Articles | Volume 23, issue 6
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Technical note: A microcontroller-based automatic rain sampler for stable isotope studies
Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Department of Hydrogeology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Department of Catchment Hydrology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 06120 Halle, Germany
Stephan M. Weise
Department of Catchment Hydrology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 06120 Halle, Germany
Ali Bakhit Ali Bait Said
Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman
Department of Hydrogeology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
No articles found.
Zhihua He, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Sergiy Vorogushyn, Stephan M. Weise, Doris Duethmann, Olga Kalashnikova, Abror Gafurov, and Bruno Merz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3289–3309,Short summary
Quantifying the seasonal contributions of the runoff components, including groundwater, snowmelt, glacier melt, and rainfall, to streamflow is highly necessary for understanding the dynamics of water resources in glacierized basins given the vulnerability of snow- and glacier-dominated environments to the current climate warming. Our study provides the first comparison of two end-member mixing approaches for hydrograph separation in glacierized basins.
Cornelia Wilske, Axel Suckow, Ulf Mallast, Christiane Meier, Silke Merchel, Broder Merkel, Stefan Pavetich, Tino Rödiger, Georg Rugel, Agnes Sachse, Stephan M. Weise, and Christian Siebert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 249–267,Short summary
Despite feeding several million people, the flow system and inter-aquifer communication within one of the major aquifer systems in Israel and the West Bank is still poorly understood. Applying a combination of inorganic elements, anthropogenic organic trace substances and classical environmental age-dating tracers like 3H, CFCs, SF6 and 36Cl / Cl, groundwater flow patterns, mixing end-members, transport times and recharge estimates have been obtained despite very limited data.
U. Mallast, R. Gloaguen, J. Friesen, T. Rödiger, S. Geyer, R. Merz, and C. Siebert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2773–2787,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesHydrodynamics of a high Alpine catchment characterized by four natural tracersSeasonal variation and release of soluble reactive phosphorus in an agricultural upland headwater in central GermanyImproving the understanding of N transport in a rural catchment under Atlantic climate conditions from the analysis of the concentration–discharge relationship derived from a high-frequency data setSources and mean transit times of stream water in an intermittent river system: the upper Wimmera River, southeast AustraliaAdaptively monitoring streamflow using a stereo computer vision systemBedrock depth influences spatial patterns of summer baseflow, temperature and flow disconnection for mountainous headwater streamsTechnical Note: Best of both worlds? Combining undisturbed soil monoliths for indoor runoff experimentsAgricultural intensification vs. climate change: what drives long-term changes in sediment load?Evaporation from a large lowland reservoir – observed dynamics and drivers during a warm summerComment on “A comparison of catchment travel times and storage deduced from deuterium and tritium tracers using StorAge Selection functions” by Rodriguez et al. (2021)Use of water isotopes and chemistry to infer the type and degree of exchange between groundwater and lakes in an esker complex of northeastern Ontario, CanadaTechnical note: Introduction of a superconducting gravimeter as novel hydrological sensor for the Alpine research catchment ZugspitzeCABra: a novel large-sample dataset for Brazilian catchmentsBenefits from high-density rain gauge observations for hydrological response analysis in a small alpine catchmentHydrologic regimes drive nitrate export behavior in human-impacted watershedsIntensive landscape-scale remediation improves water quality of an alluvial gully located in a Great Barrier Reef catchmentEnvironmental DNA simultaneously informs hydrological and biodiversity characterization of an Alpine catchmentTechnical note: Evaluation of a low-cost evaporation protection method for portable water samplersNew flood frequency estimates for the largest river in Norway based on the combination of short and long time seriesThe pulse of a montane ecosystem: coupling between daily cycles in solar flux, snowmelt, transpiration, groundwater, and streamflow at Sagehen Creek and Independence Creek, Sierra Nevada, USATechnical note: A time-integrated sediment trap to sample diatoms for hydrological tracingDo stream water solute concentrations reflect when connectivity occurs in a small, pre-Alpine headwater catchment?Soil moisture sensor network design for hydrological applicationsCatchment-scale drought: capturing the whole drought cycle using multiple indicatorsField-based estimation and modelling of distributed groundwater recharge in a Mediterranean karst catchment, Wadi Natuf, West BankSurface water as a cause of land degradation from dryland salinityControls on spatial and temporal variability in streamflow and hydrochemistry in a glacierized catchmentOpen-source Arduino-compatible data loggers designed for field researchWater-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the summer rainfall zone of South AfricaTechnical note: Mapping surface-saturation dynamics with thermal infrared imageryValue of uncertain streamflow observations for hydrological modellingWhy has catchment evaporation increased in the past 40 years? A data-based study in AustriaTechnical note: GUARD – an automated fluid sampler preventing sample alteration by contamination, evaporation and gas exchange, suitable for remote areas and harsh conditionsHydrological processes and permafrost regulate magnitude, source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon export in a peatland catchment of northeastern ChinaExploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)Comment on “Can assimilation of crowdsourced data in hydrological modelling improve flood prediction?” by Mazzoleni et al. (2017)Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, FranceTree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpirationThe potamochemical symphony: new progress in the high-frequency acquisition of stream chemical dataImpact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradientHuman amplified changes in precipitation–runoff patterns in large river basins of the Midwestern United StatesLandscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosureA site-level comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements of evapotranspirationA lab in the field: high-frequency analysis of water quality and stable isotopes in stream water and precipitationHigh-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750Water yield following forest–grass–forest transitionsExploring water cycle dynamics by sampling multiple stable water isotope pools in a developed landscape in GermanyVariations of deep soil moisture under different vegetation types and influencing factors in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, ChinaContradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modellingUse of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture monitoring in forests
Anthony Michelon, Natalie Ceperley, Harsh Beria, Joshua Larsen, Torsten Vennemann, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1403–1430,Short summary
Streamflow generation processes in high-elevation catchments are largely influenced by snow accumulation and melt. For this work, we collected and analyzed more than 2800 water samples (temperature, electric conductivity, and stable isotopes of water) to characterize the hydrological processes in such a high Alpine environment. Our results underline the critical role of subsurface flow during all melt periods and the presence of snowmelt even during the winter periods.
