Articles | Volume 26, issue 20
28 Oct 2022
Research article | 28 Oct 2022
Understanding the diurnal cycle of land–atmosphere interactions from flux site observations
Eunkyo Seo and Paul A. Dirmeyer
No articles found.
Zun Yin, Kirsten Findell, Paul Dirmeyer, Elena Shevliakova, Sergey Malyshev, Khaled Ghannam, Nina Raoult, and Zhihong Tan
Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions concerns daytime process. However, most studies used monthly (M) or entire-day-mean (E) data, due to the lack of daytime-only data. We questioned if M and E are sufficient for assessing L-A coupling strength. Via this study, we found that the evaluation is biased by integrating nighttime or by monthly smoothing. We propose either integrating L-A metrics within models or providing daily products based on optimized averaging algorithms.
Liang Chen, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Zhichang Guo, and Natalie M. Schultz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 111–125,Short summary
This paper evaluates the performance of two commonly used land surface models in simulating deforestation-induced change in surface fluxes using paired FLUXNET observations. Our results highlight the shortcomings in the energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux over different land cover types, suggesting the need to improve the representation of surface heat flux processes in land models to increase confidence in LULCC-climate simulations.
Yoshihide Wada, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Ad de Roo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, James S. Famiglietti, Naota Hanasaki, Megan Konar, Junguo Liu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Taikan Oki, Yadu Pokhrel, Murugesu Sivapalan, Tara J. Troy, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Tim van Emmerik, Marjolein H. J. Van Huijgevoort, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Charles J. Vörösmarty, Niko Wanders, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4169–4193,Short summary
Rapidly increasing population and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes on an unprecedented scale. Awareness of potential water scarcity led to first global water resource assessments; however, few hydrological models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities. Our contribution highlights the importance of human activities transforming the Earth's water cycle, and how hydrological models can include such influences in an integrated manner.
Randal D. Koster, Alan K. Betts, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Marc Bierkens, Katrina E. Bennett, Stephen J. Déry, Jason P. Evans, Rong Fu, Felipe Hernandez, L. Ruby Leung, Xu Liang, Muhammad Masood, Hubert Savenije, Guiling Wang, and Xing Yuan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3777–3798,Short summary
Large-scale hydrological variability can affect society in profound ways; floods and droughts, for example, often cause major damage and hardship. A recent gathering of hydrologists at a symposium to honor the career of Professor Eric Wood motivates the present survey of recent research on this variability. The surveyed literature and the illustrative examples provided in the paper show that research into hydrological variability continues to be strong, vibrant, and multifaceted.
Subhadeep Halder, Subodh K. Saha, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Thomas N. Chase, and Bhupendra Nath Goswami
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1765–1784,Short summary
Regional climate model (RegCM4) simulations demonstrate that part of the observed decrease in moderate rainfall events during the summer monsoon season over central India from 1951 to 2005 is attributed to anthropogenically induced land-use land-cover change (LULCC). LULCC also partly explains the observed warming trend in the daily mean and maximum temperatures over India. This study demonstrates the importance of LULCC in the context of regional climate change over India.
A. M. Badger and P. A. Dirmeyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4547–4557,Short summary
This study expands upon previous Amazon deforestation modeling studies by using realistic heterogeneous crop cover as replacement vegetation and diagnoses the changes in land-atmosphere coupling due to land use change. With the use of an interactive crop model, the impact that irrigation has on land-atmosphere coupling when using crops as a replacement vegetation is analyzed. This study also provides documentation on the development of tropical crops for CLM4.5.
P. A. Dirmeyer, G. Fang, Z. Wang, P. Yadav, and A. Milton
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5317–5329,Short summary
Climate change simulations project drought to increase even under moderate warming scenarios; both droughts and floods increase sharply with severe warming. Over 20% of the globe is projected to experience reduced rainfall but greater year-to-year variability. The vulnerability of growing regions for many types of crops are assessed based on soil moisture, and rivers using runoff projections. Increased water cycle variability is found to be a threat to agriculture and river systems as well.
