Articles | Volume 18, issue 9
08 Sep 2014
Research article | 08 Sep 2014
High-frequency monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus response in three rural catchments to the end of the 2011–2012 drought in England
F. N. Outram et al.
No articles found.
Louisa D. Oldham, Jim Freer, Gemma Coxon, Nicholas Howden, John P. Bloomfield, and Christopher Jackson
Water can move between river catchments via the subsurface, termed Intercatchment Groundwater Flow (IGF). We show how a perceptual model of IGF can be developed with relatively simple geological interpretation and data requirements. We find that IGF dynamics vary in space and time, correlated to the dominant underlying geology. We recommend that IGF “loss functions” may be used in conceptual rainfall-runoff models but should be supported by perceptualisation of IGF processes and connectivities.
Keith J. Beven, Mike J. Kirkby, Jim E. Freer, and Rob Lamb
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 527–549,Short summary
The theory that forms the basis of TOPMODEL was first outlined by Mike Kirkby some 45 years ago. This paper recalls some of the early developments: the rejection of the first journal paper, the early days of digital terrain analysis, model calibration and validation, the various criticisms of the simplifying assumptions, and the relaxation of those assumptions in the dynamic forms of TOPMODEL, and it considers what we might do now with the benefit of hindsight.
Gemma Coxon, Nans Addor, John P. Bloomfield, Jim Freer, Matt Fry, Jamie Hannaford, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Rosanna Lane, Melinda Lewis, Emma L. Robinson, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2459–2483,Short summary
We present the first large-sample catchment hydrology dataset for Great Britain. The dataset collates river flows, catchment attributes, and catchment boundaries for 671 catchments across Great Britain. We characterise the topography, climate, streamflow, land cover, soils, hydrogeology, human influence, and discharge uncertainty of each catchment. The dataset is publicly available for the community to use in a wide range of environmental and modelling analyses.
Wouter J. M. Knoben, Jim E. Freer, and Ross A. Woods
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4323–4331,Short summary
The accuracy of model simulations can be quantified with so-called efficiency metrics. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) has been often used in hydrology, but recently the Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) is gaining in popularity. We show that lessons learned about which NSE scores are
acceptabledo not necessarily translate well into understanding of the KGE metric.
Rosanna A. Lane, Gemma Coxon, Jim E. Freer, Thorsten Wagener, Penny J. Johnes, John P. Bloomfield, Sheila Greene, Christopher J. A. Macleod, and Sim M. Reaney
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4011–4032,Short summary
We evaluated four hydrological model structures and their parameters on over 1100 catchments across Great Britain, considering modelling uncertainties. Models performed well for most catchments but failed in parts of Scotland and south-eastern England. Failures were often linked to inconsistencies in the water balance. This research shows what conceptual lumped models can achieve, gives insights into where and why these models may fail, and provides a benchmark of national modelling capability.
Wouter J. M. Knoben, Jim E. Freer, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Murray C. Peel, and Ross A. Woods
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2463–2480,Short summary
Computer models are used to predict river flows. A good model should represent the river basin to which it is applied so that flow predictions are as realistic as possible. However, many different computer models exist, and selecting the most appropriate model for a given river basin is not always easy. This study combines computer code for 46 different hydrological models into a single coding framework so that models can be compared in an objective way and we can learn about model differences.
Gemma Coxon, Jim Freer, Rosanna Lane, Toby Dunne, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Niall Quinn, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2285–2306,Short summary
DECIPHeR (Dynamic fluxEs and ConnectIvity for Predictions of Hydrology) is a new modelling framework that can be applied from small catchment to continental scales for complex river basins. This paper describes the modelling framework and its key components and demonstrates the model’s ability to be applied across a large model domain. This work highlights the potential for catchment- to continental-scale predictions of streamflow to support robust environmental management and policy decisions.
Keith J. Beven, Susana Almeida, Willy P. Aspinall, Paul D. Bates, Sarka Blazkova, Edoardo Borgomeo, Jim Freer, Katsuichiro Goda, Jim W. Hall, Jeremy C. Phillips, Michael Simpson, Paul J. Smith, David B. Stephenson, Thorsten Wagener, Matt Watson, and Kate L. Wilkins
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2741–2768,Short summary
This paper discusses how uncertainties resulting from lack of knowledge are considered in a number of different natural hazard areas including floods, landslides and debris flows, dam safety, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic ash clouds and pyroclastic flows, and wind storms. As every analysis is necessarily conditional on the assumptions made about the nature of sources of such uncertainties it is also important to follow the guidelines for good practice suggested in Part 2.
Andreas Paul Zischg, Guido Felder, Rolf Weingartner, Niall Quinn, Gemma Coxon, Jeffrey Neal, Jim Freer, and Paul Bates
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2759–2773,Short summary
We developed a model experiment and distributed different rainfall patterns over a mountain river basin. For each rainfall scenario, we computed the flood losses with a model chain. The experiment shows that flood losses vary considerably within the river basin and depend on the timing of the flood peaks from the basin's sub-catchments. Basin-specific characteristics such as the location of the main settlements within the floodplains play an additional important role in determining flood losses.