Michael Rode, Jörg Tittel, Frido Reinstorf, Michael Schubert, Kay Knöller, Benjamin Gilfedder, Florian Merensky-Pöhlein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1261–1277,Short summary
Agricultural catchments show elevated phosphorus (P) concentrations during summer low flow. In an agricultural stream, we found that phosphorus in groundwater was a major source of stream water phosphorus during low flow, and stream sediments derived from farmland are unlikely to have increased stream phosphorus concentrations during low water. We found no evidence that riparian wetlands contributed to soluble reactive (SR) P loads. Agricultural phosphorus was largely buffered in the soil zone.
María Luz Rodríguez-Blanco, María Teresa Taboada-Castro, and María Mercedes Taboada-Castro
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1243–1259,Short summary
We examine the N dynamics in an Atlantic headwater catchment in the NW Iberian Peninsula, using high-frequency measurements of NO3 and TKN (total Kjeldahl N) during runoff events. The divergence dynamics observed between N components exemplifies the complexity of and variability in NO3 and TKN processes, highlighting the need to understand dominant hydrological pathways for the development of N-specific management plans to ensure that control measures are most effective at the catchment scale.
Zibo Zhou, Ian Cartwright, and Uwe Morgenstern
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4497–4513,Short summary
Streams may receive water from different sources in their catchment. There is limited understanding of which water stores intermittent streams are connected to. Using geochemistry we show that the intermittent streams in southeast Australia are connected to younger smaller near-river water stores rather than regional groundwater. This makes these streams more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and requires management of the riparian zone for their protection.
Nicholas Reece Hutley, Ryan Beecroft, Daniel Wagenaar, Josh Soutar, Blake Edwards, Nathaniel Deering, Alistair Grinham, and Simon Albert
Measuring flows in streams allows us to manage crucial water resources. This work shows the automated application of a dual camera computer vision stream gauging (CVSG) system for measuring streams. Comparing between state-of-the-art technologies demonstrated that camera-based methods were capable of performing within the best available error margins. CVSG offers significant benefits towards improving stream data and providing a safe way for measuring floods while adapting to changes over time.
Martin A. Briggs, Phillip Goodling, Zachary C. Johnson, Karli M. Rogers, Nathaniel P. Hitt, Jennifer B. Fair, and Craig D. Snyder
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3989–4011,Short summary
The geologic structure of mountain watersheds may control how groundwater and streamwater exchange, influencing where streams dry. We measured bedrock depth at 191 locations along eight headwater streams paired with stream temperature records, baseflow separation and observations of channel dewatering. The data indicated a prevalence of shallow bedrock generally less than 3 m depth, and local variation in that depth can drive stream dewatering but also influence stream baseflow supply.
David Ramler and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Undisturbed soil monoliths combine advantages of outdoor and indoor experiments, however, there are often size limitations. A promising approach is the combination of smaller blocks to a single large monolith. We compared the runoff properties of monoliths cut in half and re-combined with uncut blocks. The effect of the combination procedure were negligible compared to the inherent soil heterogeneity and we conclude that advantages outweigh possible adverse effects.
Shengping Wang, Borbala Szeles, Carmen Krammer, Elmar Schmaltz, Kepeng Song, Yifan Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Günter Blöschl, and Peter Strauss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3021–3036,Short summary
This study explored the quantitative contribution of agricultural intensification and climate change to the sediment load of a small agricultural watershed. Rather than a change in climatic conditions, changes in the land structure notably altered sediment concentrations under high-flow conditions, thereby contributing most to the increase in annual sediment loads. More consideration of land structure improvement is required when combating the transfer of soil from land to water.
Femke A. Jansen, Remko Uijlenhoet, Cor M. J. Jacobs, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2875–2898,Short summary
We studied the controls on open water evaporation with a focus on Lake IJssel, the Netherlands, by analysing eddy covariance observations over two summer periods at two locations at the borders of the lake. Wind speed and the vertical vapour pressure gradient can explain most of the variation in observed evaporation, which is in agreement with Dalton's model. We argue that the distinct characteristics of inland waterbodies need to be taken into account when parameterizing their evaporation.
Michael Kilgour Stewart, Uwe Morgenstern, and Ian Cartwright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6333–6338,Short summary
The combined use of deuterium and tritium to determine travel time distributions in streams is an important development in catchment hydrology (Rodriguez et al., 2021). This comment, however, argues that their results do not generally invalidate the truncation hypothesis of Stewart et al. (2010) (i.e. that stable isotopes underestimate travel times through catchments), as they imply, but asserts instead that the hypothesis still applies to many other catchments.
Maxime P. Boreux, Scott F. Lamoureux, and Brian F. Cumming
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6309–6332,Short summary
The investigation of groundwater–lake-water interactions in highly permeable boreal terrain using several indicators showed that lowland lakes are embedded into the groundwater system and are thus relatively resilient to short-term hydroclimatic change, while upland lakes rely more on precipitation as their main water input, making them more sensitive to evaporative drawdown. This suggests that landscape position controls the vulnerability of lake-water levels to hydroclimatic change.
Christian Voigt, Karsten Schulz, Franziska Koch, Karl-Friedrich Wetzel, Ludger Timmen, Till Rehm, Hartmut Pflug, Nico Stolarczuk, Christoph Förste, and Frank Flechtner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5047–5064,Short summary
A continuously operating superconducting gravimeter at the Zugspitze summit is introduced to support hydrological studies of the Partnach spring catchment known as the Zugspitze research catchment. The observed gravity residuals reflect total water storage variations at the observation site. Hydro-gravimetric analysis show a high correlation between gravity and the snow water equivalent, with a gravimetric footprint of up to 4 km radius enabling integral insights into this high alpine catchment.