S. J. Sutanto, B. van den Hurk, P. A. Dirmeyer, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Röckmann, K. E. Trenberth, E. M. Blyth, J. Wenninger, and G. Hoffmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2815–2827,
B. Mueller, M. Hirschi, C. Jimenez, P. Ciais, P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, F. Ludwig, F. Maignan, D. G. Miralles, M. F. McCabe, M. Reichstein, J. Sheffield, K. Wang, E. F. Wood, Y. Zhang, and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3707–3720,
Related subject area
Subject: Hydrometeorology | Techniques and Approaches: Theory developmentBreakdown in precipitation–temperature scaling over India predominantly explained by cloud-driven coolingHistorical droughts manifest an abrupt shift to a wetter Tibetan PlateauCitizen rain gauges improve hourly radar rainfall bias correction using a two-step Kalman filterDynamical forcings in heavy precipitation events over Italy: lessons from the HyMeX SOP1 campaignWater vapor isotopes indicating rapid shift among multiple moisture sources for the 2018–2019 winter extreme precipitation events in southeastern ChinaSpatiotemporal and cross-scale interactions in hydroclimate variability: a case-study in FranceRelative humidity gradients as a key constraint on terrestrial water and energy fluxesA climatological benchmark for operational radar rainfall bias reductionThe precipitation variability of the wet and dry season at the interannual and interdecadal scales over eastern China (1901–2016): the impacts of the Pacific OceanFlash drought onset over the contiguous United States: sensitivity of inventories and trends to quantitative definitionsA skewed perspective of the Indian rainfall–El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) relationshipImprints of evaporative conditions and vegetation type in diurnal temperature variationsA universal Standardized Precipitation Index candidate distribution function for observations and simulationsA review of the complementary principle of evaporation: from the original linear relationship to generalized nonlinear functionsModel representation of the coupling between evapotranspiration and soil water content at different depthsCombined impacts of ENSO and MJO on the 2015 growing season drought on the Canadian PrairiesExploring the relationships between warm-season precipitation, potential evaporation, and “apparent” potential evaporation at site scaleFuture extreme precipitation intensities based on a historic eventInterannual-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability and its sectoral impacts in northeastern ArgentinaImpact of ENSO regimes on developing- and decaying-phase precipitation during rainy season in ChinaVariations in the correlation between teleconnections and Taiwan's streamflowA gain–loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage–wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periodsThe residence time of water in the atmosphere revisitedA systematic assessment of drought termination in the United KingdomFrom meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicatorsImpact of two different types of El Niño events on runoff over the conterminous United StatesFlood sensitivity of the Bavarian Alpine Foreland since the late Middle Ages in the context of internal and external climate forcing factorsNovel indices for the comparison of precipitation extremes and floods: an example from the Czech territoryMulti-annual droughts in the English Lowlands: a review of their characteristics and climate drivers in the winter half-yearFractional snow-covered area parameterization over complex topographyComment on "Technical Note: On the Matt–Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements" by Lhomme et al. (2014)A review of droughts on the African continent: a geospatial and long-term perspectiveSynchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern HemisphereContinental moisture recycling as a Poisson processLinking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classificationImpact of elevation and weather patterns on the isotopic composition of precipitation in a tropical montane rainforestA new perspective on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture: temporal dynamics versus time-invariant contributionsUnderstanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources managementAn analytical model for soil-atmosphere feedbackSpatial horizontal correlation characteristics in the land data assimilation of soil moistureOn the factors influencing surface-layer energy closure and their seasonal variability over the semi-arid Loess Plateau of Northwest ChinaSpatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood responseScaling and trends of hourly precipitation extremes in two different climate zones – Hong Kong and the NetherlandsThe response of Iberian rivers to the North Atlantic OscillationCopula-based downscaling of spatial rainfall: a proof of conceptTowards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"Extracting statistical parameters of extreme precipitation from a NWP model
Sarosh Alam Ghausi, Subimal Ghosh, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4431–4446,Short summary
The observed response of extreme precipitation to global warming remains unclear with significant regional variations. We show that a large part of this uncertainty can be removed when the imprint of clouds in surface temperatures is removed. We used a thermodynamic systems approach to remove the cloud radiative effect from temperatures. We then found that precipitation extremes intensified with global warming at positive rates which is consistent with physical arguments and model simulations.
Yongwei Liu, Yuanbo Liu, Wen Wang, Han Zhou, and Lide Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3825–3845,Short summary
This study investigated the wetting and drying of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from variations in soil moisture (SM) droughts. We found the TP experienced an abrupt and significant wetting shift in the middle to late 1990s, not merely the steady trends given in literature. This shift is dominated by precipitation and attributed to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The wetting shift indicates a climate regime change. Our innovative work provides implications for further knowledge of the TP climate.
