Articles | Volume 23, issue 9
Research article
04 Sep 2019
Research article |  | 04 Sep 2019

A soil non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) flushing laboratory experiment based on measuring the dielectric properties of soil–organic mixtures via time domain reflectometry (TDR)

Alessandro Comegna, Antonio Coppola, Giovanna Dragonetti, and Angelo Sommella

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Cited articles

Allison, L. E.: Organic carbon, in: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Agron. Monograph, vol. 9, edited by: Klute, A., ASA and SSSA, Madison, 1367–1378, 1965. 
Birchack, J. R., Gardner, C. Z. G., Hipp, J. E., and Victor, J. M.: High dielectric constant microwave probes for sensing soil moisture, Proc. IEEEE, 62, 93–98, 1974. 
Brost, E. J. and DeVaull, G. E.: Non-Aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mobility limits in soils, Soil Groundw. Res. Bull., 9, 1–9, 2000. 
Comegna, A., Coppola, A., Dragonetti, G., and Sommella, A.: Dielectric response of a variable saturated soil contaminated by Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs), Proced. Environ. Sci., 19, 701–710, 2013a. 
Comegna, A., Coppola, A., Dragonetti, G., Severino, G., Sommella, A., and Basile, A.: Dielectric properties of a tilled sandy volcanic-vesuvian soil with moderate andic features, Soil Till. Res., 133, 93–100, 2013b. 
Short summary
We carried out a series of laboratory-controlled experiments in order to simulate different scenarios of practical interest aiming to analyze, from a dielectric point of view, the influence of different washing solutions on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, we validated a dielectric mixing model for predicting the volumetric amounts of NAPL (θNAPL) within the contaminated soil as the decontamination process progressed.