Simon Brenner, Gemma Coxon, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Jim Freer, and Andreas Hartmann
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 445–461,Short summary
In this study we simulate groundwater levels with a semi-distributed karst model. Using a percentile approach we can assess the number of days exceeding or falling below selected groundwater level percentiles. We show that our approach is able to predict groundwater levels across all considered timescales up to the 75th percentile. We then use our approach to assess future changes in groundwater dynamics and show that projected climate changes may lead to generally lower groundwater levels.
Benoit P. Guillod, Richard G. Jones, Simon J. Dadson, Gemma Coxon, Gianbattista Bussi, James Freer, Alison L. Kay, Neil R. Massey, Sarah N. Sparrow, David C. H. Wallom, Myles R. Allen, and Jim W. Hall
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 611–634,Short summary
Assessing the potential impacts of extreme events such as drought and flood requires large datasets of such events, especially when looking at the most severe and rare events. Using a state-of-the-art climate modelling infrastructure that is simulating large numbers of weather time series on volunteers' computers, we generate such a large dataset for the United Kingdom. The dataset covers the recent past (1900–2006) as well as two future time periods (2030s and 2080s).
Mary C. Ockenden, Wlodek Tych, Keith J. Beven, Adrian L. Collins, Robert Evans, Peter D. Falloon, Kirsty J. Forber, Kevin M. Hiscock, Michael J. Hollaway, Ron Kahana, Christopher J. A. Macleod, Martha L. Villamizar, Catherine Wearing, Paul J. A. Withers, Jian G. Zhou, Clare McW. H. Benskin, Sean Burke, Richard J. Cooper, Jim E. Freer, and Philip M. Haygarth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6425–6444,Short summary
This paper describes simple models of phosphorus load which are identified for three catchments in the UK. The models use new hourly observations of phosphorus load, which capture the dynamics of phosphorus transfer in small catchments that are often missed by models with a longer time step. Unlike more complex, process-based models, very few parameters are required, leading to low parameter uncertainty. Interpretation of the dominant phosphorus transfer modes is made based solely on the data.
Katrien Van Eerdenbrugh, Stijn Van Hoey, Gemma Coxon, Jim Freer, and Niko E. C. Verhoest
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5315–5337,Short summary
Consistency in stage–discharge data is investigated using a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach). Various measurement stations in the UK, New Zealand and Belgium are selected based on their historical ratings information and their characteristics related to data consistency. When applying a BReach analysis on them, the methodology provides results that appear consistent with the available knowledge and thus facilitates a reliable assessment of (in)consistency in stage–discharge data.
Catherine M. Heppell, Andrew Binley, Mark Trimmer, Tegan Darch, Ashley Jones, Ed Malone, Adrian L. Collins, Penny J. Johnes, Jim E. Freer, and Charlotte E. M. Lloyd
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4785–4802,Short summary
The role that hydrology plays in controlling the interplay between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen in rivers of lowland, agricultural landscapes is poorly understood, yet important to assess given the potential changes to production and delivery of DOC and nitrate arising from climate change. We measured DOC and nitrate concentrations in river water of the lowland river Hampshire Avon (Wiltshire, southern UK), revealing significant seasonal variations in DOC : nitrate transport.
Remko Nijzink, Christopher Hutton, Ilias Pechlivanidis, René Capell, Berit Arheimer, Jim Freer, Dawei Han, Thorsten Wagener, Kevin McGuire, Hubert Savenije, and Markus Hrachowitz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4775–4799,Short summary
The core component of many hydrological systems, the moisture storage capacity available to vegetation, is typically treated as a calibration parameter in hydrological models and often considered to remain constant in time. In this paper we test the potential of a recently introduced method to robustly estimate catchment-scale root-zone storage capacities exclusively based on climate data to reproduce the temporal evolution of root-zone storage under change (deforestation).
C. E. M. Lloyd, J. E. Freer, P. J. Johnes, and A. L. Collins
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 625–632,Short summary
This paper examines the current methodologies for quantifying storm behaviour through hysteresis analysis, and explores a new method. Each method is systematically tested and the impact on the results is examined. Recommendations are made regarding the most effective method of calculating a hysteresis index. This new method allows storm hysteresis behaviour to be directly compared between storms, parameters, and catchments, meaning it has wide application potential in water quality research.
C. E. M. Lloyd, K. Michaelides, D. R. Chadwick, J. A. J. Dungait, and R. P. Evershed
Biogeosciences, 13, 551–566,Short summary
Our interdisciplinary research brings together methodologies from hydrology, soil science and biogeochemistry to address key questions about the transport of cattle slurry in the environment. The paper provides a novel approach to trace dissolved and particulate components of cattle slurry through an experimental hillslope system. This work provides one of the first examples of using biomarkers to assess the effects of slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the movement of slurry derived-OM.
