Articles | Volume 24, issue 10
Research article 20 Oct 2020
Research article | 20 Oct 2020
Imprints of evaporative conditions and vegetation type in diurnal temperature variations
Annu Panwar et al.
No articles found.
Samuel Schroers, Olivier Eiff, Axel Kleidon, Ulrike Scherer, Jan Wienhöfer, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
In hydrology the formation of landform patterns is of special interest as changing forcings of the natural systems, such as climate or land use will change these structures. In our study we developed a thermodynamic framework for surface runoff on hillslopes and highlight the differences of energy conversion patterns with surface runoff in natural streams. The results indicate that surface runoff on hillslopes approaches a maximum power state.
Samuel Schroers, Olivier Eiff, Axel Kleidon, Jan Wienhöfer, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this study we ask the basic question why surface runoff forms drainage networks and confluences at all and how structural macro form and micro topography is a result of thermodynamic laws. We find that on a macro level hillslopes should tend from negative exponential towards exponential forms and that on a micro level the formation of rills goes hand in hand with drainage network formation of river basins. We hypothesize that we can learn more about erosion processes if we extend this theory.
Axel Kleidon and Lee M. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4993–5005,Short summary
When winds are used as renewable energy by more and more wind turbines, one needs to account for the effect of wind turbines on the atmospheric flow. The Kinetic Energy Budget of the Atmosphere (KEBA) model provides a simple, physics-based approach to account for this effect very well when compared to much more detailed numerical simulations with an atmospheric model. KEBA should be useful to derive lower, more realistic wind energy resource potentials of different regions.
Axel Kleidon, Erwin Zehe, and Ralf Loritz
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Many fluxes in Earth systems are not homogeneously distributed across space, but occur highly concentrated in structures, such as turbulent eddies, river networks, vascular networks of plants, or human-made infrastructures. Yet, the highly-organized nature of these fluxes is typically only described at a rudimentary level, if at all. We propose that it requires a novel approach to describe these structures that focuses on the work done to build and maintain these structures, and the feedbacks.
Ralf Loritz, Axel Kleidon, Conrad Jackisch, Martijn Westhoff, Uwe Ehret, Hoshin Gupta, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3807–3821,Short summary
In this study, we develop a topographic index explaining hydrological similarity within a energy-centered framework, with the observation that the majority of potential energy is dissipated when rainfall becomes runoff.
Philipp Porada, Alexandra Tamm, Jose Raggio, Yafang Cheng, Axel Kleidon, Ulrich Pöschl, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 16, 2003–2031,Short summary
The trace gases NO and HONO are crucial for atmospheric chemistry. It has been suggested that biological soil crusts in drylands contribute substantially to global NO and HONO emissions, based on empirical upscaling of laboratory and field observations. Here we apply an alternative, process-based modeling approach to predict these emissions. We find that biological soil crusts emit globally significant amounts of NO and HONO, which also vary depending on the type of biological soil crust.
Erwin Zehe, Ralf Loritz, Conrad Jackisch, Martijn Westhoff, Axel Kleidon, Theresa Blume, Sibylle K. Hassler, and Hubert H. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 971–987,
Martijn Westhoff, Axel Kleidon, Stan Schymanski, Benjamin Dewals, Femke Nijsse, Maik Renner, Henk Dijkstra, Hisashi Ozawa, Hubert Savenije, Han Dolman, Antoon Meesters, and Erwin Zehe
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Publication in ESD not foreseenShort summary
Even models relying on physical laws have parameters that need to be measured or estimated. Thermodynamic optimality principles potentially offer a way to reduce the number of estimated parameters by stating that a system evolves to an optimum state. These principles have been applied successfully within the Earth system, but it is often unclear what to optimize and how. In this review paper we identify commonalities between different successful applications as well as some doubtful applications.
Maik Renner, Claire Brenner, Kaniska Mallick, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Luigi Conte, Ivonne Trebs, Jianhui Wei, Volker Wulfmeyer, Karsten Schulz, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 515–535,Short summary
We estimate the phase lag of surface states and heat fluxes to incoming solar radiation at the sub-daily timescale. While evapotranspiration reveals a minor phase lag, the vapor pressure deficit used as input by Penman–Monteith approaches shows a large phase lag. The surface-to-air temperature gradient used by energy balance residual approaches shows a small phase shift in agreement with the sensible heat flux and thus explains the better correlation of these models at the sub-daily timescale.