André Almagro, Paulo Tarso S. Oliveira, Antônio Alves Meira Neto, Tirthankar Roy, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3105–3135,Short summary
We have collected and synthesized catchment attributes from multiple sources into an extensive dataset, the Catchment Attributes for Brazil (CABra). CABra contains streamflow and climate daily series for 735 catchments in the 1980–2010 period, aside from dozens of attributes of topography, climate, streamflow, groundwater, soil, geology, land cover, and hydrologic disturbance. The CABra intends to pave the way for a better understanding of catchments' behavior in Brazil and the world.
Anthony Michelon, Lionel Benoit, Harsh Beria, Natalie Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2301–2325,Short summary
Rainfall observation remains a challenge, particularly in mountain environments. Unlike most studies which are model based, this analysis of the rainfall–runoff response of a 13.4 km2 alpine catchment is purely data based and relies on measurements from a network of 12 low-cost rain gauges over 3 months. It assesses the importance of high-density rainfall observations in informing hydrological processes and helps in designing a permanent rain gauge network.
Galen Gorski and Margaret A. Zimmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1333–1345,Short summary
Understanding when, where, and how nitrate is exported from watersheds is the key to addressing the challenges that excess nutrients pose. We analyzed daily nitrate and streamflow data for five nested, agricultural watersheds that export high levels of nitrate over a 4-year time period. Nutrient export patterns varied seasonally during baseflow but were stationary during stormflow. Additionally, anthropogenic and geologic factors drove nutrient export during both baseflow and stormflow.
Nicholas J. C. Doriean, William W. Bennett, John R. Spencer, Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, Joanne M. Burton, Peter R. Teasdale, David T. Welsh, and Andrew P. Brooks
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 867–883,Short summary
Gully erosion is a major contributor to suspended sediment and associated nutrient pollution (e.g. gullies generate approximately 40 % of the sediment pollution impacting the Great Barrier Reef). This study used a new method of monitoring to demonstrate how large-scale earthworks used to remediated large gullies (i.e. eroding landforms > 1 ha) can drastically improve the water quality of connected waterways and, thus, protect vulnerable ecosystems in downstream-receiving waters.
Elvira Mächler, Anham Salyani, Jean-Claude Walser, Annegret Larsen, Bettina Schaefli, Florian Altermatt, and Natalie Ceperley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 735–753,Short summary
In this study, we collected water from an Alpine catchment in Switzerland and compared the genetic information of eukaryotic organisms conveyed by eDNA with the hydrologic information conveyed by naturally occurring hydrologic tracers. At the intersection of two disciplines, our study provides complementary knowledge gains and identifies the next steps to be addressed for using eDNA to achieve complementary insights into Alpine water sources.
Jana von Freyberg, Julia L. A. Knapp, Andrea Rücker, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5821–5834,Short summary
Automated water samplers are often used to collect precipitation and streamwater samples for subsequent isotope analysis, but the isotopic signal of these samples may be altered due to evaporative fractionation occurring during the storage inside the autosamplers in the field. In this article we present and evaluate a cost-efficient modification to the Teledyne ISCO automated water sampler that prevents isotopic enrichment through evaporative fractionation of the water samples.
Kolbjørn Engeland, Anna Aano, Ida Steffensen, Eivind Støren, and Øyvind Paasche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5595–5619,Short summary
We combine systematic, historical, and paleo information to obtain flood information from the last 10 300 years for the Glomma River in Norway. We identify periods with increased flood activity (4000–2000 years ago and the recent 1000 years) that correspond broadly to periods with low summer temperatures and glacier growth. The design floods in Glomma were more than 20 % higher during the 18th century than today. We suggest that trends in flood variability are linked to snow in late spring.
James W. Kirchner, Sarah E. Godsey, Madeline Solomon, Randall Osterhuber, Joseph R. McConnell, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5095–5123,Short summary
Streams and groundwaters often show daily cycles in response to snowmelt and evapotranspiration. These typically have a roughly 6 h time lag, which is often interpreted as a travel-time lag. Here we show that it is instead primarily a phase lag that arises because aquifers integrate their inputs over time. We further show how these cycles shift seasonally, mirroring the springtime retreat of snow cover to higher elevations and the seasonal advance and retreat of photosynthetic activity.
Jasper Foets, Carlos E. Wetzel, Núria Martínez-Carreras, Adriaan J. Teuling, Jean-François Iffly, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4709–4725,Short summary
Diatoms (microscopic algae) are regarded as useful tracers in catchment hydrology. However, diatom analysis is labour-intensive; therefore, only a limited number of samples can be analysed. To reduce this number, we explored the potential for a time-integrated mass-flux sampler to provide a representative sample of the diatom assemblage for a whole storm run-off event. Our results indicate that the Phillips sampler did indeed sample representative communities during two of the three events.
Leonie Kiewiet, Ilja van Meerveld, Manfred Stähli, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3381–3398,Short summary
The sources of stream water are important, for instance, for predicting floods. The connectivity between streams and different (ground-)water sources can change during rain events, which affects the stream water composition. We investigated this for stream water sampled during four events and found that stream water came from different sources. The stream water composition changed gradually, and we showed that changes in solute concentrations could be partly linked to changes in connectivity.
Lu Zhuo, Qiang Dai, Binru Zhao, and Dawei Han
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2577–2591,Short summary
Soil moisture plays an important role in hydrological modelling. However, most existing in situ observation networks rarely provide sufficient coverage to capture soil moisture variations. Clearly, there is a need to develop a systematic approach, so that with the minimal number of sensors the soil moisture information could be captured accurately. In this study, a simple and low-data requirement method is proposed (WRF, PCA, CA), which can provide very efficient soil moisture estimations.