S. Ceola, B. Arheimer, E. Baratti, G. Blöschl, R. Capell, A. Castellarin, J. Freer, D. Han, M. Hrachowitz, Y. Hundecha, C. Hutton, G. Lindström, A. Montanari, R. Nijzink, J. Parajka, E. Toth, A. Viglione, and T. Wagener
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2101–2117,Short summary
We present the outcomes of a collaborative hydrological experiment undertaken by five different international research groups in a virtual laboratory. Moving from the definition of accurate protocols, a rainfall-runoff model was independently applied by the research groups, which then engaged in a comparative discussion. The results revealed that sharing protocols and running the experiment within a controlled environment is fundamental for ensuring experiment repeatability and reproducibility.
C. C. Sampson, T. J. Fewtrell, F. O'Loughlin, F. Pappenberger, P. B. Bates, J. E. Freer, and H. L. Cloke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2305–2324,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesSources and mean transit times of stream water in an intermittent river system: the upper Wimmera River, southeast AustraliaBedrock depth influences spatial patterns of summer baseflow, temperature and flow disconnection for mountainous headwater streamsAgricultural intensification vs. climate change: what drives long-term changes in sediment load?Evaporation from a large lowland reservoir – observed dynamics and drivers during a warm summerComment on “A comparison of catchment travel times and storage deduced from deuterium and tritium tracers using StorAge Selection functions” by Rodriguez et al. (2021)Use of water isotopes and chemistry to infer the type and degree of exchange between groundwater and lakes in an esker complex of northeastern Ontario, CanadaTechnical note: Introduction of a superconducting gravimeter as novel hydrological sensor for the Alpine research catchment ZugspitzeCABra: a novel large-sample dataset for Brazilian catchmentsBenefits from high-density rain gauge observations for hydrological response analysis in a small alpine catchmentHydrologic regimes drive nitrate export behavior in human-impacted watershedsIntensive landscape-scale remediation improves water quality of an alluvial gully located in a Great Barrier Reef catchmentEnvironmental DNA simultaneously informs hydrological and biodiversity characterization of an Alpine catchmentTechnical note: Evaluation of a low-cost evaporation protection method for portable water samplersNew flood frequency estimates for the largest river in Norway based on the combination of short and long time seriesThe pulse of a montane ecosystem: coupling between daily cycles in solar flux, snowmelt, transpiration, groundwater, and streamflow at Sagehen Creek and Independence Creek, Sierra Nevada, USATechnical note: A time-integrated sediment trap to sample diatoms for hydrological tracingDo stream water solute concentrations reflect when connectivity occurs in a small, pre-Alpine headwater catchment?Soil moisture sensor network design for hydrological applicationsCatchment-scale drought: capturing the whole drought cycle using multiple indicatorsField-based estimation and modelling of distributed groundwater recharge in a Mediterranean karst catchment, Wadi Natuf, West BankSurface water as a cause of land degradation from dryland salinityTechnical note: A microcontroller-based automatic rain sampler for stable isotope studiesControls on spatial and temporal variability in streamflow and hydrochemistry in a glacierized catchmentOpen-source Arduino-compatible data loggers designed for field researchWater-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the summer rainfall zone of South AfricaTechnical note: Mapping surface-saturation dynamics with thermal infrared imageryValue of uncertain streamflow observations for hydrological modellingWhy has catchment evaporation increased in the past 40 years? A data-based study in AustriaTechnical note: GUARD – an automated fluid sampler preventing sample alteration by contamination, evaporation and gas exchange, suitable for remote areas and harsh conditionsHydrological processes and permafrost regulate magnitude, source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon export in a peatland catchment of northeastern ChinaExploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)Comment on “Can assimilation of crowdsourced data in hydrological modelling improve flood prediction?” by Mazzoleni et al. (2017)Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, FranceTree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpirationThe potamochemical symphony: new progress in the high-frequency acquisition of stream chemical dataImpact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradientHuman amplified changes in precipitation–runoff patterns in large river basins of the Midwestern United StatesLandscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosureA site-level comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements of evapotranspirationA lab in the field: high-frequency analysis of water quality and stable isotopes in stream water and precipitationHigh-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750Water yield following forest–grass–forest transitionsExploring water cycle dynamics by sampling multiple stable water isotope pools in a developed landscape in GermanyVariations of deep soil moisture under different vegetation types and influencing factors in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, ChinaContradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modellingUse of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture monitoring in forestsClosing the water balance with cosmic-ray soil moisture measurements and assessing their relation to evapotranspiration in two semiarid watershedsThe Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypothesis-driven observatoryTime series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a streamUnderstanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations
Zibo Zhou, Ian Cartwright, and Uwe Morgenstern
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4497–4513,Short summary
Streams may receive water from different sources in their catchment. There is limited understanding of which water stores intermittent streams are connected to. Using geochemistry we show that the intermittent streams in southeast Australia are connected to younger smaller near-river water stores rather than regional groundwater. This makes these streams more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and requires management of the riparian zone for their protection.
