Articles | Volume 21, issue 10
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Identifying, characterizing and predicting spatial patterns of lacustrine groundwater discharge
Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Department of Hydrology, Potsdam, Germany
No articles found.
Daniel Rasche, Jannis Weimar, Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Markus Morgner, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3059–3082,Short summary
We introduce passive downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing (d-CRNS) as an approach for the non-invasive estimation of soil moisture in deeper layers of the unsaturated zone which exceed the observational window of above-ground CRNS applications. Neutron transport simulations are used to derive mathematical descriptions and transfer functions, while experimental measurements in an existing groundwater observation well illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the approach.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, Konrad Greinwald, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4953–4974,Short summary
Analyzing the impact of soil age and rainfall intensity on vertical subsurface flow paths in calcareous soils, with a special focus on preferential flow occurrence, shows how water flow paths are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The observed increase in preferential flow occurrence with increasing moraine age provides important but rare data for a proper representation of hydrological processes within the feedback cycle of the hydro-pedo-geomorphological system.
Achim Brauer, Ingo Heinrich, Markus J. Schwab, Birgit Plessen, Brian Brademann, Matthias Köppl, Sylvia Pinkerneil, Daniel Balanzategui, Gerhard Helle, and Theresa Blume
DEUQUA Spec. Pub., 4, 41–58,
Lena Katharina Schmidt, Till Francke, Erwin Rottler, Theresa Blume, Johannes Schöber, and Axel Bronstert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 653–669,Short summary
Climate change fundamentally alters glaciated high-alpine areas, but it is unclear how this affects riverine sediment transport. As a first step, we aimed to identify the most important processes and source areas in three nested catchments in the Ötztal, Austria, in the past 15 years. We found that areas above 2500 m were crucial and that summer rainstorms were less influential than glacier melt. These findings provide a baseline for studies on future changes in high-alpine sediment dynamics.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2671–2696,Short summary
This study is analyses how characteristics of precipitation events and soil moisture and temperature dynamics during these events can be used to model the associated streamflow responses in intermittent streams. The models are used to identify differences between the dominant controls of streamflow intermittency in three distinct geologies of the Attert catchment, Luxembourg. Overall, soil moisture was found to be the most important control of intermittent streamflow in all geologies.
Heye Reemt Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Mustafa Berk Duygu, Miguel Angel Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Davide Canone, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Stefano Ferraris, Félix Frances, Davide Gisolo, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten H. Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) operated by 24 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Daniel Rasche, Markus Köhli, Martin Schrön, Theresa Blume, and Andreas Güntner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6547–6566,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing provides areal average soil moisture measurements. We investigated how distinct differences in spatial soil moisture patterns influence the soil moisture estimates and present two approaches to improve the estimate of soil moisture close to the instrument by reducing the influence of soil moisture further afield. Additionally, we show that the heterogeneity of soil moisture can be assessed based on the relationship of different neutron energies.
Conrad Jackisch, Sibylle K. Hassler, