detrital magnetite. We show that the presence of inclusions can significantly increase the measured amount of 3He and thereby the exposure age. By prescreening magnetite with microCT and analyzing only inclusion-free grains, this problem can be avoided. We also calibrate the cosmogenic 3He production rate in magnetite relative to 10Be in quartz, which can be used for similar studies in the future.
Sophie Flack-Prain, Patrick Meir, Yadvinder Malhi, Thomas Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Biogeosciences, 16, 4463–4484,Short summary
Across the Amazon rainforest, trees take in carbon through photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis across the basin is threatened by predicted shifts in rainfall patterns. To unpick how changes in rainfall affect photosynthesis, we use a model which combines climate data with our knowledge of photosynthesis and other plant processes. We find that stomatal constraints are less important, and instead shifts in leaf surface area and leaf properties drive changes in photosynthesis with rainfall.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Robert R. Bogue, Florian M. Schwandner, Joshua B. Fisher, Ryan Pavlick, Troy S. Magney, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Vineet Yadav, Justin P. Linick, Gretchen B. North, and Eliecer Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 1343–1360,Short summary
This study examined rainforest responses to elevated CO2 coming from volcanoes in Costa Rica. Comparing tree species, we found that leaf function responded when exposed to increasing CO2 levels. The chemical signature of volcanic CO2 is different than background CO2. Trees exposed to volcanic CO2 also had chemical signatures which showed the influence of volcanic CO2: trees not only
breathe inand are made of volcanic CO2 but also retain that exposure history for decades.
Mingjie Shi, Joshua B. Fisher, Richard P. Phillips, and Edward R. Brzostek
Biogeosciences, 16, 457–465,Short summary
The ability of plants to slow climate change by taking up carbon hinges in part on there being ample soil nitrogen. We used a model that accounts for the carbon cost to plants of supporting nitrogen-acquiring microbes to explore how nitrogen limitation affects climate. Our model predicted that nitrogen limitation will enhance temperature and decrease precipitation; thus, our results suggest that carbon spent to support nitrogen-acquiring microbes is a critical component of the Earth's climate.
Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Joshua B. Fisher, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Amy Braverman, Florian M. Schwandner, Jennifer L. Lewicki, Philip A. Townsend, David S. Schimel, Ryan Pavlick, Kathryn J. Bormann, Antonio Ferraz, Emily L. Kang, Pulong Ma, Robert R. Bogue, Thomas Youmans, and David C. Pieri
Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418,Short summary
Carbon dioxide levels are rising globally, and it is important to understand how this rise will affect plants over long time periods. Volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain, California, have been releasing CO2 from their flanks for decades, and this provides a test environment in order to study the way plants respond to long-term CO2 exposure. We combined several airborne measurements to show that plants may have fewer, more productive leaves in areas with increasing CO2.
Carlos Jiménez, Brecht Martens, Diego M. Miralles, Joshua B. Fisher, Hylke E. Beck, and Diego Fernández-Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4513–4533,Short summary
Observing the amount of water evaporated in nature is not easy, and we need to combine accurate local measurements with estimates from satellites, more uncertain but covering larger areas. This is the main topic of our paper, in which local observations are compared with global land evaporation estimates, followed by a weighting of the global observations based on this comparison to attempt derive a more accurate evaporation product.
Guillaume Soulet, Robert G. Hilton, Mark H. Garnett, Mathieu Dellinger, Thomas Croissant, Mateja Ogrič, and Sébastien Klotz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4087–4102,Short summary
Oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocks can release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Here, we designed a chamber-based method to measure these CO2 emissions directly for the first time. The chamber is drilled in the rock and allows us to collect the CO2 to fingerprint its source using carbon isotopes. We tested our method in Draix (France). The measured CO2 fluxes were substantial, with ~20% originating from oxidation of the rock organic matter and ~80% from dissolution of carbonate minerals.
Tommaso Jucker, Gregory P. Asner, Michele Dalponte, Philip G. Brodrick, Christopher D. Philipson, Nicholas R. Vaughn, Yit Arn Teh, Craig Brelsford, David F. R. P. Burslem, Nicolas J. Deere, Robert M. Ewers, Jakub Kvasnica, Simon L. Lewis, Yadvinder Malhi, Sol Milne, Reuben Nilus, Marion Pfeifer, Oliver L. Phillips, Lan Qie, Nathan Renneboog, Glen Reynolds, Terhi Riutta, Matthew J. Struebig, Martin Svátek, Edgar C. Turner, and David A. Coomes
Biogeosciences, 15, 3811–3830,Short summary
Efforts to protect tropical forests hinge on recognizing the ecosystem services they provide, including their ability to store carbon. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) captures information on the 3-D structure of forests, allowing carbon stocks to be mapped. By combining ALS with data from 173 field plots on the island of Borneo, we develop a simple yet general model for estimating forest carbon stocks from the air. Our model underpins ongoing efforts to restore Borneo's unique tropical forests.
Mark A. Torres, Ajay B. Limaye, Vamsi Ganti, Michael P. Lamb, A. Joshua West, and Woodward W. Fischer
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 711–730,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a new model for the storage times of sediments and organic carbon (OC) in river deposits. Comparisons between our model predictions and field data show good agreement, which suggests that our model accurately captures the relevant time and space scales. An implication of our model is that OC is stored in river deposits over geologic timescales and, as a result, we propose that fluvial storage plays a larger role in the carbon cycle than previously recognized.
Joshua B. Fisher, Munish Sikka, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Christopher Schwalm, and Junjie Liu
Biogeosciences, 13, 4271–4277,Short summary
Atmospheric models of CO2 require estimates of land CO2 fluxes at relatively high temporal resolutions because of the high rate of atmospheric mixing and wind heterogeneity. However, land CO2 fluxes are often provided at monthly time steps. Here, we describe a new dataset created from 15 global land models and 4 combined products in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), which we have converted from monthly to 3-hourly output.
Fabien H. Wagner, Bruno Hérault, Damien Bonal, Clément Stahl, Liana O. Anderson, Timothy R. Baker, Gabriel Sebastian Becker, Hans Beeckman, Danilo Boanerges Souza, Paulo Cesar Botosso, David M. J. S. Bowman, Achim Bräuning, Benjamin Brede, Foster Irving Brown, Jesus Julio Camarero, Plínio Barbosa Camargo, Fernanda C. G. Cardoso, Fabrício Alvim Carvalho, Wendeson Castro, Rubens Koloski Chagas, Jérome Chave, Emmanuel N. Chidumayo, Deborah A. Clark, Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa, Camille Couralet, Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio, Helmut Dalitz, Vinicius Resende de Castro, Jaçanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani, Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira, Luciano de Souza Arruda, Jean-Louis Devineau, David M. Drew, Oliver Dünisch, Giselda Durigan, Elisha Elifuraha, Marcio Fedele, Ligia Ferreira Fedele, Afonso Figueiredo Filho, César Augusto Guimarães Finger, Augusto César Franco, João Lima Freitas Júnior, Franklin Galvão, Aster Gebrekirstos, Robert Gliniars, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça, Anthony D. Griffiths, James Grogan, Kaiyu Guan, Jürgen Homeier, Maria Raquel Kanieski, Lip Khoon Kho, Jennifer Koenig, Sintia Valerio Kohler, Julia Krepkowski, José Pires Lemos-Filho, Diana Lieberman, Milton Eugene Lieberman, Claudio Sergio Lisi, Tomaz Longhi Santos, José Luis López Ayala, Eduardo Eijji Maeda, Yadvinder Malhi, Vivian R. B. Maria, Marcia C. M. Marques, Renato Marques, Hector Maza Chamba, Lawrence Mbwambo, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço, Hooz Angela Mendivelso, Brett P. Murphy, Joseph J. O'Brien, Steven F. Oberbauer, Naoki Okada, Raphaël Pélissier, Lynda D. Prior, Fidel Alejandro Roig, Michael Ross, Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Vivien Rossi, Lucy Rowland, Ervan Rutishauser, Hellen Santana, Mark Schulze, Diogo Selhorst, Williamar Rodrigues Silva, Marcos Silveira, Susanne Spannl, Michael D. Swaine, José Julio Toledo, Marcos Miranda Toledo, Marisol Toledo, Takeshi Toma, Mario Tomazello Filho, Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernández, Jan Verbesselt, Simone Aparecida Vieira, Grégoire Vincent, Carolina Volkmer de Castilho, Franziska Volland, Martin Worbes, Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon, and Luiz E. O. C. Aragão
Biogeosciences, 13, 2537–2562,
K. E. Clark, A. J. West, R. G. Hilton, G. P. Asner, C. A. Quesada, M. R. Silman, S. S. Saatchi, W. Farfan-Rios, R. E. Martin, A. B. Horwath, K. Halladay, M. New, and Y. Malhi
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 47–70,Short summary
The key findings of this paper are that landslides in the eastern Andes of Peru in the Kosñipata Valley rapidly turn over the landscape in ~1320 years, with a rate of 0.076% yr-1. Additionally, landslides were concentrated at lower elevations, due to an intense storm in 2010 accounting for ~1/4 of the total landslide area over the 25-year remote sensing study. Valley-wide carbon stocks were determined, and we estimate that 26 tC km-2 yr-1 of soil and biomass are stripped by landslides.