Martin A. Briggs, Phillip Goodling, Zachary C. Johnson, Karli M. Rogers, Nathaniel P. Hitt, Jennifer B. Fair, and Craig D. Snyder
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3989–4011,Short summary
The geologic structure of mountain watersheds may control how groundwater and streamwater exchange, influencing where streams dry. We measured bedrock depth at 191 locations along eight headwater streams paired with stream temperature records, baseflow separation and observations of channel dewatering. The data indicated a prevalence of shallow bedrock generally less than 3 m depth, and local variation in that depth can drive stream dewatering but also influence stream baseflow supply.
Shengping Wang, Borbala Szeles, Carmen Krammer, Elmar Schmaltz, Kepeng Song, Yifan Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Günter Blöschl, and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3021–3036,Short summary
This study explored the quantitative contribution of agricultural intensification and climate change to the sediment load of a small agricultural watershed. Rather than a change in climatic conditions, changes in the land structure notably altered sediment concentrations under high-flow conditions, thereby contributing most to the increase in annual sediment loads. More consideration of land structure improvement is required when combating the transfer of soil from land to water.
Femke A. Jansen, Remko Uijlenhoet, Cor M. J. Jacobs, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2875–2898,Short summary
We studied the controls on open water evaporation with a focus on Lake IJssel, the Netherlands, by analysing eddy covariance observations over two summer periods at two locations at the borders of the lake. Wind speed and the vertical vapour pressure gradient can explain most of the variation in observed evaporation, which is in agreement with Dalton's model. We argue that the distinct characteristics of inland waterbodies need to be taken into account when parameterizing their evaporation.
Michael Kilgour Stewart, Uwe Morgenstern, and Ian Cartwright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6333–6338,Short summary
The combined use of deuterium and tritium to determine travel time distributions in streams is an important development in catchment hydrology (Rodriguez et al., 2021). This comment, however, argues that their results do not generally invalidate the truncation hypothesis of Stewart et al. (2010) (i.e. that stable isotopes underestimate travel times through catchments), as they imply, but asserts instead that the hypothesis still applies to many other catchments.
Maxime P. Boreux, Scott F. Lamoureux, and Brian F. Cumming
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6309–6332,Short summary
The investigation of groundwater–lake-water interactions in highly permeable boreal terrain using several indicators showed that lowland lakes are embedded into the groundwater system and are thus relatively resilient to short-term hydroclimatic change, while upland lakes rely more on precipitation as their main water input, making them more sensitive to evaporative drawdown. This suggests that landscape position controls the vulnerability of lake-water levels to hydroclimatic change.
Christian Voigt, Karsten Schulz, Franziska Koch, Karl-Friedrich Wetzel, Ludger Timmen, Till Rehm, Hartmut Pflug, Nico Stolarczuk, Christoph Förste, and Frank Flechtner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5047–5064,Short summary
A continuously operating superconducting gravimeter at the Zugspitze summit is introduced to support hydrological studies of the Partnach spring catchment known as the Zugspitze research catchment. The observed gravity residuals reflect total water storage variations at the observation site. Hydro-gravimetric analysis show a high correlation between gravity and the snow water equivalent, with a gravimetric footprint of up to 4 km radius enabling integral insights into this high alpine catchment.
André Almagro, Paulo Tarso S. Oliveira, Antônio Alves Meira Neto, Tirthankar Roy, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3105–3135,Short summary
We have collected and synthesized catchment attributes from multiple sources into an extensive dataset, the Catchment Attributes for Brazil (CABra). CABra contains streamflow and climate daily series for 735 catchments in the 1980–2010 period, aside from dozens of attributes of topography, climate, streamflow, groundwater, soil, geology, land cover, and hydrologic disturbance. The CABra intends to pave the way for a better understanding of catchments' behavior in Brazil and the world.
Anthony Michelon, Lionel Benoit, Harsh Beria, Natalie Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2301–2325,Short summary
Rainfall observation remains a challenge, particularly in mountain environments. Unlike most studies which are model based, this analysis of the rainfall–runoff response of a 13.4 km2 alpine catchment is purely data based and relies on measurements from a network of 12 low-cost rain gauges over 3 months. It assesses the importance of high-density rainfall observations in informing hydrological processes and helps in designing a permanent rain gauge network.
Galen Gorski and Margaret A. Zimmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1333–1345,Short summary
Understanding when, where, and how nitrate is exported from watersheds is the key to addressing the challenges that excess nutrients pose. We analyzed daily nitrate and streamflow data for five nested, agricultural watersheds that export high levels of nitrate over a 4-year time period. Nutrient export patterns varied seasonally during baseflow but were stationary during stormflow. Additionally, anthropogenic and geologic factors drove nutrient export during both baseflow and stormflow.
Nicholas J. C. Doriean, William W. Bennett, John R. Spencer, Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, Joanne M. Burton, Peter R. Teasdale, David T. Welsh, and Andrew P. Brooks
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 867–883,Short summary
Gully erosion is a major contributor to suspended sediment and associated nutrient pollution (e.g. gullies generate approximately 40 % of the sediment pollution impacting the Great Barrier Reef). This study used a new method of monitoring to demonstrate how large-scale earthworks used to remediated large gullies (i.e. eroding landforms > 1 ha) can drastically improve the water quality of connected waterways and, thus, protect vulnerable ecosystems in downstream-receiving waters.