Axel Kleidon and Maik Renner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1127–1140,Short summary
Turbulent fluxes represent an efficient way to transport heat and moisture from the surface into the atmosphere. Due to their inherently highly complex nature, they are commonly described by semiempirical relationships. What we show here is that these fluxes can also be predicted by viewing them as the outcome of a heat engine that operates between the warm surface and the cooler atmosphere and that works at its limit.
Ralf Loritz, Hoshin Gupta, Conrad Jackisch, Martijn Westhoff, Axel Kleidon, Uwe Ehret, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3663–3684,Short summary
In this study we explore the role of spatially distributed information on hydrological modeling. For that, we develop and test an approach which draws upon information theory and thermodynamic reasoning. We show that the proposed set of methods provide a powerful framework for understanding and diagnosing how and when process organization and functional similarity of hydrological systems emerge in time and, hence, when which landscape characteristic is important in a model application.
Corina Buendía, Axel Kleidon, Stefano Manzoni, Björn Reu, and Amilcare Porporato
Biogeosciences, 15, 279–295,Short summary
Amazonia is highly biodiverse and of global importance for regulating the climate system. Because soils are highly weathered, phosphorus (P) is suggested to limit ecosystem productivity. Here, we evaluate the importance of P redistribution by animals using a simple mathematical model synthesizing the major processes of the Amazon P cycle. Our findings suggest that food web complexity plays an important role for sustaining the productivity of terra firme forests.
Axel Kleidon and Hubert H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
At larger scales, the flow of rivers can often be described by a relatively simple, exponential decay, and it is unclear how such simple behaviour can be explained given that river basins show such vast complexity. Here, we use a highly idealised model to show that such simple behaviour can be explained by viewing it as the emergent consequence of the groundwater system (which feeds river flow) minimising its energy dissipation.
Axel Kleidon and Maik Renner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 849–864,Short summary
We provide an explanation why land temperatures respond more strongly to global warming than ocean temperatures, a robust finding in observations and models that has so far not been understood well. We explain it by the different ways by which ocean and land surfaces buffer the strong variation in solar radiation and demonstrate this with a simple, physically based model. Our explanation also illustrates why nighttime temperatures warm more strongly, another robust finding of global warming.
Philipp Porada, Ulrich Pöschl, Axel Kleidon, Christian Beer, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 14, 1593–1602,Short summary
Lichens and bryophytes have been shown to release nitrous oxide, which is a strong greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone-depleting agent. Here we apply a process-based computer model of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, to estimate growth and respiration of the organisms. By relating respiration to nitrous oxide release, we simulate global nitrous oxide emissions of 0.27 (0.19–0.35) Tg yr−1. Moreover, we quantify different sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emission rates.
Anke Hildebrandt, Axel Kleidon, and Marcel Bechmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3441–3454,Short summary
This theoretical paper describes the energy fluxes and dissipation along the flow paths involved in root water uptake, an approach that is rarely taken. We show that this provides useful additional insights for understanding the biotic and abiotic impediments to root water uptake. This approach shall be applied to explore efficient water uptake strategies and help locate the limiting processes in the complex soil–plant–atmosphere system.
Maik Renner, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, Anke Hildebrandt, Marcus Guderle, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2063–2083,Short summary
We estimated forest transpiration (European beech) along a steep valley cross section. Atmospheric demand, obtained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power, is the dominant control of transpiration at all sites. To our surprise we find that transpiration is rather similar across sites with different aspect (north vs. south) and different stand structure due to systematically varying sap velocities. Such a compensation effect is highly relevant for modeling and upscaling of transpiration.