P. A. Baker, S. C. Fritz, C. G. Silva, C. A. Rigsby, M. L. Absy, R. P. Almeida, M. Caputo, C. M. Chiessi, F. W. Cruz, C. W. Dick, S. J. Feakins, J. Figueiredo, K. H. Freeman, C. Hoorn, C. Jaramillo, A. K. Kern, E. M. Latrubesse, M. P. Ledru, A. Marzoli, A. Myrbo, A. Noren, W. E. Piller, M. I. F. Ramos, C. C. Ribas, R. Trnadade, A. J. West, I. Wahnfried, and D. A. Willard
Sci. Dril., 20, 41–49,Short summary
We report on a planned Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP) that will continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in a transect along the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The TADP will document the evolution of the Neotropical forest and will link biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and landscape. We will also sample the ca. 200Ma basaltic sills that underlie much of the Amazon.
A. J. West, M. Arnold, G. AumaÎtre, D. L. Bourlès, K. Keddadouche, M. Bickle, and T. Ojha
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 363–387,Short summary
Soils are vital resources put at risk by erosional loss. Evaluating agricultural effects on erosion is complicated where natural rates are high, as in central Nepal. This study infers erosion rates over thousands of years and compares these rates to those observed over the short term. Results suggest that effects of agriculture are small and that most erosion takes place through natural processes. However, present-day erosion on degraded lands is significantly faster than over the long term.
L. Rowland, A. Harper, B. O. Christoffersen, D. R. Galbraith, H. M. A. Imbuzeiro, T. L. Powell, C. Doughty, N. M. Levine, Y. Malhi, S. R. Saleska, P. R. Moorcroft, P. Meir, and M. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1097–1110,Short summary
This study evaluates the capability of five vegetation models to simulate the response of forest productivity to changes in temperature and drought, using data collected from an Amazonian forest. This study concludes that model consistencies in the responses of net canopy carbon production to temperature and precipitation change were the result of inconsistently modelled leaf-scale process responses and substantial variation in modelled leaf area responses.
M. Réjou-Méchain, H. C. Muller-Landau, M. Detto, S. C. Thomas, T. Le Toan, S. S. Saatchi, J. S. Barreto-Silva, N. A. Bourg, S. Bunyavejchewin, N. Butt, W. Y. Brockelman, M. Cao, D. Cárdenas, J.-M. Chiang, G. B. Chuyong, K. Clay, R. Condit, H. S. Dattaraja, S. J. Davies, A. Duque, S. Esufali, C. Ewango, R. H. S. Fernando, C. D. Fletcher, I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke, Z. Hao, K. E. Harms, T. B. Hart, B. Hérault, R. W. Howe, S. P. Hubbell, D. J. Johnson, D. Kenfack, A. J. Larson, L. Lin, Y. Lin, J. A. Lutz, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, T. R. Marthews, R. W. McEwan, S. M. McMahon, W. J. McShea, R. Muscarella, A. Nathalang, N. S. M. Noor, C. J. Nytch, A. A. Oliveira, R. P. Phillips, N. Pongpattananurak, R. Punchi-Manage, R. Salim, J. Schurman, R. Sukumar, H. S. Suresh, U. Suwanvecho, D. W. Thomas, J. Thompson, M. Uríarte, R. Valencia, A. Vicentini, A. T. Wolf, S. Yap, Z. Yuan, C. E. Zartman, J. K. Zimmerman, and J. Chave
Biogeosciences, 11, 6827–6840,Short summary
Forest carbon mapping may greatly reduce uncertainties in the global carbon budget. Accuracy of such maps depends however on the quality of field measurements. Using 30 large forest plots, we found large local spatial variability in biomass. When field calibration plots are smaller than the remote sensing pixels, this high local spatial variability results in an underestimation of the variance in biomass.
N. M. Fyllas, E. Gloor, L. M. Mercado, S. Sitch, C. A. Quesada, T. F. Domingues, D. R. Galbraith, A. Torre-Lezama, E. Vilanova, H. Ramírez-Angulo, N. Higuchi, D. A. Neill, M. Silveira, L. Ferreira, G. A. Aymard C., Y. Malhi, O. L. Phillips, and J. Lloyd
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1251–1269,
T. R. Marthews, C. A. Quesada, D. R. Galbraith, Y. Malhi, C. E. Mullins, M. G. Hodnett, and I. Dharssi
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 711–723,
S.-J. Kao, R. G. Hilton, K. Selvaraj, M. Dai, F. Zehetner, J.-C. Huang, S.-C. Hsu, R. Sparkes, J. T. Liu, T.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. T. Yang, A. Galy, X. Xu, and N. Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 127–139,
G. P. Asner, C. B. Anderson, R. E. Martin, D. E. Knapp, R. Tupayachi, F. Sinca, and Y. Malhi
Biogeosciences, 11, 843–856,
R. Valentini, A. Arneth, A. Bombelli, S. Castaldi, R. Cazzolla Gatti, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, E. Grieco, J. Hartmann, M. Henry, R. A. Houghton, M. Jung, W. L. Kutsch, Y. Malhi, E. Mayorga, L. Merbold, G. Murray-Tortarolo, D. Papale, P. Peylin, B. Poulter, P. A. Raymond, M. Santini, S. Sitch, G. Vaglio Laurin, G. R. van der Werf, C. A. Williams, and R. J. Scholes
Biogeosciences, 11, 381–407,
N. C. MacKellar, S. J. Dadson, M. New, and P. Wolski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
A. D. A. Castanho, M. T. Coe, M. H. Costa, Y. Malhi, D. Galbraith, and C. A. Quesada
Biogeosciences, 10, 2255–2272,
R. G. Hilton, A. Galy, A. J. West, N. Hovius, and G. G. Roberts
Biogeosciences, 10, 1693–1705,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesAgricultural intensification vs. climate change: what drives long-term changes in sediment load?Evaporation from a large lowland reservoir – observed dynamics and drivers during a warm summerComment on “A comparison of catchment travel times and storage deduced from deuterium and tritium tracers using StorAge Selection functions” by Rodriguez et al. (2021)Use of water isotopes and chemistry to infer the type and degree of exchange between groundwater and lakes in an esker complex of northeastern Ontario, CanadaTechnical note: Introduction of a superconducting gravimeter as novel hydrological sensor for the Alpine research catchment ZugspitzeCABra: a novel large-sample dataset for Brazilian catchmentsBenefits from high-density rain gauge observations for hydrological response analysis in a small alpine catchmentHydrologic regimes drive nitrate export behavior in human-impacted watershedsIntensive landscape-scale remediation improves water quality of an alluvial gully located in a Great Barrier Reef catchmentEnvironmental DNA simultaneously informs hydrological and biodiversity characterization of an Alpine catchmentTechnical note: Evaluation of a low-cost evaporation protection method for portable water samplersNew flood frequency estimates for the largest river in Norway based on the combination of short and long time seriesThe pulse of a montane ecosystem: coupling between daily cycles in solar flux, snowmelt, transpiration, groundwater, and streamflow at Sagehen Creek and Independence Creek, Sierra Nevada, USATechnical note: A time-integrated sediment trap to sample diatoms for hydrological tracingDo stream water solute concentrations reflect when connectivity occurs in a small, pre-Alpine headwater catchment?Soil moisture sensor network design for hydrological applicationsCatchment-scale drought: capturing the whole drought cycle using multiple indicatorsField-based estimation and modelling of distributed groundwater recharge in a Mediterranean karst catchment, Wadi Natuf, West BankSurface water as a cause of land degradation from dryland salinityTechnical note: A microcontroller-based automatic rain sampler for stable isotope studiesControls on spatial and temporal variability in streamflow and hydrochemistry in a glacierized catchmentOpen-source Arduino-compatible data loggers designed for field researchWater-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the summer rainfall zone of South AfricaTechnical note: Mapping surface-saturation dynamics with thermal infrared imageryValue of uncertain streamflow observations for hydrological modellingWhy has catchment evaporation increased in the past 40 years? A data-based study in AustriaTechnical note: GUARD – an automated fluid sampler preventing sample alteration by contamination, evaporation and gas exchange, suitable for remote areas and harsh conditionsHydrological processes and permafrost regulate magnitude, source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon export in a peatland catchment of northeastern ChinaExploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)Comment on “Can assimilation of crowdsourced data in hydrological modelling improve flood prediction?” by Mazzoleni et al. (2017)Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, FranceTree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpirationThe potamochemical symphony: new progress in the high-frequency acquisition of stream chemical dataImpact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradientHuman amplified changes in precipitation–runoff patterns in large river basins of the Midwestern United StatesLandscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosureA site-level comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements of evapotranspirationA lab in the field: high-frequency analysis of water quality and stable isotopes in stream water and precipitationHigh-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750Water yield following forest–grass–forest transitionsExploring water cycle dynamics by sampling multiple stable water isotope pools in a developed landscape in GermanyVariations of deep soil moisture under different vegetation types and influencing factors in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, ChinaContradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modellingUse of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture monitoring in forestsClosing the water balance with cosmic-ray soil moisture measurements and assessing their relation to evapotranspiration in two semiarid watershedsThe Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypothesis-driven observatoryTime series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a streamUnderstanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separationsTransit times from rainfall to baseflow in headwater catchments estimated using tritium: the Ovens River, AustraliaQualitative soil moisture assessment in semi-arid Africa – the role of experience and training on inter-rater reliability
Shengping Wang, Borbala Szeles, Carmen Krammer, Elmar Schmaltz, Kepeng Song, Yifan Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Günter Blöschl, and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3021–3036,Short summary
This study explored the quantitative contribution of agricultural intensification and climate change to the sediment load of a small agricultural watershed. Rather than a change in climatic conditions, changes in the land structure notably altered sediment concentrations under high-flow conditions, thereby contributing most to the increase in annual sediment loads. More consideration of land structure improvement is required when combating the transfer of soil from land to water.