Elvira Mächler, Anham Salyani, Jean-Claude Walser, Annegret Larsen, Bettina Schaefli, Florian Altermatt, and Natalie Ceperley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 735–753,Short summary
In this study, we collected water from an Alpine catchment in Switzerland and compared the genetic information of eukaryotic organisms conveyed by eDNA with the hydrologic information conveyed by naturally occurring hydrologic tracers. At the intersection of two disciplines, our study provides complementary knowledge gains and identifies the next steps to be addressed for using eDNA to achieve complementary insights into Alpine water sources.
Jana von Freyberg, Julia L. A. Knapp, Andrea Rücker, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5821–5834,Short summary
Automated water samplers are often used to collect precipitation and streamwater samples for subsequent isotope analysis, but the isotopic signal of these samples may be altered due to evaporative fractionation occurring during the storage inside the autosamplers in the field. In this article we present and evaluate a cost-efficient modification to the Teledyne ISCO automated water sampler that prevents isotopic enrichment through evaporative fractionation of the water samples.
Kolbjørn Engeland, Anna Aano, Ida Steffensen, Eivind Støren, and Øyvind Paasche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5595–5619,Short summary
We combine systematic, historical, and paleo information to obtain flood information from the last 10 300 years for the Glomma River in Norway. We identify periods with increased flood activity (4000–2000 years ago and the recent 1000 years) that correspond broadly to periods with low summer temperatures and glacier growth. The design floods in Glomma were more than 20 % higher during the 18th century than today. We suggest that trends in flood variability are linked to snow in late spring.
James W. Kirchner, Sarah E. Godsey, Madeline Solomon, Randall Osterhuber, Joseph R. McConnell, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5095–5123,Short summary
Streams and groundwaters often show daily cycles in response to snowmelt and evapotranspiration. These typically have a roughly 6 h time lag, which is often interpreted as a travel-time lag. Here we show that it is instead primarily a phase lag that arises because aquifers integrate their inputs over time. We further show how these cycles shift seasonally, mirroring the springtime retreat of snow cover to higher elevations and the seasonal advance and retreat of photosynthetic activity.
Jasper Foets, Carlos E. Wetzel, Núria Martínez-Carreras, Adriaan J. Teuling, Jean-François Iffly, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4709–4725,Short summary
Diatoms (microscopic algae) are regarded as useful tracers in catchment hydrology. However, diatom analysis is labour-intensive; therefore, only a limited number of samples can be analysed. To reduce this number, we explored the potential for a time-integrated mass-flux sampler to provide a representative sample of the diatom assemblage for a whole storm run-off event. Our results indicate that the Phillips sampler did indeed sample representative communities during two of the three events.
Leonie Kiewiet, Ilja van Meerveld, Manfred Stähli, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3381–3398,Short summary
The sources of stream water are important, for instance, for predicting floods. The connectivity between streams and different (ground-)water sources can change during rain events, which affects the stream water composition. We investigated this for stream water sampled during four events and found that stream water came from different sources. The stream water composition changed gradually, and we showed that changes in solute concentrations could be partly linked to changes in connectivity.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Binru Zhao, and Dawei Han
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2577–2591,Short summary
Soil moisture plays an important role in hydrological modelling. However, most existing in situ observation networks rarely provide sufficient coverage to capture soil moisture variations. Clearly, there is a need to develop a systematic approach, so that with the minimal number of sensors the soil moisture information could be captured accurately. In this study, a simple and low-data requirement method is proposed (WRF, PCA, CA), which can provide very efficient soil moisture estimations.
Abraham J. Gibson, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Greg R. Hancock, and Garry Willgoose
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1985–2002,Short summary
To be better prepared for drought, we need to be able to characterize how they begin, translate to on-ground impacts and how they end. We created a 100-year drought record for an area on the east coast of Australia and compared this with soil moisture and vegetation data. Drought reduces vegetation and soil moisture, but recovery rates are different across different catchments. Our methods can be universally applied and show the need to develop area-specific data to inform drought management.
Clemens Messerschmid, Martin Sauter, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 887–917,Short summary
Recharge assessment in the shared transboundary Western Aquifer Basin is highly relevant, scientifically as well as hydropolitically (in Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations). Our unique combination of field-measured soil characteristics and soil moisture time series with soil moisture saturation excess modelling provides a new basis for the spatial differentiation of formation-specific groundwater recharge (at any scale), applicable also in other previously ungauged basins around the world.
J. Nikolaus Callow, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Ryan I. J. Vogwill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 717–734,Short summary
Secondary dryland salinity is a global land degradation issue. Our understanding of causal processes is adapted from wet and hydrologically connected landscapes and concludes that low end-of-catchment runoff indicates land clearing alters water balance in favour of increased infiltration and rising groundwater that bring salts to the surface causing salinity. This study shows surface flows play an important role in causing valley floor recharge and dryland salinity in low-gradient landscapes.