Abraham J. Gibson, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Greg R. Hancock, and Garry Willgoose
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1985–2002,Short summary
To be better prepared for drought, we need to be able to characterize how they begin, translate to on-ground impacts and how they end. We created a 100-year drought record for an area on the east coast of Australia and compared this with soil moisture and vegetation data. Drought reduces vegetation and soil moisture, but recovery rates are different across different catchments. Our methods can be universally applied and show the need to develop area-specific data to inform drought management.
Clemens Messerschmid, Martin Sauter, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 887–917,Short summary
Recharge assessment in the shared transboundary Western Aquifer Basin is highly relevant, scientifically as well as hydropolitically (in Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations). Our unique combination of field-measured soil characteristics and soil moisture time series with soil moisture saturation excess modelling provides a new basis for the spatial differentiation of formation-specific groundwater recharge (at any scale), applicable also in other previously ungauged basins around the world.
J. Nikolaus Callow, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Ryan I. J. Vogwill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 717–734,Short summary
Secondary dryland salinity is a global land degradation issue. Our understanding of causal processes is adapted from wet and hydrologically connected landscapes and concludes that low end-of-catchment runoff indicates land clearing alters water balance in favour of increased infiltration and rising groundwater that bring salts to the surface causing salinity. This study shows surface flows play an important role in causing valley floor recharge and dryland salinity in low-gradient landscapes.
Michael Engel, Daniele Penna, Giacomo Bertoldi, Gianluca Vignoli, Werner Tirler, and Francesco Comiti
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2041–2063,Short summary
Hydrometric and geochemical dynamics are controlled by interplay of meteorological conditions, topography and geological heterogeneity. Nivo-meteorological indicators (such as global solar radiation, temperature and decreasing snow depth) explain monthly conductivity and isotopic dynamics best. These insights are important for better understanding hydrochemical responses of glacierized catchments under a changing cryosphere.
Andrew D. Wickert, Chad T. Sandell, Bobby Schulz, and Gene-Hua Crystal Ng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2065–2076,Short summary
Measuring Earth's changing environment is a critical part of natural science, but to date most of the equipment to do so is expensive, proprietary, and difficult to customize. We addressed this challenge by developing and deploying the ALog, a low-power, lightweight, Arduino-compatible data logger. We present our hardware schematics and layouts, as well as our customizable code library that operates the ALog and helps users to link it to off-the-shelf sensors.
Bruce C. Scott-Shaw and Colin S. Everson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1553–1565,Short summary
The research undertaken for this study has allowed for an accurate direct comparison of indigenous and introduced tree water use. The measurements of trees growing in the understorey indicate significant water use in the subcanopy layer. The results showed that individual tree water use is largely inter-species specific. The introduced species remain active during the dry winter periods, resulting in their cumulative water use being significantly greater than that of the indigenous species.
Barbara Glaser, Marta Antonelli, Marco Chini, Laurent Pfister, and Julian Klaus
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5987–6003,Short summary
We demonstrate how thermal infrared images can be used for mapping the appearance and disappearance of water at the surface. The use of thermal infrared images allows for mapping this appearance and disappearance for various temporal and spatial resolutions, and the images can be understood intuitively. We explain the necessary steps in detail, from image acquisition to final processing, by relying on image examples and experience from an 18-month mapping campaign.
Simon Etter, Barbara Strobl, Jan Seibert, and H. J. Ilja van Meerveld
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5243–5257,Short summary
To evaluate the potential value of streamflow estimates for hydrological model calibration, we created synthetic streamflow datasets in various temporal resolutions based on the errors in streamflow estimates of 136 citizens. Our results show that streamflow estimates of untrained citizens are too inaccurate to be useful for model calibration. If, however, the errors can be reduced by training or filtering, the estimates become useful if also a sufficient number of estimates are available.
Doris Duethmann and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5143–5158,Short summary
We analyze changes in catchment evaporation estimated from the water balances of 156 catchments in Austria over 1977–2014, as well as the possible causes of these changes. Our results show that catchment evaporation increased on average by 29 ± 14 mm yr−1 decade−1. We attribute this increase to changes in atmospheric demand (based on reference and pan evaporation), changes in vegetation (quantified by a satellite-based vegetation index), and changes in precipitation.
Arno Hartmann, Marc Luetscher, Ralf Wachter, Philipp Holz, Elisabeth Eiche, and Thomas Neumann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4281–4293,Short summary
We have developed a new mobile automated water sampling device for environmental research and other applications where waters need to be tested for compliance with environmental/health regulations. It has two main advantages over similar devices: firstly, it injects water samples directly into airtight vials to prevent any change in sample properties through contamination, evaporation and gas exchange. Secondly, it can hold up to 160 sample vials, while other devices only hold up to 24 vials.
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, and Yongzheng Lu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1081–1093,Short summary
The study examined dynamics of DOC export from a permafrost peatland catchment located in northeastern China. The findings indicated that the DOC export is a transport-limited process and the DOC load was significant for the net carbon balance in the studied catchment. The flowpath shift process is key to observed DOC concentration, resources and chemical characteristics in discharge. Permafrost degradation would likely elevate the proportion of microbe-originated DOC in baseflow.
Maurizio Mazzoleni, Vivian Juliette Cortes Arevalo, Uta Wehn, Leonardo Alfonso, Daniele Norbiato, Martina Monego, Michele Ferri, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 391–416,Short summary
We investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of sensors for different scenarios of citizen involvement levels during the flood event occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment in May 2013. We achieve high model performance by integrating crowdsourced data, in particular from citizens motivated by their feeling of belonging to a community. Satisfactory model performance can still be obtained even for decreasing citizen involvement over time.
