Articles | Volume 23, issue 9
Research article
04 Sep 2019
Research article |  | 04 Sep 2019

A soil non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) flushing laboratory experiment based on measuring the dielectric properties of soil–organic mixtures via time domain reflectometry (TDR)

Alessandro Comegna, Antonio Coppola, Giovanna Dragonetti, and Angelo Sommella


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Short summary
We carried out a series of laboratory-controlled experiments in order to simulate different scenarios of practical interest aiming to analyze, from a dielectric point of view, the influence of different washing solutions on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, we validated a dielectric mixing model for predicting the volumetric amounts of NAPL (θNAPL) within the contaminated soil as the decontamination process progressed.