C. Kormann, T. Francke, M. Renner, and A. Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1225–1245,
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, L. Pfister, T. Blume, B. Schröder, M. Westhoff, C. Jackisch, S. J. Schymanski, M. Weiler, K. Schulz, N. Allroggen, J. Tronicke, L. van Schaik, P. Dietrich, U. Scherer, J. Eccard, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4635–4655,
C. Buendía, S. Arens, T. Hickler, S. I. Higgins, P. Porada, and A. Kleidon
Biogeosciences, 11, 3661–3683,
A. Kleidon, M. Renner, and P. Porada
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2201–2218,
U. Ehret, H. V. Gupta, M. Sivapalan, S. V. Weijs, S. J. Schymanski, G. Blöschl, A. N. Gelfan, C. Harman, A. Kleidon, T. A. Bogaard, D. Wang, T. Wagener, U. Scherer, E. Zehe, M. F. P. Bierkens, G. Di Baldassarre, J. Parajka, L. P. H. van Beek, A. van Griensven, M. C. Westhoff, and H. C. Winsemius
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 649–671,
M. Renner, K. Brust, K. Schwärzel, M. Volk, and C. Bernhofer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 389–405,
S. P. K. Bowring, L. M. Miller, L. Ganzeveld, and A. Kleidon
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 43–53,
A. Kleidon and M. Renner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 455–465,
P. Porada, B. Weber, W. Elbert, U. Pöschl, and A. Kleidon
Biogeosciences, 10, 6989–7033,
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, T. Blume, A. Kleidon, U. Scherer, and M. Westhoff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4297–4322,
E. Simoncini, N. Virgo, and A. Kleidon
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 317–331,
A. Kleidon and M. Renner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2873–2892,
A. Kleidon, E. Zehe, U. Ehret, and U. Scherer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 225–251,
Related subject area
Subject: Hydrometeorology | Techniques and Approaches: Theory developmentRelative humidity gradients as a key constraint on terrestrial water and energy fluxesA climatological benchmark for operational radar rainfall bias reductionThe precipitation variability of the wet and dry season at the interannual and interdecadal scales over eastern China (1901–2016): the impacts of the Pacific OceanSpatio-temporal and cross-scale interactions in hydroclimate variability: a case-study in FranceFlash drought onset over the contiguous United States: sensitivity of inventories and trends to quantitative definitionsA skewed perspective of the Indian rainfall–El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) relationshipA universal Standardized Precipitation Index candidate distribution function for observations and simulationsA review of the complementary principle of evaporation: from the original linear relationship to generalized nonlinear functionsModel representation of the coupling between evapotranspiration and soil water content at different depthsCombined impacts of ENSO and MJO on the 2015 growing season drought on the Canadian PrairiesExploring the relationships between warm-season precipitation, potential evaporation, and “apparent” potential evaporation at site scaleFuture extreme precipitation intensities based on a historic eventInterannual-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability and its sectoral impacts in northeastern ArgentinaImpact of ENSO regimes on developing- and decaying-phase precipitation during rainy season in ChinaVariations in the correlation between teleconnections and Taiwan's streamflowA gain–loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage–wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periodsThe residence time of water in the atmosphere revisitedA systematic assessment of drought termination in the United KingdomFrom meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicatorsImpact of two different types of El Niño events on runoff over the conterminous United StatesFlood sensitivity of the Bavarian Alpine Foreland since the late Middle Ages in the context of internal and external climate forcing factorsNovel indices for the comparison of precipitation extremes and floods: an example from the Czech territoryMulti-annual droughts in the English Lowlands: a review of their characteristics and climate drivers in the winter half-yearFractional snow-covered area parameterization over complex topographyComment on "Technical Note: On the Matt–Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements" by Lhomme et al. (2014)A review of droughts on the African continent: a geospatial and long-term perspectiveSynchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern HemisphereContinental moisture recycling as a Poisson processLinking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classificationImpact of elevation and weather patterns on the isotopic composition of precipitation in a tropical montane rainforestA new perspective on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture: temporal dynamics versus time-invariant contributionsUnderstanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources managementAn analytical model for soil-atmosphere feedbackSpatial horizontal correlation characteristics in the land data assimilation of soil moistureOn the factors influencing surface-layer energy closure and their seasonal variability over the semi-arid Loess Plateau of Northwest ChinaSpatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood responseScaling and trends of hourly precipitation extremes in two different climate zones – Hong Kong and the NetherlandsThe response of Iberian rivers to the North Atlantic OscillationCopula-based downscaling of spatial rainfall: a proof of conceptTowards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"Extracting statistical parameters of extreme precipitation from a NWP model
Yeonuk Kim, Monica Garcia, Laura Morillas, Ulrich Weber, T. Andrew Black, and Mark S. Johnson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5175–5191,Short summary
Here, we present a novel physically based evaporation model to demonstrate that vertical relative humidity (RH) gradients from the land surface to the atmosphere tend to evolve towards zero due to land–atmosphere equilibration processes. Collapsing RH gradients on daily to yearly timescales indicate an emergent land–atmosphere equilibrium, making it possible to determine evapotranspiration using only meteorological information, independent of land surface conditions and vegetation controls.