Punpim Puttaraksa Mapiam, Monton Methaprayun, Thom Bogaard, Gerrit Schoups, and Marie-Claire Ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 775–794,Short summary
The density of rain gauge networks plays an important role in radar rainfall bias correction. In this work, we aimed to assess the extent to which daily rainfall observations from a dense network of citizen scientists improve the accuracy of hourly radar rainfall estimates in the Tubma Basin, Thailand. Results show that citizen rain gauges significantly enhance the performance of radar rainfall bias adjustment up to a range of about 40 km from the center of the citizen rain gauge network.
Mario Marcello Miglietta and Silvio Davolio
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 627–646,Short summary
The main results emerging from the HyMeX SOP1 campaign and in the subsequent research activity in three Italian target areas are highlighted through conceptual models and through the identification of the relevant mesoscale environmental characteristics conducive to heavy rain events.
Tao Xu, Hongxi Pang, Zhaojun Zhan, Wangbin Zhang, Huiwen Guo, Shuangye Wu, and Shugui Hou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 117–127,Short summary
In this study, we presented stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor and precipitation for five extreme winter precipitation events in Nanjing, southeastern China, from December 2018 to February 2019. Our results imply that multiple moisture sources and the rapid shift among them are important conditions for sustaining extreme precipitation events, especially in the relatively cold and dry winter.
Manuel Fossa, Bastien Dieppois, Nicolas Massei, Matthieu Fournier, Benoit Laignel, and Jean-Philippe Vidal
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5683–5702,Short summary
Hydro-climate observations (such as precipitation, temperature, and river discharge time series) reveal very complex behavior inherited from complex interactions among the physical processes that drive hydro-climate viability. This study shows how even small perturbations of a physical process can have large consequences on some others. Those interactions vary spatially, thus showing the importance of both temporal and spatial dimensions in better understanding hydro-climate variability.
Yeonuk Kim, Monica Garcia, Laura Morillas, Ulrich Weber, T. Andrew Black, and Mark S. Johnson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5175–5191,Short summary
Here, we present a novel physically based evaporation model to demonstrate that vertical relative humidity (RH) gradients from the land surface to the atmosphere tend to evolve towards zero due to land–atmosphere equilibration processes. Collapsing RH gradients on daily to yearly timescales indicate an emergent land–atmosphere equilibrium, making it possible to determine evapotranspiration using only meteorological information, independent of land surface conditions and vegetation controls.
Ruben Imhoff, Claudia Brauer, Klaas-Jan van Heeringen, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, Albrecht Weerts, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4061–4080,Short summary
Significant biases in real-time radar rainfall products limit the use for hydrometeorological forecasting. We introduce CARROTS (Climatology-based Adjustments for Radar Rainfall in an OperaTional Setting), a set of fixed bias reduction factors to correct radar rainfall products and to benchmark other correction algorithms. When tested for 12 Dutch basins, estimated rainfall and simulated discharges with CARROTS generally outperform those using the operational mean field bias adjustments.
Tao Gao, Fuqiang Cao, Li Dan, Ming Li, Xiang Gong, and Junjie Zhan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1467–1481,Short summary
The rainfall in eastern China is principally concentrated from April–September. Changes are roughly coincident with phase shifts of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in both the dry (October–March) and wet (April–September) seasons, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) triggers a stronger effect on precipitation in the wet season. The interannual and interdecadal rainfall variability over eastern China is substantially modulated by drivers originating from the Pacific Ocean.
Mahmoud Osman, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jordan I. Christian, Tsegaye Tadesse, Jason A. Otkin, and Martha C. Anderson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 565–581,Short summary
Our study of flash droughts' definitions over the United States shows that published definitions yield markedly different inventories of flash drought geography and frequency. Results suggest there are several pathways that can lead to events that are characterized as flash droughts. Lack of consensus across definitions helps to explain apparent contradictions in the literature on trends and indicates the selection of a definition is important for accurate monitoring of different mechanisms.
Justin Schulte, Frederick Policielli, and Benjamin Zaitchik
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5473–5489,Short summary
Wavelet coherence is now a commonly used method for detecting scale-dependent relationships between time series. In this study, the concept of wavelet coherence is generalized to higher-order wavelet coherence methods that quantify the relationship between higher-order statistical moments associated with two time series. The methods are applied to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian monsoon to show that the ENSO–Indian monsoon relationship is impacted by ENSO nonlinearity.
Annu Panwar, Maik Renner, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4923–4942,Short summary
Here we examine the effect of evaporative cooling across different vegetation types. Evaporation cools surface temperature significantly in short vegetation. In the forest, the high aerodynamic conductance explains 56 % of the reduced surface temperature. Therefore, the main cooling agent in the forest is the high aerodynamic conductance and not evaporation. Additionally, we propose the diurnal variation in surface temperature as being a potential indicator of evaporation in short vegetation.