Nils Michelsen, Gerrit Laube, Jan Friesen, Stephan M. Weise, Ali Bakhit Ali Bait Said, and Thomas Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2637–2645,Short summary
Most commercial automatic rain samplers are costly and do not prevent evaporation from the collection bottles. Hence, we have developed a microcontroller-based collector enabling timer-actuated integral rain sampling. The simple, low-cost device is robust and effectively minimizes post-sampling evaporation. The excellent performance of the collector during an evaporation experiment in a lab oven suggests that even multi-week field deployments in warm climates are feasible.
Michael Engel, Daniele Penna, Giacomo Bertoldi, Gianluca Vignoli, Werner Tirler, and Francesco Comiti
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2041–2063,Short summary
Hydrometric and geochemical dynamics are controlled by interplay of meteorological conditions, topography and geological heterogeneity. Nivo-meteorological indicators (such as global solar radiation, temperature and decreasing snow depth) explain monthly conductivity and isotopic dynamics best. These insights are important for better understanding hydrochemical responses of glacierized catchments under a changing cryosphere.
Andrew D. Wickert, Chad T. Sandell, Bobby Schulz, and Gene-Hua Crystal Ng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2065–2076,Short summary
Measuring Earth's changing environment is a critical part of natural science, but to date most of the equipment to do so is expensive, proprietary, and difficult to customize. We addressed this challenge by developing and deploying the ALog, a low-power, lightweight, Arduino-compatible data logger. We present our hardware schematics and layouts, as well as our customizable code library that operates the ALog and helps users to link it to off-the-shelf sensors.
Bruce C. Scott-Shaw and Colin S. Everson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1553–1565,Short summary
The research undertaken for this study has allowed for an accurate direct comparison of indigenous and introduced tree water use. The measurements of trees growing in the understorey indicate significant water use in the subcanopy layer. The results showed that individual tree water use is largely inter-species specific. The introduced species remain active during the dry winter periods, resulting in their cumulative water use being significantly greater than that of the indigenous species.
Barbara Glaser, Marta Antonelli, Marco Chini, Laurent Pfister, and Julian Klaus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5987–6003,Short summary
We demonstrate how thermal infrared images can be used for mapping the appearance and disappearance of water at the surface. The use of thermal infrared images allows for mapping this appearance and disappearance for various temporal and spatial resolutions, and the images can be understood intuitively. We explain the necessary steps in detail, from image acquisition to final processing, by relying on image examples and experience from an 18-month mapping campaign.
Simon Etter, Barbara Strobl, Jan Seibert, and H. J. Ilja van Meerveld
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5243–5257,Short summary
To evaluate the potential value of streamflow estimates for hydrological model calibration, we created synthetic streamflow datasets in various temporal resolutions based on the errors in streamflow estimates of 136 citizens. Our results show that streamflow estimates of untrained citizens are too inaccurate to be useful for model calibration. If, however, the errors can be reduced by training or filtering, the estimates become useful if also a sufficient number of estimates are available.
Doris Duethmann and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5143–5158,Short summary
We analyze changes in catchment evaporation estimated from the water balances of 156 catchments in Austria over 1977–2014, as well as the possible causes of these changes. Our results show that catchment evaporation increased on average by 29 ± 14 mm yr−1 decade−1. We attribute this increase to changes in atmospheric demand (based on reference and pan evaporation), changes in vegetation (quantified by a satellite-based vegetation index), and changes in precipitation.
Arno Hartmann, Marc Luetscher, Ralf Wachter, Philipp Holz, Elisabeth Eiche, and Thomas Neumann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4281–4293,Short summary
We have developed a new mobile automated water sampling device for environmental research and other applications where waters need to be tested for compliance with environmental/health regulations. It has two main advantages over similar devices: firstly, it injects water samples directly into airtight vials to prevent any change in sample properties through contamination, evaporation and gas exchange. Secondly, it can hold up to 160 sample vials, while other devices only hold up to 24 vials.
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, and Yongzheng Lu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1081–1093,Short summary
The study examined dynamics of DOC export from a permafrost peatland catchment located in northeastern China. The findings indicated that the DOC export is a transport-limited process and the DOC load was significant for the net carbon balance in the studied catchment. The flowpath shift process is key to observed DOC concentration, resources and chemical characteristics in discharge. Permafrost degradation would likely elevate the proportion of microbe-originated DOC in baseflow.
Maurizio Mazzoleni, Vivian Juliette Cortes Arevalo, Uta Wehn, Leonardo Alfonso, Daniele Norbiato, Martina Monego, Michele Ferri, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 391–416,Short summary
We investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of sensors for different scenarios of citizen involvement levels during the flood event occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment in May 2013. We achieve high model performance by integrating crowdsourced data, in particular from citizens motivated by their feeling of belonging to a community. Satisfactory model performance can still be obtained even for decreasing citizen involvement over time.