Daniele P. Viero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 171–177,
Fayçal Rejiba, Cyril Schamper, Antoine Chevalier, Benoit Deleplancque, Gaghik Hovhannissian, Julien Thiesson, and Pierre Weill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 159–170,Short summary
The internal variability of paleomeanders strongly influence water fluxes in alluvial plains. This study presents the results of a hydrogeophysical investigation that provide a very detailed characterization of the geometry of a wide paleomeander. The presented case study, situated in the Seine River basin (France), represents a common sedimentary and geomorphological structure in alluvial plains worldwide.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Paul Floury, Jérôme Gaillardet, Eric Gayer, Julien Bouchez, Gaëlle Tallec, Patrick Ansart, Frédéric Koch, Caroline Gorge, Arnaud Blanchouin, and Jean-Louis Roubaty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6153–6165,Short summary
We present a new prototype
lab in the fieldnamed River Lab (RL) designed for water quality monitoring to perform a complete analysis at sub-hourly frequency of major dissolved species in river water. The article is an analytical paper to present the proof of concept, its performances and improvements. Our tests reveal a significant improvement of reproducibility compared to conventional analysis in the laboratory. First results are promising for understanding the critical zone.
Vladimir P. Shevchenko, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Ivan V. Krickov, Rinat M. Manasypov, Nadezhda V. Politova, Sergey G. Kopysov, Olga M. Dara, Yves Auda, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Valery A. Zemtsov, and Sergey N. Kirpotin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5725–5746,Short summary
We used a coupled hydrological–hydrochemical approach to assess the impact of snow on river and lake water chemistry across a permafrost gradient in very poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), encompassing > 1.5 million km2. The riverine springtime fluxes of major and trace element in WSL rivers might be strongly overestimated due to previously unknown input from the snow deposition.
Sara A. Kelly, Zeinab Takbiri, Patrick Belmont, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5065–5088,Short summary
Humans have profoundly altered land cover and soil drainage for agricultural purposes in the Midwestern USA. Here we investigate whether climate alone can explain recent increases in observed streamflows throughout the region. Using multiple analyses, including statistical tests and water budgets, we conclude that historical drainage installation has likely amplified the streamflow response to regional precipitation increases. We stress that better documentation of artificial drainage is needed.
Andreas Güntner, Marvin Reich, Michal Mikolaj, Benjamin Creutzfeldt, Stephan Schroeder, and Hartmut Wziontek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3167–3182,Short summary
Monitoring water storage changes beyond the point scale is a challenge. Here, we show that an integrative and non-invasive way is by observing variations of gravity that are induced by water mass changes. A high-precision superconducting gravimeter is successfully operated in the field and allows for direct and continuous monitoring of the water balance and of its components, such as actual evapotranspiration.
Martin Hirschi, Dominik Michel, Irene Lehner, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1809–1825,Short summary
We compare lysimeter and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of evapotranspiration at a research catchment in Switzerland. The measurements are compared on various timescales, and with respect to a 40-year long-term lysimeter time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual timescale. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC data during/after rainfall events significantly contributes to an underestimation of EC evapotranspiration.
Jana von Freyberg, Bjørn Studer, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1721–1739,Short summary
We present a newly developed instrument package that enables the online analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion chemistry at 30 min intervals in the field. The resulting data streams provide an unprecedented view of hydrochemical dynamics on the catchment scale. Based on a detailed analysis of the variable behavior of isotopic and chemical tracers in stream water and precipitation over a 4-week period, we developed a conceptual hypothesis for runoff generation in the studied catchment.
Neil Macdonald and Heather Sangster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1631–1650,Short summary
We use historical records to extend current understanding of flood risk, examining past spatial and temporal variability and ask
are the perceived high-magnitude flood events witnessed in recent years really unprecedented?We identify that there are statistically significant relationships between the British flood index and climatic drivers, whereby the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.
Katherine J. Elliott, Peter V. Caldwell, Steven T. Brantley, Chelcy F. Miniat, James M. Vose, and Wayne T. Swank
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 981–997,Short summary
Our long-term results are relevant to land areas that are in pasture and those that have reverted back to forests. We found that within a deciduous forest, species identity matters in terms of how much precipitation leaves the watershed as evapotranspiration versus water yield. We demonstrate that a shift in tree species composition from species with ring-porous xylem to species with diffuse-porous xylem can increase water use, and in turn, produce a long-term reduction in water yield.
Natalie Orlowski, Philipp Kraft, Jakob Pferdmenges, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3873–3894,Short summary
The 2-year measurements of δ2H and δ18O in rainfall, stream, soil, and groundwater revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions in the Schwingbach catchment. We established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions. Our model revealed complex age dynamics and showed that runoff must have been stored in the catchment for much longer than event water.
Xuening Fang, Wenwu Zhao, Lixin Wang, Qiang Feng, Jingyi Ding, Yuanxin Liu, and Xiao Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3309–3323,Short summary
In this study, we focused on analyzing the variation and factors influencing deep soil moisture content based on a soil moisture survey of the Ansai watershed. Our results revealed the variation characteristics of deep soil moisture and its controlling mechanism at a moderate scale. The results of this study are of practical significance for vegetation restoration strategies and the sustainability of restored ecosystems.