Ruben Imhoff, Claudia Brauer, Klaas-Jan van Heeringen, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, Albrecht Weerts, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4061–4080,Short summary
Significant biases in real-time radar rainfall products limit the use for hydrometeorological forecasting. We introduce CARROTS (Climatology-based Adjustments for Radar Rainfall in an OperaTional Setting), a set of fixed bias reduction factors to correct radar rainfall products and to benchmark other correction algorithms. When tested for 12 Dutch basins, estimated rainfall and simulated discharges with CARROTS generally outperform those using the operational mean field bias adjustments.
Tao Gao, Fuqiang Cao, Li Dan, Ming Li, Xiang Gong, and Junjie Zhan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1467–1481,Short summary
The rainfall in eastern China is principally concentrated from April–September. Changes are roughly coincident with phase shifts of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in both the dry (October–March) and wet (April–September) seasons, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) triggers a stronger effect on precipitation in the wet season. The interannual and interdecadal rainfall variability over eastern China is substantially modulated by drivers originating from the Pacific Ocean.
Manuel Fossa, Bastien Dieppois, Nicolas Massei, Matthieu Fournier, Benoit Laignel, and Jean-Philippe Vidal
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Hydro-climate observations (such as precipitation, temperature, rivers' discharge time series) reveal very complex behaviors, inherited from complex interactions among the physical processes that drive hydro-climate viability. This study shows how even small perturbations of a physical process, can have large consequences on some others. Those interactions vary spatially, thus showing the importance of both temporal and spatial dimensions in better understanding hydro-climate variability.
Mahmoud Osman, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jordan I. Christian, Tsegaye Tadesse, Jason A. Otkin, and Martha C. Anderson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 565–581,Short summary
Our study of flash droughts' definitions over the United States shows that published definitions yield markedly different inventories of flash drought geography and frequency. Results suggest there are several pathways that can lead to events that are characterized as flash droughts. Lack of consensus across definitions helps to explain apparent contradictions in the literature on trends and indicates the selection of a definition is important for accurate monitoring of different mechanisms.
Justin Schulte, Frederick Policielli, and Benjamin Zaitchik
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5473–5489,Short summary
Wavelet coherence is now a commonly used method for detecting scale-dependent relationships between time series. In this study, the concept of wavelet coherence is generalized to higher-order wavelet coherence methods that quantify the relationship between higher-order statistical moments associated with two time series. The methods are applied to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian monsoon to show that the ENSO–Indian monsoon relationship is impacted by ENSO nonlinearity.
Patrick Pieper, André Düsterhus, and Johanna Baehr
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4541–4565,Short summary
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely accepted drought index. SPI normalizes the precipitation distribution via a probability density function (PDF). However, which PDF properly normalizes SPI is still disputed. We suggest using a previously mostly overlooked PDF, namely the exponentiated Weibull distribution. The proposed PDF ensures the normality of the index. We demonstrate this – for the first time – for all common accumulation periods in both observations and simulations.
Songjun Han and Fuqiang Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2269–2285,Short summary
The complementary principle is an important methodology for estimating actual evaporation by using routinely observed meteorological variables. This review summaries its 56-year development, focusing on how related studies have shifted from adopting a symmetric linear complementary relationship to employing generalized nonlinear functions. We also compare the polynomial and sigmoid types of generalized complementary functions and discuss their future development.
Jianxiu Qiu, Wade T. Crow, Jianzhi Dong, and Grey S. Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 581–594,Short summary
Accurately estimating coupling of evapotranspiration (ET) and soil water content (θ) at different depths is key to investigating land–atmosphere interaction. Here we examine whether the model can accurately represent surface θ (θs) versus ET coupling and vertically integrated θ (θv) versus ET coupling. We find that all models agree with observations that θs contains slightly more information with fPET than θv. In addition, an ET scheme is crucial for accurately estimating coupling of θ and ET.