Femke A. Jansen, Remko Uijlenhoet, Cor M. J. Jacobs, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2875–2898,Short summary
We studied the controls on open water evaporation with a focus on Lake IJssel, the Netherlands, by analysing eddy covariance observations over two summer periods at two locations at the borders of the lake. Wind speed and the vertical vapour pressure gradient can explain most of the variation in observed evaporation, which is in agreement with Dalton's model. We argue that the distinct characteristics of inland waterbodies need to be taken into account when parameterizing their evaporation.
Michael Kilgour Stewart, Uwe Morgenstern, and Ian Cartwright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6333–6338,Short summary
The combined use of deuterium and tritium to determine travel time distributions in streams is an important development in catchment hydrology (Rodriguez et al., 2021). This comment, however, argues that their results do not generally invalidate the truncation hypothesis of Stewart et al. (2010) (i.e. that stable isotopes underestimate travel times through catchments), as they imply, but asserts instead that the hypothesis still applies to many other catchments.
Maxime P. Boreux, Scott F. Lamoureux, and Brian F. Cumming
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6309–6332,Short summary
The investigation of groundwater–lake-water interactions in highly permeable boreal terrain using several indicators showed that lowland lakes are embedded into the groundwater system and are thus relatively resilient to short-term hydroclimatic change, while upland lakes rely more on precipitation as their main water input, making them more sensitive to evaporative drawdown. This suggests that landscape position controls the vulnerability of lake-water levels to hydroclimatic change.
Christian Voigt, Karsten Schulz, Franziska Koch, Karl-Friedrich Wetzel, Ludger Timmen, Till Rehm, Hartmut Pflug, Nico Stolarczuk, Christoph Förste, and Frank Flechtner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5047–5064,Short summary
A continuously operating superconducting gravimeter at the Zugspitze summit is introduced to support hydrological studies of the Partnach spring catchment known as the Zugspitze research catchment. The observed gravity residuals reflect total water storage variations at the observation site. Hydro-gravimetric analysis show a high correlation between gravity and the snow water equivalent, with a gravimetric footprint of up to 4 km radius enabling integral insights into this high alpine catchment.
André Almagro, Paulo Tarso S. Oliveira, Antônio Alves Meira Neto, Tirthankar Roy, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3105–3135,Short summary
We have collected and synthesized catchment attributes from multiple sources into an extensive dataset, the Catchment Attributes for Brazil (CABra). CABra contains streamflow and climate daily series for 735 catchments in the 1980–2010 period, aside from dozens of attributes of topography, climate, streamflow, groundwater, soil, geology, land cover, and hydrologic disturbance. The CABra intends to pave the way for a better understanding of catchments' behavior in Brazil and the world.
Anthony Michelon, Lionel Benoit, Harsh Beria, Natalie Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2301–2325,Short summary
Rainfall observation remains a challenge, particularly in mountain environments. Unlike most studies which are model based, this analysis of the rainfall–runoff response of a 13.4 km2 alpine catchment is purely data based and relies on measurements from a network of 12 low-cost rain gauges over 3 months. It assesses the importance of high-density rainfall observations in informing hydrological processes and helps in designing a permanent rain gauge network.
Galen Gorski and Margaret A. Zimmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1333–1345,Short summary
Understanding when, where, and how nitrate is exported from watersheds is the key to addressing the challenges that excess nutrients pose. We analyzed daily nitrate and streamflow data for five nested, agricultural watersheds that export high levels of nitrate over a 4-year time period. Nutrient export patterns varied seasonally during baseflow but were stationary during stormflow. Additionally, anthropogenic and geologic factors drove nutrient export during both baseflow and stormflow.
Nicholas J. C. Doriean, William W. Bennett, John R. Spencer, Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, Joanne M. Burton, Peter R. Teasdale, David T. Welsh, and Andrew P. Brooks
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 867–883,Short summary
Gully erosion is a major contributor to suspended sediment and associated nutrient pollution (e.g. gullies generate approximately 40 % of the sediment pollution impacting the Great Barrier Reef). This study used a new method of monitoring to demonstrate how large-scale earthworks used to remediated large gullies (i.e. eroding landforms > 1 ha) can drastically improve the water quality of connected waterways and, thus, protect vulnerable ecosystems in downstream-receiving waters.
Elvira Mächler, Anham Salyani, Jean-Claude Walser, Annegret Larsen, Bettina Schaefli, Florian Altermatt, and Natalie Ceperley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 735–753,Short summary
In this study, we collected water from an Alpine catchment in Switzerland and compared the genetic information of eukaryotic organisms conveyed by eDNA with the hydrologic information conveyed by naturally occurring hydrologic tracers. At the intersection of two disciplines, our study provides complementary knowledge gains and identifies the next steps to be addressed for using eDNA to achieve complementary insights into Alpine water sources.
Jana von Freyberg, Julia L. A. Knapp, Andrea Rücker, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5821–5834,Short summary
Automated water samplers are often used to collect precipitation and streamwater samples for subsequent isotope analysis, but the isotopic signal of these samples may be altered due to evaporative fractionation occurring during the storage inside the autosamplers in the field. In this article we present and evaluate a cost-efficient modification to the Teledyne ISCO automated water sampler that prevents isotopic enrichment through evaporative fractionation of the water samples.
Kolbjørn Engeland, Anna Aano, Ida Steffensen, Eivind Støren, and Øyvind Paasche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5595–5619,Short summary
We combine systematic, historical, and paleo information to obtain flood information from the last 10 300 years for the Glomma River in Norway. We identify periods with increased flood activity (4000–2000 years ago and the recent 1000 years) that correspond broadly to periods with low summer temperatures and glacier growth. The design floods in Glomma were more than 20 % higher during the 18th century than today. We suggest that trends in flood variability are linked to snow in late spring.
James W. Kirchner, Sarah E. Godsey, Madeline Solomon, Randall Osterhuber, Joseph R. McConnell, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5095–5123,Short summary
Streams and groundwaters often show daily cycles in response to snowmelt and evapotranspiration. These typically have a roughly 6 h time lag, which is often interpreted as a travel-time lag. Here we show that it is instead primarily a phase lag that arises because aquifers integrate their inputs over time. We further show how these cycles shift seasonally, mirroring the springtime retreat of snow cover to higher elevations and the seasonal advance and retreat of photosynthetic activity.
Jasper Foets, Carlos E. Wetzel, Núria Martínez-Carreras, Adriaan J. Teuling, Jean-François Iffly, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4709–4725,Short summary
Diatoms (microscopic algae) are regarded as useful tracers in catchment hydrology. However, diatom analysis is labour-intensive; therefore, only a limited number of samples can be analysed. To reduce this number, we explored the potential for a time-integrated mass-flux sampler to provide a representative sample of the diatom assemblage for a whole storm run-off event. Our results indicate that the Phillips sampler did indeed sample representative communities during two of the three events.
Leonie Kiewiet, Ilja van Meerveld, Manfred Stähli, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3381–3398,Short summary
The sources of stream water are important, for instance, for predicting floods. The connectivity between streams and different (ground-)water sources can change during rain events, which affects the stream water composition. We investigated this for stream water sampled during four events and found that stream water came from different sources. The stream water composition changed gradually, and we showed that changes in solute concentrations could be partly linked to changes in connectivity.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Binru Zhao, and Dawei Han
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2577–2591,Short summary
Soil moisture plays an important role in hydrological modelling. However, most existing in situ observation networks rarely provide sufficient coverage to capture soil moisture variations. Clearly, there is a need to develop a systematic approach, so that with the minimal number of sensors the soil moisture information could be captured accurately. In this study, a simple and low-data requirement method is proposed (WRF, PCA, CA), which can provide very efficient soil moisture estimations.
Abraham J. Gibson, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Greg R. Hancock, and Garry Willgoose
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1985–2002,Short summary
To be better prepared for drought, we need to be able to characterize how they begin, translate to on-ground impacts and how they end. We created a 100-year drought record for an area on the east coast of Australia and compared this with soil moisture and vegetation data. Drought reduces vegetation and soil moisture, but recovery rates are different across different catchments. Our methods can be universally applied and show the need to develop area-specific data to inform drought management.