Guillaume Lacombe, Olivier Ribolzi, Anneke de Rouw, Alain Pierret, Keoudone Latsachak, Norbert Silvera, Rinh Pham Dinh, Didier Orange, Jean-Louis Janeau, Bounsamai Soulileuth, Henri Robain, Adrien Taccoen, Phouthamaly Sengphaathith, Emmanuel Mouche, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Toan Tran Duc, and Christian Valentin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2691–2704,Short summary
Laos and Vietnam have switched from net forest loss to net forest expansion between 1990 and 2015. Based on long-term field measurements of land use, river flows, and weather data, we demonstrate that forest expansion can have extreme, yet opposite, impacts on water resources, depending on how the newly established tree-based cover is managed. The conversion of annual crops to teak plantations in Laos or to naturally regrowing forests in Vietnam led to increased and decreased flows, respectively.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1269–1288,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors bridge the gap between point-scale measurements of soil moisture and remote sensing applications. We tested four distinct methods to calibrate the sensor in a temperate forest environment using different soil moisture weighting approaches. While the variable leaf biomass of the deciduous trees had no significant influence on the calibration, it proved necessary to modify the standard calibration method to achieve the best sensor performance.
Akers, P. D., Welker, J. M., and Brook, G. A.: Reassessing the role of temperature in precipitation oxygen isotopes across the eastern and central United States through weekly precipitation-day data, Water Resour. Res., 53, 7644–7661, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020569, 2017.
Allen, S. T., Brooks, J. R., Keim, R. F., Bond, B. J., and McDonnell, J. J.: The role of pre-event canopy storage in throughfall and stemflow by using isotopic tracers, Ecohydrol., 7, 858–868, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1408, 2014.
Allen, S. T., Keim, R. F., and McDonnell, J. J.: Spatial patterns of throughfall isotopic composition at the event and seasonal timescales, J. Hydrol., 522, 58–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.029, 2015.
Ankor, M. J., Tyler, J. J., and Hughes, C. E.: Development of an autonomous, monthly and daily, rainfall sampler for isotope research, J. Hydrol., 575, 31–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.04.074, 2019.
Berman, E. S. F., Gupta, M., Gabrielli, C., Garland, T., and McDonnell, J. J.: High-frequency field-deployable isotope analyzer for hydrological applications, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008265, 2009.
Birkel, C., Tetzlaff, D., Dunn, S. M., and Soulsby, C.: Using lumped conceptual rainfall–runoff models to simulate daily isotope variability with fractionation in a nested mesoscale catchment, Adv. Water Resour., 34, 383–394, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.12.006, 2011.
Bowen, G. J. and Revenaugh, J.: Interpolating the isotopic composition of modern meteoric precipitation, Water Resour. Res., 39, 1299, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002086, 2003.
Buda, A. R. and DeWalle, D. R.: Dynamics of stream nitrate sources and flow pathways during stormflows on urban, forest and agricultural watersheds in central Pennsylvania, USA, Hydrol. Process., 23, 3292–3305, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7423, 2009.
Camacho Suarez, V. V., Saraiva Okello, A. M. L., Wenninger, J. W., and Uhlenbrook, S.: Understanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 19, 4183–4199, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-4183-2015, 2015.
Cayuela, C., Latron, J., Geris, J., and Llorens, P.: Spatio-temporal variability of the isotopic input signal in a partly forested catchment: Implications for hydrograph separation, Hydrol. Process., 33, 36–46, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.13309, 2019.
Chen, F., Zhang, M., Wang, S., Qiu, X., and Du, M.: Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale, Sci. Total Environ., 609, 1013–1022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.216, 2017.
Conroy, J. L., Noone, D., Cobb, K. M., Moerman, J. W., and Konecky, B. L.: Paired stable isotopologues in precipitation and vapor: A case study of the amount effect within western tropical Pacific storms, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 3290–3303, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023844, 2016.
Coplen, T. B.: Sequential, time-integrated collector of precipitation, ground water, and surface water for analysis of isotopes, Patent US7687028 (B1), 2010.
Coplen, T. B., Neiman, P. J., White, A. B., Landwehr, J. M., Ralph, M., and Dettinger, M. D.: Extreme changes in stable hydrogen isotopes and precipitation characteristics in a landfalling Pacific storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035481, 2008.
Coplen, T. B., Neiman, P. J., White, A. B., and Ralph, F. M.: Categorisation of northern California rainfall for periods with and without a radar brightband using stable isotopes and a novel automated precipitation collector, Tellus B, 67, 28574, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v67.28574, 2015.
Eriksson, E. and Khunakasem, V.: Chloride concentration in groundwater, recharge rate and rate of deposition of chloride in the Isreal coastal plan, J. Hydrol., 7, 178–197, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(69)90055-9, 1969.
Fergusson, S. P.: Improved Gages for Precipitation, Mon. Weather Rev., 49, 379–386, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1921)49<379:IGFP>2.0.CO;2, 1921.
Fischer, B. M. C., Stähli, M., and Seibert, J.: Pre-event water contributions to runoff events of different magnitude in pre-alpine headwaters, Hydrol. Res., 48, 28–47, https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2016.176, 2016.
Fischer, B. M. C., van Meerveld, H. J., and Seibert, J.: Spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall in a small headwater catchment and its effect on hydrograph separation, J. Hydrol., 547, 755–769, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.01.045, 2017.
Gröning, M.: Interactive comment on “Technical note: A microcontroller-based automatic rain sampler for stable isotope studies” by N. Michelsen et al., https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-93-RC2, 2019.
Gröning, M., Lutz, H. O., Roller-Lutz, Z., Kralik, M., Gourcy, L., and Pöltenstein, L.: A simple rain collector preventing water re-evaporation dedicated for δ18O and δ2H analysis of cumulative precipitation samples, J. Hydrol., 448–449, 195–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.04.041, 2012.
Guan, H., Love, A. J., Simmons, C. T., Makhnin, O., and Kayaalp, A. S.: Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 801–813, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-801-2010, 2010.
Hartmann, A., Luetscher, M., Wachter, R., Holz, P., Eiche, E., and Neumann, T.: Technical note: GUARD – an automated fluid sampler preventing sample alteration by contamination, evaporation and gas exchange, suitable for remote areas and harsh conditions, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4281–4293, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-4281-2018, 2018.