Daniele P. Viero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 171–177,
Fayçal Rejiba, Cyril Schamper, Antoine Chevalier, Benoit Deleplancque, Gaghik Hovhannissian, Julien Thiesson, and Pierre Weill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 159–170,Short summary
The internal variability of paleomeanders strongly influence water fluxes in alluvial plains. This study presents the results of a hydrogeophysical investigation that provide a very detailed characterization of the geometry of a wide paleomeander. The presented case study, situated in the Seine River basin (France), represents a common sedimentary and geomorphological structure in alluvial plains worldwide.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Paul Floury, Jérôme Gaillardet, Eric Gayer, Julien Bouchez, Gaëlle Tallec, Patrick Ansart, Frédéric Koch, Caroline Gorge, Arnaud Blanchouin, and Jean-Louis Roubaty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6153–6165,Short summary
We present a new prototype
lab in the fieldnamed River Lab (RL) designed for water quality monitoring to perform a complete analysis at sub-hourly frequency of major dissolved species in river water. The article is an analytical paper to present the proof of concept, its performances and improvements. Our tests reveal a significant improvement of reproducibility compared to conventional analysis in the laboratory. First results are promising for understanding the critical zone.
Vladimir P. Shevchenko, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Ivan V. Krickov, Rinat M. Manasypov, Nadezhda V. Politova, Sergey G. Kopysov, Olga M. Dara, Yves Auda, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Valery A. Zemtsov, and Sergey N. Kirpotin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5725–5746,Short summary
We used a coupled hydrological–hydrochemical approach to assess the impact of snow on river and lake water chemistry across a permafrost gradient in very poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), encompassing > 1.5 million km2. The riverine springtime fluxes of major and trace element in WSL rivers might be strongly overestimated due to previously unknown input from the snow deposition.
Sara A. Kelly, Zeinab Takbiri, Patrick Belmont, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5065–5088,Short summary
Humans have profoundly altered land cover and soil drainage for agricultural purposes in the Midwestern USA. Here we investigate whether climate alone can explain recent increases in observed streamflows throughout the region. Using multiple analyses, including statistical tests and water budgets, we conclude that historical drainage installation has likely amplified the streamflow response to regional precipitation increases. We stress that better documentation of artificial drainage is needed.
Andreas Güntner, Marvin Reich, Michal Mikolaj, Benjamin Creutzfeldt, Stephan Schroeder, and Hartmut Wziontek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3167–3182,Short summary
Monitoring water storage changes beyond the point scale is a challenge. Here, we show that an integrative and non-invasive way is by observing variations of gravity that are induced by water mass changes. A high-precision superconducting gravimeter is successfully operated in the field and allows for direct and continuous monitoring of the water balance and of its components, such as actual evapotranspiration.
Martin Hirschi, Dominik Michel, Irene Lehner, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1809–1825,Short summary
We compare lysimeter and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of evapotranspiration at a research catchment in Switzerland. The measurements are compared on various timescales, and with respect to a 40-year long-term lysimeter time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual timescale. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC data during/after rainfall events significantly contributes to an underestimation of EC evapotranspiration.
Jana von Freyberg, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1721–1739,Short summary
We present a newly developed instrument package that enables the online analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion chemistry at 30 min intervals in the field. The resulting data streams provide an unprecedented view of hydrochemical dynamics on the catchment scale. Based on a detailed analysis of the variable behavior of isotopic and chemical tracers in stream water and precipitation over a 4-week period, we developed a conceptual hypothesis for runoff generation in the studied catchment.
Neil Macdonald and Heather Sangster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1631–1650,Short summary
We use historical records to extend current understanding of flood risk, examining past spatial and temporal variability and ask
are the perceived high-magnitude flood events witnessed in recent years really unprecedented?We identify that there are statistically significant relationships between the British flood index and climatic drivers, whereby the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.
Katherine J. Elliott, Peter V. Caldwell, Steven T. Brantley, Chelcy F. Miniat, James M. Vose, and Wayne T. Swank
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 981–997,Short summary
Our long-term results are relevant to land areas that are in pasture and those that have reverted back to forests. We found that within a deciduous forest, species identity matters in terms of how much precipitation leaves the watershed as evapotranspiration versus water yield. We demonstrate that a shift in tree species composition from species with ring-porous xylem to species with diffuse-porous xylem can increase water use, and in turn, produce a long-term reduction in water yield.
Natalie Orlowski, Philipp Kraft, Jakob Pferdmenges, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3873–3894,Short summary
The 2-year measurements of δ2H and δ18O in rainfall, stream, soil, and groundwater revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions in the Schwingbach catchment. We established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions. Our model revealed complex age dynamics and showed that runoff must have been stored in the catchment for much longer than event water.
Xuening Fang, Wenwu Zhao, Lixin Wang, Qiang Feng, Jingyi Ding, Yuanxin Liu, and Xiao Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3309–3323,Short summary
In this study, we focused on analyzing the variation and factors influencing deep soil moisture content based on a soil moisture survey of the Ansai watershed. Our results revealed the variation characteristics of deep soil moisture and its controlling mechanism at a moderate scale. The results of this study are of practical significance for vegetation restoration strategies and the sustainability of restored ecosystems.