Clemens Messerschmid, Martin Sauter, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 887–917,Short summary
Recharge assessment in the shared transboundary Western Aquifer Basin is highly relevant, scientifically as well as hydropolitically (in Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations). Our unique combination of field-measured soil characteristics and soil moisture time series with soil moisture saturation excess modelling provides a new basis for the spatial differentiation of formation-specific groundwater recharge (at any scale), applicable also in other previously ungauged basins around the world.
J. Nikolaus Callow, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Ryan I. J. Vogwill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 717–734,Short summary
Secondary dryland salinity is a global land degradation issue. Our understanding of causal processes is adapted from wet and hydrologically connected landscapes and concludes that low end-of-catchment runoff indicates land clearing alters water balance in favour of increased infiltration and rising groundwater that bring salts to the surface causing salinity. This study shows surface flows play an important role in causing valley floor recharge and dryland salinity in low-gradient landscapes.
Nils Michelsen, Gerrit Laube, Jan Friesen, Stephan M. Weise, Ali Bakhit Ali Bait Said, and Thomas Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2637–2645,Short summary
Most commercial automatic rain samplers are costly and do not prevent evaporation from the collection bottles. Hence, we have developed a microcontroller-based collector enabling timer-actuated integral rain sampling. The simple, low-cost device is robust and effectively minimizes post-sampling evaporation. The excellent performance of the collector during an evaporation experiment in a lab oven suggests that even multi-week field deployments in warm climates are feasible.
Michael Engel, Daniele Penna, Giacomo Bertoldi, Gianluca Vignoli, Werner Tirler, and Francesco Comiti
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2041–2063,Short summary
Hydrometric and geochemical dynamics are controlled by interplay of meteorological conditions, topography and geological heterogeneity. Nivo-meteorological indicators (such as global solar radiation, temperature and decreasing snow depth) explain monthly conductivity and isotopic dynamics best. These insights are important for better understanding hydrochemical responses of glacierized catchments under a changing cryosphere.
Andrew D. Wickert, Chad T. Sandell, Bobby Schulz, and Gene-Hua Crystal Ng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2065–2076,Short summary
Measuring Earth's changing environment is a critical part of natural science, but to date most of the equipment to do so is expensive, proprietary, and difficult to customize. We addressed this challenge by developing and deploying the ALog, a low-power, lightweight, Arduino-compatible data logger. We present our hardware schematics and layouts, as well as our customizable code library that operates the ALog and helps users to link it to off-the-shelf sensors.
Bruce C. Scott-Shaw and Colin S. Everson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1553–1565,Short summary
The research undertaken for this study has allowed for an accurate direct comparison of indigenous and introduced tree water use. The measurements of trees growing in the understorey indicate significant water use in the subcanopy layer. The results showed that individual tree water use is largely inter-species specific. The introduced species remain active during the dry winter periods, resulting in their cumulative water use being significantly greater than that of the indigenous species.
Barbara Glaser, Marta Antonelli, Marco Chini, Laurent Pfister, and Julian Klaus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5987–6003,Short summary
We demonstrate how thermal infrared images can be used for mapping the appearance and disappearance of water at the surface. The use of thermal infrared images allows for mapping this appearance and disappearance for various temporal and spatial resolutions, and the images can be understood intuitively. We explain the necessary steps in detail, from image acquisition to final processing, by relying on image examples and experience from an 18-month mapping campaign.
Simon Etter, Barbara Strobl, Jan Seibert, and H. J. Ilja van Meerveld
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5243–5257,Short summary
To evaluate the potential value of streamflow estimates for hydrological model calibration, we created synthetic streamflow datasets in various temporal resolutions based on the errors in streamflow estimates of 136 citizens. Our results show that streamflow estimates of untrained citizens are too inaccurate to be useful for model calibration. If, however, the errors can be reduced by training or filtering, the estimates become useful if also a sufficient number of estimates are available.
Doris Duethmann and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5143–5158,Short summary
We analyze changes in catchment evaporation estimated from the water balances of 156 catchments in Austria over 1977–2014, as well as the possible causes of these changes. Our results show that catchment evaporation increased on average by 29 ± 14 mm yr−1 decade−1. We attribute this increase to changes in atmospheric demand (based on reference and pan evaporation), changes in vegetation (quantified by a satellite-based vegetation index), and changes in precipitation.
Arno Hartmann, Marc Luetscher, Ralf Wachter, Philipp Holz, Elisabeth Eiche, and Thomas Neumann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4281–4293,Short summary
We have developed a new mobile automated water sampling device for environmental research and other applications where waters need to be tested for compliance with environmental/health regulations. It has two main advantages over similar devices: firstly, it injects water samples directly into airtight vials to prevent any change in sample properties through contamination, evaporation and gas exchange. Secondly, it can hold up to 160 sample vials, while other devices only hold up to 24 vials.
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, and Yongzheng Lu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1081–1093,Short summary
The study examined dynamics of DOC export from a permafrost peatland catchment located in northeastern China. The findings indicated that the DOC export is a transport-limited process and the DOC load was significant for the net carbon balance in the studied catchment. The flowpath shift process is key to observed DOC concentration, resources and chemical characteristics in discharge. Permafrost degradation would likely elevate the proportion of microbe-originated DOC in baseflow.
Maurizio Mazzoleni, Vivian Juliette Cortes Arevalo, Uta Wehn, Leonardo Alfonso, Daniele Norbiato, Martina Monego, Michele Ferri, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 391–416,Short summary
We investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of sensors for different scenarios of citizen involvement levels during the flood event occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment in May 2013. We achieve high model performance by integrating crowdsourced data, in particular from citizens motivated by their feeling of belonging to a community. Satisfactory model performance can still be obtained even for decreasing citizen involvement over time.
Daniele P. Viero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 171–177,
Fayçal Rejiba, Cyril Schamper, Antoine Chevalier, Benoit Deleplancque, Gaghik Hovhannissian, Julien Thiesson, and Pierre Weill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 159–170,Short summary
The internal variability of paleomeanders strongly influence water fluxes in alluvial plains. This study presents the results of a hydrogeophysical investigation that provide a very detailed characterization of the geometry of a wide paleomeander. The presented case study, situated in the Seine River basin (France), represents a common sedimentary and geomorphological structure in alluvial plains worldwide.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Paul Floury, Jérôme Gaillardet, Eric Gayer, Julien Bouchez, Gaëlle Tallec, Patrick Ansart, Frédéric Koch, Caroline Gorge, Arnaud Blanchouin, and Jean-Louis Roubaty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6153–6165,Short summary
We present a new prototype
lab in the fieldnamed River Lab (RL) designed for water quality monitoring to perform a complete analysis at sub-hourly frequency of major dissolved species in river water. The article is an analytical paper to present the proof of concept, its performances and improvements. Our tests reveal a significant improvement of reproducibility compared to conventional analysis in the laboratory. First results are promising for understanding the critical zone.
Vladimir P. Shevchenko, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Ivan V. Krickov, Rinat M. Manasypov, Nadezhda V. Politova, Sergey G. Kopysov, Olga M. Dara, Yves Auda, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Valery A. Zemtsov, and Sergey N. Kirpotin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5725–5746,Short summary
We used a coupled hydrological–hydrochemical approach to assess the impact of snow on river and lake water chemistry across a permafrost gradient in very poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), encompassing > 1.5 million km2. The riverine springtime fluxes of major and trace element in WSL rivers might be strongly overestimated due to previously unknown input from the snow deposition.
Sara A. Kelly, Zeinab Takbiri, Patrick Belmont, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5065–5088,Short summary
Humans have profoundly altered land cover and soil drainage for agricultural purposes in the Midwestern USA. Here we investigate whether climate alone can explain recent increases in observed streamflows throughout the region. Using multiple analyses, including statistical tests and water budgets, we conclude that historical drainage installation has likely amplified the streamflow response to regional precipitation increases. We stress that better documentation of artificial drainage is needed.
Andreas Güntner, Marvin Reich, Michal Mikolaj, Benjamin Creutzfeldt, Stephan Schroeder, and Hartmut Wziontek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3167–3182,Short summary
Monitoring water storage changes beyond the point scale is a challenge. Here, we show that an integrative and non-invasive way is by observing variations of gravity that are induced by water mass changes. A high-precision superconducting gravimeter is successfully operated in the field and allows for direct and continuous monitoring of the water balance and of its components, such as actual evapotranspiration.
Martin Hirschi, Dominik Michel, Irene Lehner, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1809–1825,Short summary
We compare lysimeter and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of evapotranspiration at a research catchment in Switzerland. The measurements are compared on various timescales, and with respect to a 40-year long-term lysimeter time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual timescale. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC data during/after rainfall events significantly contributes to an underestimation of EC evapotranspiration.