Herbstritt, B., Gralher, B., and Weiler, M.: Continuous in situ measurements of stable isotopes in liquid water, Water Resour. Res., 48, W03601, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011369, 2012.
Herbstritt, B., Gralher, B., and Weiler, M.: Real-time observations of stable isotope dynamics during rainfall and throughfall events, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-301, in review, 2018a.
Herbstritt, B., Seeger, S., Rinderer, M., and Weiler, M.: Low cost water vapour sampling for mobile in-situ measurements of stable water isotopes, EGU General Assembly 2018, Vienna, Austria, EGU2018-9188-1, 2018b.
Hervé-Fernández, P., Oyarzún, C., Brumbt, C., Huygens, D., Bodé, S., Verhoest, N. E. C., and Boeckx, P.: Assessing the `two water worlds' hypothesis and water sources for native and exotic evergreen species in south-central Chile, Hydrol. Process., 30, 4227–4241, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10984, 2016.
Hsueh, Y. H., Allen, S. T., and Keim, R. F.: Fine-scale spatial variability of throughfall amount and isotopic composition under a hardwood forest canopy, Hydrol. Process., 30, 1796–1803, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10772, 2016.
Hughes, C. E. and Crawford, J.: Spatial and temporal variation in precipitation isotopes in the Sydney Basin, Australia, J. Hydrol., 489, 42–55, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.036, 2013.
IAEA: IAEA/GNIP precipitation sampling guide, 2014.
IAEA/WMO: Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation., The GNIP Database, available at: https://nucleus.iaea.org/wiser, last access: 12 January 2019.
Kato, H., Onda, Y., Nanko, K., Gomi, T., Yamanaka, T., and Kawaguchi, S.: Effect of canopy interception on spatial variability and isotopic composition of throughfall in Japanese cypress plantations, J. Hydrol., 504, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.09.028, 2013.
Kennedy, V. C., Zellweger, G. W., and Avanzino, R. J.: Variation of Rain Chemistry During Storms at Two Sites in Northern California, Water Resour. Res., 15, 687–702, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR015i003p00687, 1979.
Kongo, V. M., Kosgei, J. R., Jewitt, G. P. W., and Lorentz, S. A.: Establishment of a catchment monitoring network through a participatory approach in a rural community in South Africa, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2507–2525, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-2507-2010, 2010.
Krupa, S. V.: Sampling and physico-chemical analysis of precipitation: a review, Environ. Pollut., 120, 565–594, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00165-3, 2002.
Laquer, F. C.: Sequential Precipitation Samplers: A Literature Review, Atmos. Environ., 24A, 2289–2297, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(90)90322-E, 1990.
Lutz, S. R., Krieg, R., Müller, C., Zink, M., Knöller, K., Samaniego, L., and Merz, R.: Spatial Patterns of Water Age: Using Young Water Fractions to Improve the Characterization of Transit Times in Contrasting Catchments, Water Resour. Res., 54, 4767–4784, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017WR022216, 2018.
Michelsen, N., Reshid, M., Siebert, C., Schulz, S., Knöller, K., Weise, S. M., Rausch, R., Al-Saud, M., and Schüth, C.: Isotopic and chemical composition of precipitation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Chem. Geol., 413, 51–62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.08.001, 2015.
Michelsen, N., van Geldern, R., Roßmann, Y., Bauer, I., Schulz, S., Barth, J. A. C., and Schüth, C.: Comparison of cumulative precipitation collectors used in isotope hydrology, Chem. Geol, 488, 171–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.04.032, 2018.
Muller, C. L., Baker, A., Fairchild, I. J., Kidd, C., and Boomer, I.: Intra-Event Trends in Stable Isotopes: Exploring Midlatitude Precipitation Using a Vertically Pointing Micro Rain Radar, J. Hydrometeorol., 16, 194–213, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-14-0038.1, 2015.
Munksgaard, N. C., Wurster, C. M., and Bird, M. I.: Continuous analysis of δ18O and δD values of water by diffusion sampling cavity ring-down spectrometry: a novel sampling device for unattended field monitoring of precipitation, ground and surface waters, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 25, 3706–3712, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.5282, 2011.
Munksgaard, N. C., Wurster, C. M., Bass, A., and Bird, M. I.: Extreme short-term stable isotope variability revealed by continuous rainwater analysis, Hydrol. Process., 26, 3630–3634, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9505, 2012.
Muñoz-Villers, L. E. and McDonnell, J. J.: Land use change effects on runoff generation in a humid tropical montane cloud forest region, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3543–3560, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-3543-2013, 2013.
Nelke, M., Coltman, C., Lien, H., Walter, C., Udell, C., and Selker, J.: OPEnSLab-OSU/OPEnSampler: OPEnSampler v1.0, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2483259 (see also http://www.open-sensing.org/opensampler/, last access: 10 February 2019), 2018.
Neuhaus, L.: Verfahren mit einem elektronischen Probenfluidnehmer zum Erzeugen und Bereitstellen von in umgebungsluftdichten Behältern abgefüllten Fluidproben für die Analyse und/oder Grenzwert-Überwachung, Patent DE102015007049 (A1), 2016.
Neuhaus, L.: Automatisches Wasserprobenentnahmesystem mit Verdunstungs- und Entgasungsschutz, available at: https://www.liquidsampler.de/, last access: 12 January 2019.
Otte, I., Detsch, F., Gütlein, A., Scholl, M., Kiese, R., Appelhans, T., and Nauss, T.: Seasonality of stable isotope composition of atmospheric water input at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Hydrol. Process., 31, 3932–3947, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11311, 2017.
Pangle, L. A., Klaus, J., Berman, E. S. F., Gupta, M., and McDonnell, J. J.: A new multisource and high-frequency approach to measuring δ2H and δ18O in hydrological field studies, Water Resour. Res., 49, 7797–7803, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR013743, 2013.