Guillaume Lacombe, Olivier Ribolzi, Anneke de Rouw, Alain Pierret, Keoudone Latsachak, Norbert Silvera, Rinh Pham Dinh, Didier Orange, Jean-Louis Janeau, Bounsamai Soulileuth, Henri Robain, Adrien Taccoen, Phouthamaly Sengphaathith, Emmanuel Mouche, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Toan Tran Duc, and Christian Valentin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2691–2704,Short summary
Laos and Vietnam have switched from net forest loss to net forest expansion between 1990 and 2015. Based on long-term field measurements of land use, river flows, and weather data, we demonstrate that forest expansion can have extreme, yet opposite, impacts on water resources, depending on how the newly established tree-based cover is managed. The conversion of annual crops to teak plantations in Laos or to naturally regrowing forests in Vietnam led to increased and decreased flows, respectively.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1269–1288,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors bridge the gap between point-scale measurements of soil moisture and remote sensing applications. We tested four distinct methods to calibrate the sensor in a temperate forest environment using different soil moisture weighting approaches. While the variable leaf biomass of the deciduous trees had no significant influence on the calibration, it proved necessary to modify the standard calibration method to achieve the best sensor performance.
A. P. Schreiner-McGraw, E. R. Vivoni, G. Mascaro, and T. E. Franz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 329–345,Short summary
Soil moisture estimates from a novel method were evaluated in two semiarid watersheds. We found good agreements between the technique and estimates derived from watershed instruments designed to close the water balance. We then investigated local hydrologic processes and link between evapotranspiration and soil moisture obtained from the novel measurements.
G. Blöschl, A. P. Blaschke, M. Broer, C. Bucher, G. Carr, X. Chen, A. Eder, M. Exner-Kittridge, A. Farnleitner, A. Flores-Orozco, P. Haas, P. Hogan, A. Kazemi Amiri, M. Oismüller, J. Parajka, R. Silasari, P. Stadler, P. Strauss, M. Vreugdenhil, W. Wagner, and M. Zessner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 227–255,Short summary
This paper illustrates the experimental and monitoring set-up of the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, which allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The HOAL catchment features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), and is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network.
C. Duvert, M. K. Stewart, D. I. Cendón, and M. Raiber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 257–277,Short summary
The transit time of water is a key indicator of hydrological processes at the catchment scale. Our results suggest that the use of tritium time series in streamwater can be highly valuable for assessing the temporal variations in the transit time of older groundwater contributions to streamflow. We also show that, shortly after high flow events, the transit time of the old water fraction increases and tends to approach the groundwater residence time.
V. V. Camacho Suarez, A. M. L. Saraiva Okello, J. W. Wenninger, and S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4183–4199,Short summary
Isotope and hydrochemical tracers are tested providing new insights to isotope hydrograph in semi-arid areas in southern Africa. This study provides a spatial hydrochemical characterization of surface and groundwater sources, end member mixing analysis, and two- and three-component hydrograph separations. Results showed that the Kaap catchment is mainly dominated by groundwater sources, and direct runoff is positively correlated with the Antecedent Precipitation Index during the wet season.
Allen, D. J., Darling, W. G., Davies, J., Newell, A. J., Gooddy, D. C., and Collins, A. L.: Groundwater conceptual models: implications for evaluating diffuse pollution mitigation measures, Quart. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol., 47, 65–80, 2014.
Ballantine, D. J., Walling, D. E., Collins, A. L., and Leeks, G. J. L.: The content and storage of phosphorus in fine-grained channel bed sediment in contrasting lowland agricultural catchments in the UK, Geoderma, 151, 141–149, 2009.
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Burt, T. P., Arkell, B. P., Trudgill, S. T., and Walling, D. E.: Stream nitrate levels in a small catchment in south west England over a period of 15 years (1970–1985), Hydrol. Process., 2, 267–284, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.3360020307, 1988.
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Cherry, K. A., Shepherd, M., Withers, P. J. A., and Mooney, S. J.: Assessing the effectiveness of actions to mitigate nutrient loss from agriculture: a review of methods, Sci. Total Environ., 406, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.07.015, 2008.
Collins, A., Ohandja, D. G., Hoare, D., and Voulvoulis, N.: Implementing the water framework directive: a transition from established monitoring networks in England and Wales, Environ. Sci. Policy, 17, 49–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.11.003, 2012.
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Deasy, C., Heathwaite, A. L. H., Brazier, R. E., and Hodgkinson, R.: Pathways of runoff and sediment transfer in small agricultural catchments, Hydrol. Process., 23, 1349–1358, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7257, 2009a.
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Johnes, P. J.: Uncertainties in annual riverine phosphorus load estimation: impact of load estimation methodology, sampling frequency, baseflow index and catchment population density, J. Hydrol., 332, 241–258, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.006, 2007b.
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