Jana von Freyberg, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1721–1739,Short summary
We present a newly developed instrument package that enables the online analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion chemistry at 30 min intervals in the field. The resulting data streams provide an unprecedented view of hydrochemical dynamics on the catchment scale. Based on a detailed analysis of the variable behavior of isotopic and chemical tracers in stream water and precipitation over a 4-week period, we developed a conceptual hypothesis for runoff generation in the studied catchment.
Neil Macdonald and Heather Sangster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1631–1650,Short summary
We use historical records to extend current understanding of flood risk, examining past spatial and temporal variability and ask
are the perceived high-magnitude flood events witnessed in recent years really unprecedented?We identify that there are statistically significant relationships between the British flood index and climatic drivers, whereby the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.
Katherine J. Elliott, Peter V. Caldwell, Steven T. Brantley, Chelcy F. Miniat, James M. Vose, and Wayne T. Swank
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 981–997,Short summary
Our long-term results are relevant to land areas that are in pasture and those that have reverted back to forests. We found that within a deciduous forest, species identity matters in terms of how much precipitation leaves the watershed as evapotranspiration versus water yield. We demonstrate that a shift in tree species composition from species with ring-porous xylem to species with diffuse-porous xylem can increase water use, and in turn, produce a long-term reduction in water yield.
Natalie Orlowski, Philipp Kraft, Jakob Pferdmenges, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3873–3894,Short summary
The 2-year measurements of δ2H and δ18O in rainfall, stream, soil, and groundwater revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions in the Schwingbach catchment. We established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions. Our model revealed complex age dynamics and showed that runoff must have been stored in the catchment for much longer than event water.
Xuening Fang, Wenwu Zhao, Lixin Wang, Qiang Feng, Jingyi Ding, Yuanxin Liu, and Xiao Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3309–3323,Short summary
In this study, we focused on analyzing the variation and factors influencing deep soil moisture content based on a soil moisture survey of the Ansai watershed. Our results revealed the variation characteristics of deep soil moisture and its controlling mechanism at a moderate scale. The results of this study are of practical significance for vegetation restoration strategies and the sustainability of restored ecosystems.
Guillaume Lacombe, Olivier Ribolzi, Anneke de Rouw, Alain Pierret, Keoudone Latsachak, Norbert Silvera, Rinh Pham Dinh, Didier Orange, Jean-Louis Janeau, Bounsamai Soulileuth, Henri Robain, Adrien Taccoen, Phouthamaly Sengphaathith, Emmanuel Mouche, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Toan Tran Duc, and Christian Valentin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2691–2704,Short summary
Laos and Vietnam have switched from net forest loss to net forest expansion between 1990 and 2015. Based on long-term field measurements of land use, river flows, and weather data, we demonstrate that forest expansion can have extreme, yet opposite, impacts on water resources, depending on how the newly established tree-based cover is managed. The conversion of annual crops to teak plantations in Laos or to naturally regrowing forests in Vietnam led to increased and decreased flows, respectively.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1269–1288,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors bridge the gap between point-scale measurements of soil moisture and remote sensing applications. We tested four distinct methods to calibrate the sensor in a temperate forest environment using different soil moisture weighting approaches. While the variable leaf biomass of the deciduous trees had no significant influence on the calibration, it proved necessary to modify the standard calibration method to achieve the best sensor performance.
A. P. Schreiner-McGraw, E. R. Vivoni, G. Mascaro, and T. E. Franz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 329–345,Short summary
Soil moisture estimates from a novel method were evaluated in two semiarid watersheds. We found good agreements between the technique and estimates derived from watershed instruments designed to close the water balance. We then investigated local hydrologic processes and link between evapotranspiration and soil moisture obtained from the novel measurements.
G. Blöschl, A. P. Blaschke, M. Broer, C. Bucher, G. Carr, X. Chen, A. Eder, M. Exner-Kittridge, A. Farnleitner, A. Flores-Orozco, P. Haas, P. Hogan, A. Kazemi Amiri, M. Oismüller, J. Parajka, R. Silasari, P. Stadler, P. Strauss, M. Vreugdenhil, W. Wagner, and M. Zessner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 227–255,Short summary
This paper illustrates the experimental and monitoring set-up of the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, which allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The HOAL catchment features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), and is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network.
C. Duvert, M. K. Stewart, D. I. Cendón, and M. Raiber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 257–277,Short summary
The transit time of water is a key indicator of hydrological processes at the catchment scale. Our results suggest that the use of tritium time series in streamwater can be highly valuable for assessing the temporal variations in the transit time of older groundwater contributions to streamflow. We also show that, shortly after high flow events, the transit time of the old water fraction increases and tends to approach the groundwater residence time.
V. V. Camacho Suarez, A. M. L. Saraiva Okello, J. W. Wenninger, and S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4183–4199,Short summary
Isotope and hydrochemical tracers are tested providing new insights to isotope hydrograph in semi-arid areas in southern Africa. This study provides a spatial hydrochemical characterization of surface and groundwater sources, end member mixing analysis, and two- and three-component hydrograph separations. Results showed that the Kaap catchment is mainly dominated by groundwater sources, and direct runoff is positively correlated with the Antecedent Precipitation Index during the wet season.
I. Cartwright and U. Morgenstern
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3771–3785,Short summary
This study documents the age of water that contributes to rivers in upper catchments using the radioactive tracer tritium. River water in the upper Ovens Valley (Australia) is several years to decades old and water from different parts of the catchment (e.g., soil, regolith, and groundwater) is mobilised at different flow conditions. The results indicate that these rivers are buffered against short term climate variability but are susceptible to longer-term climate and land use changes
M. Rinderer, H. C. Komakech, D. Müller, G. L. B. Wiesenberg, and J. Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3505–3516,Short summary
A field method for assessing soil moisture in semi-arid conditions is proposed and tested in terms of inter-rater reliability with 40 Tanzanian farmers, students and experts. The seven wetness classes are based on qualitative indicators that one can see, feel or hear. It could be shown that the qualitative wetness classes reflect differences in volumetric water content and neither experience nor a certain level of education was a prerequisite to gain high agreement among raters.
ACCA: Weather data San Pedro station, Asociación para la concervación de la cuenca Amazónica http://atrium.andesamazon.org/index.php, last access: April 2012.
Allegre, C. J., Dupre, B., Negrel, P., and Gaillardet, J.: Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics in Amazon and Congo River systems: Constraints about erosion processes, Chem. Geol., 131, 93–112, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(96)00028-9, 1996.
Andermann, C., Longuevergne, L., Bonnet, S., Crave, A., Davy, P., and Gloaguen, R.: Impact of transient groundwater storage on the discharge of Himalayan rivers, Nat. Geosci., 5, 127–132, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1356, 2012.
Anderson, E. P. and Maldonado-Ocampo, J. A.: A regional perspective on the diversity and conservation of tropical Andean fishes, Conserv. Biol., 25, 30–39, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01568.x, 2011.
Asner, G. P., Anderson, C. B., Martin, R. E., Knapp, D. E., Tupayachi, R., Sinca, F., and Malhi, Y.: Landscape-scale changes in forest structure and functional traits along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient, Biogeosciences, 11, 843–856, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-843-2014, 2014.
Ataroff, M. and Rada, F.: Deforestation impact on water dynamics in a Venezuelan Andean cloud forest, Ambio, 29, 440–444, https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-29.7.440, 2000.
Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions, Nature, 438, 303–309, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04141, 2005.
Beighley, R. E., Eggert, K. G., Dunne, T., He, Y., Gummadi, V., and Verdin, K. L.: Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin, Hydrol. Process., 23, 1221–1235, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7252, 2009.
Bendix, J., Rollenbeck, R., Richter, M., Fabian, P., and Emck, P.: Climate Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador, in: Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador, edited by: Beck, E., Bendix, J., Kottke, I., Makeschin, F., and Mosandl, R., Ecological Studies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 63–73, 2008.
Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M. R.: Orographic barriers, high-resolution TRMM rainfall, and relief variations along the eastern Andes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L06403, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032011, 2008.
Bouchez, J., Gaillardet, J., Lupker, M., Louvat, P., France-Lanord, C., Maurice, L., Armijos, E., and Moquet, J.-S.: Floodplains of large rivers: Weathering reactors or simple silos?, Chem. Geol., 332–333, 166–184, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.09.032, 2012.
Brodersen, C., Pohl, S., Lindenlaub, M., Leibundgut, C., and Wilpert, K. V.: Influence of vegetation structure on isotope content of throughfall and soil water, Hydrol. Process., 14, 1439–1448, 2000.
Bruijnzeel, L. A.: Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees?, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 104, 185–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.015, 2004.
Bruijnzeel, L. A. and Veneklaas, E. J.: Climatic conditions and tropical montane forest productivity: The fog has not lifted yet, Ecology, 79, 3–9, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[0003:CCATMF]2.0.CO;2, 1998.
Bruijnzeel, L. A., Kappelle, M., Mulligan, M., and Scatena, F. N.: Tropical montane cloud forests: state of knowledge and sustainability perspectives in a changing world, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Hamilton, L. S., Bruijnzeel, L. A., and Scatena, F. N., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 691–740, 2010.