Patrick Pieper, André Düsterhus, and Johanna Baehr
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4541–4565,Short summary
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely accepted drought index. SPI normalizes the precipitation distribution via a probability density function (PDF). However, which PDF properly normalizes SPI is still disputed. We suggest using a previously mostly overlooked PDF, namely the exponentiated Weibull distribution. The proposed PDF ensures the normality of the index. We demonstrate this – for the first time – for all common accumulation periods in both observations and simulations.
Songjun Han and Fuqiang Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2269–2285,Short summary
The complementary principle is an important methodology for estimating actual evaporation by using routinely observed meteorological variables. This review summaries its 56-year development, focusing on how related studies have shifted from adopting a symmetric linear complementary relationship to employing generalized nonlinear functions. We also compare the polynomial and sigmoid types of generalized complementary functions and discuss their future development.
Jianxiu Qiu, Wade T. Crow, Jianzhi Dong, and Grey S. Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 581–594,Short summary
Accurately estimating coupling of evapotranspiration (ET) and soil water content (θ) at different depths is key to investigating land–atmosphere interaction. Here we examine whether the model can accurately represent surface θ (θs) versus ET coupling and vertically integrated θ (θv) versus ET coupling. We find that all models agree with observations that θs contains slightly more information with fPET than θv. In addition, an ET scheme is crucial for accurately estimating coupling of θ and ET.
Zhenhua Li, Yanping Li, Barrie Bonsal, Alan H. Manson, and Lucia Scaff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5057–5067,Short summary
The research started by investigating the 2015 growing season drought over the Canadian Prairies and evolved into investigating the connection between growing season rain deficit in the Prairies and MJO (20–90 days tropical oscillation in convective storms). With warm central Pacific sea surface temperature, strong MJOs in the western Pacific cause Rossby wave trains that propagate downstream and favour upper-level ridges and rain deficits over the Canadian Prairies during the growing season.
Xi Chen and Steven G. Buchberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4535–4545,Short summary
Based on warm season data from 259 weather stations across the US, we analyze the correlation between precipitation, potential evaporation, and “apparent” potential evaporation (measured by pan evaporation). Over 93 % of the stations show negative correlation between precipitation and
apparentpotential evaporation, but no clear relationship is shown between precipitation and potential evaporation. The collected data points follow the trend of the newly derived Bouchet–Budyko curve.
Iris Manola, Bart van den Hurk, Hans De Moel, and Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3777–3788,Short summary
In a warmer climate, it is expected that precipitation intensities will increase and form a considerable risk of high-impact precipitation extremes. We investigate how observed extreme precipitation events would look like if they took place in a future warmer climate. This study applies three methods to transform a historic extreme precipitation event in the Netherlands to a similar event in a future warmer climate, thus compiling a
Miguel A. Lovino, Omar V. Müller, Gabriela V. Müller, Leandro C. Sgroi, and Walter E. Baethgen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3155–3174,Short summary
This study examines hydroclimate variability in northeastern Argentina; advances the understanding of its links with global SST forcing; and discusses its impacts on water resources, agriculture and human settlements. Interannual-to-multidecadal variability led to frequent extreme events. Severe floods affected agriculture, livestock productivity, and forced population displacements. Droughts affected water resources, causing water and food scarcity. Increased temperatures reduced crop yields.
Qing Cao, Zhenchun Hao, Feifei Yuan, Zhenkuan Su, Ronny Berndtsson, Jie Hao, and Tsring Nyima
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5415–5426,Short summary
This study analyzed the rainy-season precipitation in China influenced by various ENSO types. The precipitation anomalies were investigated under different ENSO types, which may be attributed to the combined influence of anti-cyclone in the western North Pacific and the Indian monsoon. The results improve the understanding of linkages between the precipitation and global teleconnection patterns. The results suggest a certain predictability of flood and drought related to different ENSO types.
Chia-Jeng Chen and Tsung-Yu Lee
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3463–3481,Short summary
Regional hydro-climatic variables are modulated by large-scale, reoccurring climate oscillations. In this article, the authors provide both statistical and physical evidence of how Taiwan’s summertime streamflow is strongly correlated with specific teleconnection patterns dominating cyclonic activity in the western North Pacific. However, such correlation can be strengthened or weakened by notable climate regime shifts, illustrating the pitfall of empirical seasonal forecasting.