Pramana, K. E. R. and Ertsen, M. W.: Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4093–4115, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-4093-2016, 2016.
Qu, S., Wang, Y., Zhou, M., Liu, H., Shi, P., Yu, Z., and Xiang, L.: Temporal 18O and deuterium variations in hydrologic components of a small watershed during a typhoon event, Isot. Environ. Healt. S., 53, 172–183, https://doi.org/10.1080/10256016.2016.1205590, 2017.
Rao, T. N., Radhakrishna, B., Srivastava, R., Satyanarayana, T. M., Rao, D. N., and Ramesh, R.: Inferring microphysical processes occurring in mesoscale convective systems from radar measurements and isotopic analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L09813, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033495, 2008.
Robertson, J. K., Dolzine, T. W., and Graham, R. C.: Chemistry of Precipitation from Sequentially Sampled Storms, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/4-80-004, 1980.
Rodgers, P., Soulsby, C., Waldron, S., and Tetzlaff, D.: Using stable isotope tracers to assess hydrological flow paths, residence times and landscape influences in a nested mesoscale catchment, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 139–155, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-139-2005, 2005.
Saffarpour, S., Western, A. W., Adams, R., and McDonnell, J. J.: Multiple runoff processes and multiple thresholds control agricultural runoff generation, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4525–4545, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-4525-2016, 2016.
Scholl, M. A., Ingebritsen, S. E., Janik, C. J., and Kauahikaua, J. P.: An Isotope Hydrology Study of the Kilauea Volcano Area, Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4213, 1995.
Scholl, M. A., Ingebritsen, S. E., Janik, C. J., and Kauahikaua, J. P.: Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii, Water Resour. Res., 32, 3525–3537, https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR02837, 1996.
Siebert, C.: Automatischer Probennehmer mit atmosphärisch entkoppelter Speicherung wässriger Proben im Passiv- und Aktiv-Modus, Patent DE102014205633 (B4), 2015.
Spangenberg, J. E.: Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 26, 2627–2636, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6386, 2012.
Sprenger, M., Tetzlaff, D., and Soulsby, C.: Soil water stable isotopes reveal evaporation dynamics at the soil–plant–atmosphere interface of the critical zone, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3839–3858, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3839-2017, 2017.
Tauro, F., Selker, J., van de Giesen, N., Abrate, T., Uijlenhoet, R., Porfiri, M., Manfreda, S., Caylor, K., Moramarco, T., Benveniste, J., Ciraolo, G., Estes, L., Domeneghetti, A., Perks, M. T., Corbari, C., Rabiei, E., Ravazzani, G., Bogena, H., Harfouche, A., Brocca, L., Maltese, A., Wickert, A., Tarpanelli, A., Good, S., Lopez Alcala, J. M., Petroselli, A., Cudennec, C., Blume, T., Hut, R., and Grimaldi, S.: Measurements and Observations in the XXI century (MOXXI): innovation and multi-disciplinarity to sense the hydrological cycle, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 63, 169–196, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2017.1420191, 2018.
Terzer-Wassmuth, S., Araguas-Araguas, L. J., Wassenaar, L. I., and Aggarwal, P. K.: On the short-term (5-30 min.) precipitation isotope (δ18O, δ2H) variability in a temperate climate, EGU General Assembly 2018, Vienna, Austria, EGU2018-18997, 2018.
Tunaley, C., Tetzlaff, D., Birkel, C., and Soulsby, C.: Using high-resolution isotope data and alternative calibration strategies for a tracer-aided runoff model in a nested catchment, Hydrol. Process., 31, 3962–3978, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11313, 2017.
van Huijgevoort, M. H. J., Tetzlaff, D., Sutanudjaja, E. H., and Soulsby, C.: Using high resolution tracer data to constrain water storage, flux and age estimates in a spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, Hydrol. Process., 30, 4761–4778, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10902, 2016.
Vermette, S. J. and Drake, J. J.: Simplified Wet-Only and Sequential Fraction Rain Collector, Atmos. Environ., 21, 715–716, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90053-9, 1987.
von Freyberg, J., Studer, B., and Kirchner, J. W.: A lab in the field: high-frequency analysis of water quality and stable isotopes in stream water and precipitation, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1721–1739, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-1721-2017, 2017.
Wassenaar, L. I., Terzer-Wassmuth, S., Douence, C., Araguas-Araguas, L., Aggarwal, P. K., and Coplen, T. B.: Seeking excellence: an evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometer, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 32, 393–406, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8052, 2018.
Williams, M. R., Lartey, J. L., and Sanders, L. L.: Isotopic (δ18O and δ2H) Integrity of Water Samples Collected and Stored by Automatic Samplers, Agric. Environ. Lett., 3, 180009, https://doi.org/10.2134/ael2018.02.0009, 2018.
Windhorst, D., Kraft, P., Holly, H., Sahraei, A., and Breuer, L.: A mobile and self-sufficient lab for high frequency measurements of stable water isotopes and chemistry of multiple water sources, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria, EGU2017-4879, 2017.
Zannoni, D., Steen-Larsen, H. C., Rampazzo, G., Dreossi, G., Stenni, B., and Bergamasco, A.: The atmospheric water cycle of a coastal lagoon: An isotope study of the interactions between water vapor, precipitation and surface waters, J. Hydrol., 572, 630–644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.03.033, 2019.
- Full-text XML
Most commercial automatic rain samplers are costly and do not prevent evaporation from the collection bottles. Hence, we have developed a microcontroller-based collector enabling timer-actuated integral rain sampling. The simple, low-cost device is robust and effectively minimizes post-sampling evaporation. The excellent performance of the collector during an evaporation experiment in a lab oven suggests that even multi-week field deployments in warm climates are feasible.
Most commercial automatic rain samplers are costly and do not prevent evaporation from the...