Zhenhua Li, Yanping Li, Barrie Bonsal, Alan H. Manson, and Lucia Scaff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5057–5067,Short summary
The research started by investigating the 2015 growing season drought over the Canadian Prairies and evolved into investigating the connection between growing season rain deficit in the Prairies and MJO (20–90 days tropical oscillation in convective storms). With warm central Pacific sea surface temperature, strong MJOs in the western Pacific cause Rossby wave trains that propagate downstream and favour upper-level ridges and rain deficits over the Canadian Prairies during the growing season.
Xi Chen and Steven G. Buchberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4535–4545,Short summary
Based on warm season data from 259 weather stations across the US, we analyze the correlation between precipitation, potential evaporation, and “apparent” potential evaporation (measured by pan evaporation). Over 93 % of the stations show negative correlation between precipitation and
apparentpotential evaporation, but no clear relationship is shown between precipitation and potential evaporation. The collected data points follow the trend of the newly derived Bouchet–Budyko curve.
Iris Manola, Bart van den Hurk, Hans De Moel, and Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3777–3788,Short summary
In a warmer climate, it is expected that precipitation intensities will increase and form a considerable risk of high-impact precipitation extremes. We investigate how observed extreme precipitation events would look like if they took place in a future warmer climate. This study applies three methods to transform a historic extreme precipitation event in the Netherlands to a similar event in a future warmer climate, thus compiling a
Miguel A. Lovino, Omar V. Müller, Gabriela V. Müller, Leandro C. Sgroi, and Walter E. Baethgen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3155–3174,Short summary
This study examines hydroclimate variability in northeastern Argentina; advances the understanding of its links with global SST forcing; and discusses its impacts on water resources, agriculture and human settlements. Interannual-to-multidecadal variability led to frequent extreme events. Severe floods affected agriculture, livestock productivity, and forced population displacements. Droughts affected water resources, causing water and food scarcity. Increased temperatures reduced crop yields.
Qing Cao, Zhenchun Hao, Feifei Yuan, Zhenkuan Su, Ronny Berndtsson, Jie Hao, and Tsring Nyima
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5415–5426,Short summary
This study analyzed the rainy-season precipitation in China influenced by various ENSO types. The precipitation anomalies were investigated under different ENSO types, which may be attributed to the combined influence of anti-cyclone in the western North Pacific and the Indian monsoon. The results improve the understanding of linkages between the precipitation and global teleconnection patterns. The results suggest a certain predictability of flood and drought related to different ENSO types.
Chia-Jeng Chen and Tsung-Yu Lee
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3463–3481,Short summary
Regional hydro-climatic variables are modulated by large-scale, reoccurring climate oscillations. In this article, the authors provide both statistical and physical evidence of how Taiwan’s summertime streamflow is strongly correlated with specific teleconnection patterns dominating cyclonic activity in the western North Pacific. However, such correlation can be strengthened or weakened by notable climate regime shifts, illustrating the pitfall of empirical seasonal forecasting.
Vianney Courdent, Morten Grum, Thomas Munk-Nielsen, and Peter S. Mikkelsen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2531–2544,Short summary
Urban drainage and wastewater systems are heavily impacted by precipitation. Hence, weather forecasts are valuable in improving their management. However, forecasts are intrinsically uncertain, especially when fine model resolution is required, which is the case for urban hydrology. Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers. This study presents an economic framework to support the decision-making process by providing information on when acting on the forecast is beneficial.
Ruud J. van der Ent and Obbe A. Tuinenburg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 779–790,Short summary
This research seeks out to answer a fundamental question about the functioning of the water cycle in the atmosphere: how much time does a water particle spend in the atmosphere? Based on state-of-the-art data, we derive a global average residence time of water in the atmosphere of 8–10 days. We further show in this paper how the residence time of water varies in time and space. This serves to illustrate why it is so difficult to make weather predictions on timescales longer than a week.
Simon Parry, Robert L. Wilby, Christel Prudhomme, and Paul J. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4265–4281,Short summary
This paper identifies periods of recovery from drought in 52 river flow records from the UK between 1883 and 2013. The approach detects 459 events that vary in space and time. This large dataset allows individual events to be compared with others in the historical record. The ability to objectively appraise contemporary events against the historical record has not previously been possible, and may allow water managers to prepare for a range of outcomes at the end of a drought.