Vianney Courdent, Morten Grum, Thomas Munk-Nielsen, and Peter S. Mikkelsen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2531–2544,Short summary
Urban drainage and wastewater systems are heavily impacted by precipitation. Hence, weather forecasts are valuable in improving their management. However, forecasts are intrinsically uncertain, especially when fine model resolution is required, which is the case for urban hydrology. Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers. This study presents an economic framework to support the decision-making process by providing information on when acting on the forecast is beneficial.
Ruud J. van der Ent and Obbe A. Tuinenburg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 779–790,Short summary
This research seeks out to answer a fundamental question about the functioning of the water cycle in the atmosphere: how much time does a water particle spend in the atmosphere? Based on state-of-the-art data, we derive a global average residence time of water in the atmosphere of 8–10 days. We further show in this paper how the residence time of water varies in time and space. This serves to illustrate why it is so difficult to make weather predictions on timescales longer than a week.
Simon Parry, Robert L. Wilby, Christel Prudhomme, and Paul J. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4265–4281,Short summary
This paper identifies periods of recovery from drought in 52 river flow records from the UK between 1883 and 2013. The approach detects 459 events that vary in space and time. This large dataset allows individual events to be compared with others in the historical record. The ability to objectively appraise contemporary events against the historical record has not previously been possible, and may allow water managers to prepare for a range of outcomes at the end of a drought.
Lucy J. Barker, Jamie Hannaford, Andrew Chiverton, and Cecilia Svensson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2483–2505,Short summary
Standardised meteorological indicators are widely used in drought monitoring, but applications to hydrological drought are less extensive. Here we assess the utility of standardised indicators for characterising drought duration, severity and propagation in a diverse set of 121 UK catchments. Spatial variations in streamflow drought characteristics reflect differences in drought propagation behaviour that are themselves largely driven by heterogeneity in catchment properties around the UK.
T. Tang, W. Li, and G. Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 27–37,
O. Böhm, J. Jacobeit, R. Glaser, and K.-F. Wetzel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4721–4734,
M. Müller, M. Kašpar, A. Valeriánová, L. Crhová, E. Holtanová, and B. Gvoždíková
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4641–4652,Short summary
Three proposed indices combine return periods of precipitation totals or discharges with the size of the affected area. Precipitation indices also determine actual duration of either extreme or seasonally abnormal precipitation events. A unified design of the indices enables one to easily compare inter-annual and seasonal distributions of events, which is demonstrated by 50 maximum events in the Czech Republic during the period 1961-2010, including the June 2013 floods.
C. K. Folland, J. Hannaford, J. P. Bloomfield, M. Kendon, C. Svensson, B. P. Marchant, J. Prior, and E. Wallace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2353–2375,Short summary
The English Lowlands is a heavily populated, water-stressed region, which is vulnerable to long droughts typically associated with dry winters. We conduct a long-term (1910-present) quantitative analysis of precipitation, flow and groundwater droughts for the region, and then review potential climatic drivers. No single driver is dominant, but we demonstrate a physical link between La Nina conditions, winter rainfall and long droughts in the region.
N. Helbig, A. van Herwijnen, J. Magnusson, and T. Jonas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1339–1351,
W. J. Shuttleworth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4403–4406,Short summary
This paper explains the Matt-Shuttleworth approach clearly, simply and concisely. It shows how this approach can be implemented using a few simple equations and provides access to ancillary calculation resources that can be used for such implementation. If the crop water requirement community considered it preferable to use the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate crop water requirements directly for all crops, this could now be done using the Matt-Shuttleworth approach.
I. Masih, S. Maskey, F. E. F. Mussá, and P. Trambauer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3635–3649,
D. C. Verdon-Kidd and A. S. Kiem
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2257–2264,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4133–4142,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1455–1473,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 409–419,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2169–2179,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2049–2068,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1863–1878,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1349–1363,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3767–3783,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3033–3041,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2581–2597,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 433–445,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2233–2240,
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This study presents the climatology of the observed land–atmosphere interactions on a subdaily timescale during the warm season from flux site observations. Multivariate metrics are employed to examine the land, atmosphere, and combined couplings, and a mixing diagram is adopted to understand the coevolution of the moist and thermal energy budget within the atmospheric mixed layer. The diurnal cycles of both mixing diagrams and hourly land–atmosphere couplings exhibit hysteresis.
This study presents the climatology of the observed land–atmosphere interactions on a subdaily...