Bruijnzeel, L. A., Mulligan, M., and Scatena, F. N.: Hydrometeorology of tropical montane cloud forests: emerging patterns, Hydrol. Process., 25, 465–498, \https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7974, 2011.
Bubb, P., May, I., Miles, L., and Sayer, J.: Cloud forest agenda, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK, 2004.
Bush, M. B., Silman, M. R., and Urrego, D. H.: 48,000 Years of Climate and Forest Change in a Biodiversity Hot Spot, Science, 303, 827-829, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1090795, 2004.
Buytaert, W. and Beven, K.: Models as multiple working hypotheses: Hydrological simulation of tropical alpine wetlands, Hydrol. Process., 25, 1784–1799, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7936, 2011.
Caballero, L. A., Easton, Z. M., Richards, B. K., and Steenhuis, T. S.: Evaluating the bio-hydrological impact of a cloud forest in Central America using a semi-distributed water balance model, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 61, 9–20, https://doi.org/10.2478/jhh-2013-0003, 2013.
Calmels, D., Galy, A., Hovius, N., Bickle, M., West, A. J., Chen, M. C., and Chapman, H.: Contribution of deep groundwater to the weathering budget in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 303, 48–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.032, 2011.
Cappa, C. D., Hendricks, M. B., DePaolo, D. J., and Cohen, R. C.: Isotopic fractionation of water during evaporation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4525, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003597, 2003.
Carlotto Caillaux, V. S., Rodriguez, G., Fernando, W., Roque, C., Dionicio, J., and Chávez, R.: Geología de los cuadrángulos de Urubamba y Calca, Instituto Geológica Nacional, Lima, Peru, 1996.
Célleri, R. and Feyen, J.: The hydrology of tropical Andean ecosystems: importance, knowledge status, and perspectives, Mt. Res. Dev., 29, 350–355, https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.00007, 2009.
Chen, Y.-C. and Chiu, C.-L.: A fast method of flood discharge estimation, Hydrol. Process., 18, 1671–1684, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1476, 2004.
Clark, K. E., Hilton, R. G., West, A. J., Malhi, Y., Gröcke, D. R., Bryant, C. L., Ascough, P. L., Robles Caceres, A., and New, M.: New views on "old" carbon in the Amazon River: Insight from the source of organic carbon eroded from the Peruvian Andes, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 14, 1644–1659, https://doi.org/10.1002/ggge.20122, 2013.
Consbio: Ecosistemas Terrestres de Peru (Data Basin Dataset) for ArcGIS, The Nature Conservancy/NatureServe Covallis, Oragon, USA, 2011.
Craig, H.: Standard for Reporting Concentrations of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 in Natural Waters, Science, 133, 1833–1834, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.133.3467.1833, 1961.
Crespo, P. J., Feyen, J., Buytaert, W., Bücker, A., Breuer, L., Frede, H. G., and Ramírez, M.: Identifying controls of the rainfall–runoff response of small catchments in the tropical Andes (Ecuador), J. Hydrol., 407, 164-174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.021, 2011.
Crespo, P., Feyen, J., Buytaert, W., Célleri, R., Frede, H.-G., Ramírez, M., and Breuer, L.: Development of a conceptual model of the hydrologic response of tropical Andean micro-catchments in Southern Ecuador, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 2475–2510, https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-9-2475-2012, 2012.
Dansgaard, W.: Stable isotopes in precipitation, Tellus, 16, 436–468, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1964.tb00181.x, 1964.
Dawson, T. E.: Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants, Oecologia, 117, 476-485, https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050683, 1998.
Dawson, T. E. and Ehleringer, J. R.: Plants, isotopes and water use: a catchment-scale perspective, in: Isotope tracers in catchment hydrology, edited by: Kendall, C. and McDonnell, J. J., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 165–202, 1998.
Domenico, P. A. and Schwartz, F. W.: Physical and chemical hydrogeology, 2nd Edn., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998.
Dunne, T., Mertes, L. A. K., Meade, R. H., Richey, J. E., and Forsberg, B. R.: Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 110, 450–467, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1998)110<0450:eosbtf>2.3.co;2, 1998.
Eugster, W., Burkard, R., Holwerda, F., Scatena, F. N., and Bruijnzeel, L. A.: Characteristics of fog and fogwater fluxes in a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 139, 288-306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.07.008, 2006.
Farr, T. G., Rosen, P. A., Caro, E., Crippen, R., Duren, R., Hensley, S., Kobrick, M., Paller, M., Rodriguez, E., Roth, L., Seal, D., Shaffer, S., Shimada, J., Umland, J., Werner, M., Oskin, M., Burbank, D., and Alsdorf, D.: The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000183, 2007.
Feeley, K. J., Silman, M. R., Bush, M. B., Farfan, W., Garcia Cabrera, K., Malhi, Y., Meir, P., Salinas Revilla, N., Raurau Quisiyupanqui, M. N., and Saatchi, S.: Upslope migration of Andean trees, J. Biogeogr., 38, 783–791, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02444.x, 2011.
Fisher, J. B., Tu, K. P., and Baldocchi, D. D.: Global estimates of the land–atmosphere water flux based on monthly AVHRR and ISLSCP-II data, validated at 16 FLUXNET sites, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 901–919, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.06.025, 2008.
Fisher, J. B., Malhi, Y., Bonal, D., Da Rocha, H. R., De Araujo, A. C., Gamo, M., Goulden, M. L., Hirano, T., Huete, A. R., and Kondo, H.: The land–atmosphere water flux in the tropics, Global Change Biol., 15, 2694–2714, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01813.x, 2009.
Froehlich, K., Gibson, J. J., and Aggarwal, P.: Deuterium excess in precipitation and its climatological significance, IAEA-CSP-13/P, Proceeding of Study of Environmental Change Using Isotope Techniques, 23–27 April 2001, Vienna, Austria, 54–66, 2002.
Frumau, K. F. A., Bruijnzeel, L. A., and Tobón, C.: Precipitation measurement and derivation of precipitation inclination in a windy mountainous area in northern Costa Rica, Hydrol. Process., 25, 499–509, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7860, 2011.
Gaillardet, J., Dupré, B., Louvat, P., and Allègre, C. J.: Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers, Chem. Geol., 159, 3–30, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00031-5, 1999.
García-Santos, G. and Bruijnzeel, L. A.: Rainfall, fog and throughfall dynamics in a subtropical ridge top cloud forest, National Park of Garajonay (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain), Hydrol. Process., 25, 411–417, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7760, 2011.
Gascoyne, M. and Kamineni, D.: The hydrogeochemistry of fractured plutonic rocks in the Canadian Shield, Appl. Hydrogeol., 2, 43–49, 1994.
Gat, J. R.: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hydrologic cycle, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 24, 225–262, 1996.
Giambelluca, T. W. and Gerold, G.: Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud forests, in: Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Research and Future Directions, Ecological Studies Series, No. 216, edited by: Levia, F. L., Carlyle-Moses, D., and Tanaka, T., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 221–259, 2011.
Gibbon, A., Silman, M. R., Malhi, Y., Fisher, J. B., Meir, P., Zimmermann, M., Dargie, G. C., Farfan, W. R., and Garcia, K. C.: Ecosystem carbon storage across the grassland-forest transition in the high Andes of Manu National Park, Peru, Ecosystems, 13, 1097-1111, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9376-8, 2010.
Gibbs, R. J.: Amazon River – Environmental factors that control its dissolved and suspended load, Science, 156, 1734–1737, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.156.3783.1734, 1967.
Girardin, C. A. J., Malhi, Y., Aragao, L. E. O. C., Mamani, M., Huasco, W. H., Durand, L., Feeley, K. J., Rapp, J., Silva-Espejo, J. E., Silman, M., Salinas, N., and Whittaker, R. J.: Net primary productivity allocation and cycling of carbon along a tropical forest elevational transect in the Peruvian Andes, Global Change Biol., 16, 3176–3192, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02235.x, 2010.
Girardin, C. A. J., Silva-Espejo, J. E., Doughty, C. E., Huaraca Huasco, W., Metcalfe, D. B., Durand-Baca, L., Marthews, T. R., Aragao, L. E. O. C., Farfan Rios, W., García Cabrera, K., Halladay, K., Fisher, J. B., Galiano-Cabrera, D. F., Huaraca-Quispe, L. P., Alzamora-Taype, I., Equiluz-Mora, L., Salinas-Revilla, N., Silman, M., Meir, P., and Malhi, Y.: Productivity and carbon allocation in a tropical montane cloud forest of the Peruvian Andes, Plant Ecol. Divers., 7, 107–123, https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2013.820222, 2014.
Goldsmith, G. R., Muñoz-Villers, L. E., Holwerda, F., McDonnell, J. J., Asbjornsen, H., and Dawson, T. E.: Stable isotopes reveal linkages among ecohydrological processes in a seasonally dry tropical montane cloud forest, Ecohydrology, 5, 779–790, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.268, 2012.