Lucy J. Barker, Jamie Hannaford, Andrew Chiverton, and Cecilia Svensson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2483–2505,Short summary
Standardised meteorological indicators are widely used in drought monitoring, but applications to hydrological drought are less extensive. Here we assess the utility of standardised indicators for characterising drought duration, severity and propagation in a diverse set of 121 UK catchments. Spatial variations in streamflow drought characteristics reflect differences in drought propagation behaviour that are themselves largely driven by heterogeneity in catchment properties around the UK.
T. Tang, W. Li, and G. Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 27–37,
O. Böhm, J. Jacobeit, R. Glaser, and K.-F. Wetzel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4721–4734,
M. Müller, M. Kašpar, A. Valeriánová, L. Crhová, E. Holtanová, and B. Gvoždíková
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4641–4652,Short summary
Three proposed indices combine return periods of precipitation totals or discharges with the size of the affected area. Precipitation indices also determine actual duration of either extreme or seasonally abnormal precipitation events. A unified design of the indices enables one to easily compare inter-annual and seasonal distributions of events, which is demonstrated by 50 maximum events in the Czech Republic during the period 1961-2010, including the June 2013 floods.
C. K. Folland, J. Hannaford, J. P. Bloomfield, M. Kendon, C. Svensson, B. P. Marchant, J. Prior, and E. Wallace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2353–2375,Short summary
The English Lowlands is a heavily populated, water-stressed region, which is vulnerable to long droughts typically associated with dry winters. We conduct a long-term (1910-present) quantitative analysis of precipitation, flow and groundwater droughts for the region, and then review potential climatic drivers. No single driver is dominant, but we demonstrate a physical link between La Nina conditions, winter rainfall and long droughts in the region.
N. Helbig, A. van Herwijnen, J. Magnusson, and T. Jonas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1339–1351,
W. J. Shuttleworth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4403–4406,Short summary
This paper explains the Matt-Shuttleworth approach clearly, simply and concisely. It shows how this approach can be implemented using a few simple equations and provides access to ancillary calculation resources that can be used for such implementation. If the crop water requirement community considered it preferable to use the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate crop water requirements directly for all crops, this could now be done using the Matt-Shuttleworth approach.
I. Masih, S. Maskey, F. E. F. Mussá, and P. Trambauer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3635–3649,
D. C. Verdon-Kidd and A. S. Kiem
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2257–2264,
H. F. Goessling and C. H. Reick
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4133–4142,
P. Brigode, Z. Mićović, P. Bernardara, E. Paquet, F. Garavaglia, J. Gailhard, and P. Ribstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1455–1473,
D. Windhorst, T. Waltz, E. Timbe, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 409–419,
H. Mittelbach and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2169–2179,
A. J. E. Gallant, A. S. Kiem, D. C. Verdon-Kidd, R. C. Stone, and D. J. Karoly
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2049–2068,
B. Schaefli, R. J. van der Ent, R. Woods, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1863–1878,
X. Han, X. Li, H. J. Hendricks Franssen, H. Vereecken, and C. Montzka
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1349–1363,
X. Xiao, H. C. Zuo, Q. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, L. J. Wang, J. W. Chen, B. L. Chen, and B. D. Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 893–910,
D. Zoccatelli, M. Borga, A. Viglione, G. B. Chirico, and G. Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3767–3783,
G. Lenderink, H. Y. Mok, T. C. Lee, and G. J. van Oldenborgh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3033–3041,
J. Lorenzo-Lacruz, S. M. Vicente-Serrano, J. I. López-Moreno, J. C. González-Hidalgo, and E. Morán-Tejeda
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2581–2597,
M. J. van den Berg, S. Vandenberghe, B. De Baets, and N. E. C. Verhoest
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1445–1457,
A. S. Kiem and D. C. Verdon-Kidd
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 433–445,
J. Eliasson, O. Rögnvaldsson, and T. Jonsson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2233–2240,
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Here we examine the effect of evaporative cooling across different vegetation types. Evaporation cools surface temperature significantly in short vegetation. In the forest, the high aerodynamic conductance explains 56 % of the reduced surface temperature. Therefore, the main cooling agent in the forest is the high aerodynamic conductance and not evaporation. Additionally, we propose the diurnal variation in surface temperature as being a potential indicator of evaporation in short vegetation.
Here we examine the effect of evaporative cooling across different vegetation types. Evaporation...