Goller, R., Wilcke, W., Leng, M. J., Tobschall, H. J., Wagner, K., Valarezo, C., and Zech, W.: Tracing water paths through small catchments under a tropical montane rain forest in south Ecuador by an oxygen isotope approach, J. Hydrol., 308, 67–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.10.022, 2005.
Gomez-Peralta, D., Oberbauer, S. F., McClain, M. E., and Philippi, T. E.: Rainfall and cloud-water interception in tropical montane forests in the eastern Andes of Central Peru, Forest Ecol. Manage., 255, 1315–1325, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.058, 2008.
Gustard, A., Bullock, A., and Dixon, J.: Low flow estimation in the United Kingdom, Low flow estimation in the United Kingdom, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, UK, 1992.
Guswa, A. J., Rhodes, A. L., and Newell, S. E.: Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica, Adv. Water Resour., 30, 2098–2112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2006.07.008, 2007.
Guyot, J. L., Fillzola, N., Quintanilla, J., and Cortez, J.: Dissolved solids and suspended sediment yields in the Rio Madeira basin, from the Bolivian Andes to the Amazon, IAHS-AISH Publ., 236, 55–64, 1996.
Halladay, K.: Cloud characteristics of the Andes/Amazon transition zone, DPhil, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 260 pp., 2011.
Halladay, K., Malhi, Y., and New, M.: Cloud frequency climatology at the Andes/Amazon transition: 1. Seasonal and diurnal cycles, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017770, 2012a.
Halladay, K., Malhi, Y., and New, M.: Cloud frequency climatology at the Andes/Amazon transition: 2. Trends and variability, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017789, 2012b.
Hillyer, R. and Silman, M. R.: Changes in species interactions across a 2.5 km elevation gradient: effects on plant migration in response to climate change, Global Change Biol., 16, 3205–3214, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02268.x, 2010.
Holwerda, F., Burkard, R., Eugster, W., Scatena, F., Meesters, A., and Bruijnzeel, L.: Estimating fog deposition at a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site: comparison of the water budget and eddy covariance methods, Hydrol. Process., 20, 2669–2692, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6065, 2006.
Holwerda, F., Bruijnzeel, L. A., Muñoz-Villers, L. E., Equihua, M., and Asbjornsen, H.: Rainfall and cloud water interception in mature and secondary lower montane cloud forests of central Veracruz, Mexico, J. Hydrol., 384, 84–96, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.01.012, 2010a.
Holwerda, F., Bruijnzeel, L. A., Oord, A. L., and Scatena, F. N.: Fog interception in a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest: a Wet-canopy Water budget approach, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A., Scatena, F. N., and Hamilton, L. S., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 282–292, 2010b.
Huaraca Huasco, W., Girardin, C. A. J., Doughty, C. E., Metcalfe, D. B., Baca, L. D., Silva-Espejo, J. E., Cabrera, D. G., Aragão, L. E. O., Davila, A. R., Marthews, T. R., Huaraca-Quispe, L. P., Alzamora-Taype, I., Eguiluz-Mora, L., Farfan-Rios, W., Cabrera, K. G., Halladay, K., Salinas-Revilla, N., Silman, M., Meir, P., and Malhi, Y.: Seasonal production, allocation and cycling of carbon in two mid-elevation tropical montane forest plots in the Peruvian Andes, Plant Ecol. Divers., 1–2, 125–142, https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2013.819042, 2014.
INGEMMET: GEOCATMIN – Geologia integrada por proyectos regionales, Instituto Geológico Minero Metalúrgico Lima, Peru, 2013.
Jardine, P. M., Sanford, W. E., Gwo, J. P., Reedy, O. C., Hicks, D. S., Riggs, J. S., and Bailey, W. B.: Quantifying diffusive mass transfer in fractured shale bedrock, Water Resour. Res., 35, 2015–2030, 1999.
Killeen, T. J., Douglas, M., Consiglio, T., Jørgensen, P. M., and Mejia, J.: Dry spots and wet spots in the Andean hotspot, J. Biogeogr., 34, 1357–1373, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01682.x, 2007.
Kim, H., Bishop, J. K. B., Dietrich, W. E., and Fung, I. Y.: Process dominance shift in solute chemistry as revealed by long-term high-frequency water chemistry observations of groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 140, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.05.011, 2014.
Kuntz, B. W., Rubin, S., Berkowitz, B., and Singha, K.: Quantifying solute transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Vadose Zone J., 10, 843–857, https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2010.0130, 2011.
Lambs, L., Horwath, A., Otto, T., Julien, F., and Antoine, P. O.: Isotopic values of the Amazon headwaters in Peru: comparison of the wet upper Río Madre de Dios watershed with the dry Urubamba-Apurimac river system, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 26, 775–784, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6157, 2012.
Larsen, M. C.: Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico, Phys. Geogr., 21, 494–521, 2000.
Lehner, B., Verdin, K., and Jarvis, A.: New Global Hydrography Derived From Spaceborne Elevation Data, Eos Trans. AGU, 89, 93–94, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008EO100001, 2008.
Letts, M. G. and Mulligan, M.: The impact of light quality and leaf wetness on photosynthesis in north-west Andean tropical montane cloud forest, J. Trop. Ecol., 21, 549–557, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467405002488, 2005.
Lowman, L. E. L. and Barros, A. P.: Investigating Links between Climate and Orography in the central Andes: Coupling Erosion and Precipitation using a Physical-statistical Model, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 119, 1322–1353, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JF002940, 2014.
Malhi, Y., Silman, M., Salinas, N., Bush, M., Meir, P., and Saatchi, S.: Introduction: Elevation gradients in the tropics: laboratories for ecosystem ecology and global change research, Global Change Biol., 16, 3171–3175, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02323.x, 2010.
Marengo, J. A., Soares, W. R., Saulo, C., and Nicolini, M.: Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP-NCAR reanalyses: Characteristics and temporal variability, J. Climate, 17, 2261–2280, 2004.
Marzol-Jaén, M. V., Sanchez-Megía, J., and García-Santos, G.: Effects of fog on climatic conditions at a sub-tropical montane cloud forest site in northern Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A., Scatena, F. N., and Hamilton, L. S., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 359–364, 2010.
McClain, M. E. and Naiman, R. J.: Andean influences on the biogeochemistry and ecology of the Amazon River, Bioscience, 58, 325–338, https://doi.org/10.1641/b580408, 2008.
McJannet, D., Wallace, J., and Reddell, P.: Precipitation interception in Australian tropical rainforests: II. Altitudinal gradients of cloud interception, stemflow, throughfall and interception, Hydrol. Process., 21, 1703–1718, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6346, 2007.
McJannet, D. L., Wallace, J. S., and Reddell, P.: Comparative water budgets of a lower and an upper montane cloud forest in the Wet Tropics of northern Australia, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A. and Scatena, F. N., Cambrige University Press, Cambridge, UK, 479–490, 2010.
Meade, R. H., Dunne, T., Richey, J. E., Santos, U. D., and Salati, E.: Storage and remobilisation of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon River of Brazil, Science, 228, 488–490, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.228.4698.488, 1985.
Milliman, J. D. and Farnsworth, K. L.: Runoff, erosion, and delivery to the coastal ocean, in: River discharge to the coastal ocean: a global synthesis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 13–69, 2011.
Morris, D. A. and Johnson, A. I.: Summary of Hydrologic and Physical Properties of Rock and Soil Materials, as Analyzed by the Hydrologic Laboratory of the US Geological Survey 1948-60, Summary of Hydrologic and Physical Properties of Rock and Soil Materials, as Analyzed by the Hydrologic Laboratory of the US Geological Survey 1948-60, US Government Printing Office, Washington, USA, 46 pp., 1967.
Mulligan, M.: Modelling the tropics-wide extent and distribution of cloud forest and cloud forest loss, with implications for conservation priority, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A., Scatena, F. N., and Hamilton, L. S., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 14–38, 2010.
Mulligan, M. and Burke, S. M.: FIESTA: Fog Interception for the Enhancement of Streamflow in Tropical Areas, FIESTA: Fog Interception for the Enhancement of Streamflow in Tropical Areas, for KCL/AMBIOTEK Contribution to DFID-FRP project R, King's College, London, UK, 7991 pp., 2005.
Muñoz-Villers, L. E. and McDonnell, J. J.: Runoff generation in a steep, tropical montane cloud forest catchment on permeable volcanic substrate, Water Resour. Res., 48, W09528, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011316, 2012.
Muñoz-Villers, L. E., Holwerda, F., Gómez-Cárdenas, M., Equihua, M., Asbjornsen, H., Bruijnzeel, L. A., Marín-Castro, B. E., and Tobón, C.: Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico, J. Hydrol., 462, 53–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.01.062, 2012.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A. B., and Kent, J.: Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, Nature, 403, 853–858, https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501, 2000.
Ortega, H. and Hidalgo, M.: Freshwater fishes and aquatic habitats in Peru: Current knowledge and conservation, Aquat. Ecosyst. Health, 11, 257–271, https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980802319135, 2008.
Phillips, D. L. and Gregg, J. W.: Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes, Oecologia, 127, 171–179, https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420000578, 2001.
Postel, S. L. and Thompson, B. H.: Watershed protection: Capturing the benefits of nature's water supply services, Nat. Resour. Forum, 29, 98–108, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2005.00119.x, 2005.
Priestley, C. H. B. and Taylor, R. J.: On the Assessment of Surface Heat Flux and Evaporation Using Large-Scale Parameters, Mon. Weather Rev., 100, 81–92, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0081:otaosh>2.3.co;2, 1972.
Rapp, J. M. and Silman, M. R.: Diurnal, seasonal, and altitudinal trends in microclimate across a tropical montane cloud forest, Clim. Res., 55, 17–32, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01127, 2012.
Rhodes, A. L., Guswa, A. J., and Newell, S. E.: Seasonal variation in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropical montane forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica, Water Resour. Res., 42, W11402, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004535, 2006.
Richey, J. E., Meade, R. H., Salati, E., Devol, A. H., Nordin, C. F., and Dossantos, U.: Water discharge and suspended sediment concentrations in the Amazon River 1982–1984, Water Resour. Res., 22, 756–764, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR022i005p00756, 1986.
Richey, J. E., Valarezo, C., Valarezo, C., and Valarezo, C.: Biogeochemistry of carbon in the Amazon River, Limnol. Oceanogr., 35, 352–371, 1990.
Rozanski, K., Araguás-Araguás, L., and Gonfiantini, R.: Isotopic Patterns in Modern Global Precipitation, in: Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records, edited by: Swart, P. K., Lohman, K. C., McKenzie, J., and Savin, S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, 1–36, 1993.
Salati, E., Dall'Olio, A., Matsui, E., and Gat, J. R.: Recycling of water in the Amazon basin: an isotopic study, Water Resour. Res., 15, 1250–1258, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR015i005p01250, 1979.
Salinas, N., Malhi, Y., Meir, P., Silman, M., Roman Cuesta, R., Huaman, J., Salinas, D., Huaman, V., Gibaja, A., Mamani, M., and Farfan, F.: The sensitivity of tropical leaf litter decomposition to temperature: results from a large-scale leaf translocation experiment along an elevation gradient in Peruvian forests, New Phytol., 189, 967–977, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03521.x, 2011.
Scheel, M. L. M., Rohrer, M., Huggel, Ch., Santos Villar, D., Silvestre, E., and Huffman, G. J.: Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2649–2663, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-2649-2011, 2011.
Schellekens, J.: CQ-FLOW: A distributed hydrological model for the prediction of impacts of land-cover change, with spatial reference to the Rio Chiquito catchment, northwest Costa Rica, CQ-FLOW: A distributed hydrological model for the prediction of impacts of land-cover change, with spatial reference to the Rio Chiquito catchment, northwest Costa Rica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Forestry Research Programme, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 71 pp., 2006.
Schmid, S., Burkard, R., Frumau, K. F. A., Tobon, C., Bruijnzeel, L. A., Siegwolf, R., and Eugster, W.: The wet-canopy water balance of a Costa Rican cloud forest during the dry season, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A., Scatena, F. N., and Hamilton, L. S., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 302–308, 2010.
Scholl, M., Eugster, W., and Burkard, R.: Understanding the role of fog in forest hydrology: stable isotopes as tools for determining input and partitioning of cloud water in montane forests, Hydrol. Process., 25, 353–366, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7762, 2011.
Scholl, M. A. and Murphy, S. F.: Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico, Water Resour. Res., 50, 4305–4322, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014413, 2014.
Scholl, M. A., Giambelluca, T. W., Gingerich, S. B., Nullet, M. A., and Loope, L. L.: Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water, Water Resour. Res., 43, W12411, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006011, 2007.
SENAMHI: Clima: Datos históricos Peru, http://www.senamhi.gob.pe/main mapa.php?t=dHi, last access: May 2012.
Squeo, F. A., Warner, B. G., Aravena, R., and Espinoza, D.: Bofedales: high altitude peatlands of the central Andes, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 79, 245–255, 2006.
Stallard, R. F. and Edmond, J. M.: Geochemistry of the Amazon: 2. The influence of geology and weathering environment on the dissolved load, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 88, 9671–9688, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC14p09671, 1983.
Teh, Y. A., Diem, T., Jones, S., Huaraca Quispe, L. P., Baggs, E., Morley, N., Richards, M., Smith, P., and Meir, P.: Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes across an elevation gradient in the tropical Peruvian Andes, Biogeosciences, 11, 2325–2339, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2325-2014, 2014.
Thome, C. R. and Zevenbergen, L. W.: Estimating mean velocity in mountain rivers, J. Hydraul. Eng., 111, 612–624, 1985.
Thorburn, P. J., Hatton, T. J., and Walker, G. R.: Combining measurements of transpiration and stable isotopes of water to determine groundwater discharge from forests, J. Hydrol., 150, 563–587, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(93)90126-T, 1993.
Timbe, E., Windhorst, D., Crespo, P., Frede, H.-G., Feyen, J., and Breuer, L.: Understanding uncertainties when inferring mean transit times of water trough tracer-based lumped-parameter models in Andean tropical montane cloud forest catchments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1503–1523, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-1503-2014, 2014.
Tipper, E. T., Bickle, M. J., Galy, A., West, A. J., Pomiès, C., and Chapman, H. J.: The short term climatic sensitivity of carbonate and silicate weathering fluxes: insight from seasonal variations in river chemistry, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 2737–2754, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.03.005, 2006.
Todd, D. K. and Mays, L. W.: Groundwater Hydrology, 3, Wiley, New York, 625 pp., 1980.
Tognetti, S., Aylward, B., and Bruijnzeel, L. A.: Assessment needs to support the development of arrangements for payments for ecosystem services from tropical montane cloud forests, in: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, Science for Conservation and Management, edited by: Bruijnzeel, L. A., Scatena, F. N., and Hamilton, L. S., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 671–685, 2010.
Torres, M. A., West, A. J., and Clark, K. E.: Geomorphic regime modulates hydrologic control of chemical weathering in the Andes-Amazon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in review, 2014.
Tovar, C., Arnillas, C. A., Cuesta, F., and Buytaert, W.: Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions, PloS One, 8, e63634, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063634, 2013.
Townsend-Small, A., McClain, M. E., Hall, B., Noguera, J. L., Llerena, C. A., and Brandes, J. A.: Suspended sediments and organic matter in mountain headwaters of the Amazon River: Results from a 1-year time series study in the central Peruvian Andes, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 732–740, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.11.020, 2008.
TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission product 3B43 v7a, NASA, http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/mirador/presentNavigation.pl?tree=project&project=TRMM&dataGroup=Gridded&dataset=3B43:_20Monthly_200.25_20x_200.25_20degree_20merged_20TRMM_20and_20other_20sources_20estimates_version=006, last access: 2 April 2013.
van de Weg, M. J., Meir, P., Grace, J., and Ramos, G. D.: Photosynthetic parameters, dark respiration and leaf traits in the canopy of a Peruvian tropical montane cloud forest, Oecologia, 168, 23–34, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-2068-z, 2012.
van de Weg, M. J., Meir, P., Williams, M., Girardin, C., Malhi, Y., Silva-Espejo, J., and Grace, J.: Gross primary productivity of a high elevation tropical montane cloud forest, Ecosystems, 17, 751–764, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-014-9758-4, 2014.
Wilcox, B. P., Allen, B., and Bryant, F.: Description and classification of soils of the high-elevation grasslands of central Peru, Geoderma, 42, 79–94, 1988.
Windhorst, D., Waltz, T., Timbe, E., Frede, H.-G., and Breuer, L.: Impact of elevation and weather patterns on the isotopic composition of precipitation in a tropical montane rainforest, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 409–419, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-409-2013, 2013.
Wittmann, H., von Blanckenburg, F., Maurice, L., Guyot, J.-L., Filizola, N., and Kubik, P. W.: Sediment production and delivery in the Amazon River basin quantified by in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides and recent river loads, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 123, 934–950, https://doi.org/10.1130/b30317.1, 2011.
Zadroga, F.: The hydrological importance of a montane cloud forest area of Costa Rica, in: Tropical agricultural hydrology, edited by: Lal, R. and Russell, E. W., Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 59–73, 1981.
Zimmermann, M., Meir, P., Bird, M. I., Malhi, Y., and Ccahuana, A. J. Q.: Climate dependence of heterotrophic soil respiration from a soil-translocation experiment along a 3000 m tropical forest altitudinal gradient, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 60, 895–906, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01175.x, 2009.
This paper presents measurements of the balance of water inputs and outputs over 1 year for a river basin in the Andes of Peru. Our results show that the annual water budget is balanced within a few percent uncertainty; that is to say, the amount of water entering the basin was the same as the amount leaving, providing important information for understanding the water cycle. We also show that seasonal storage of water is important in sustaining the flow of water during the dry season.
This paper presents measurements of the balance of water inputs and outputs over 1 year for a...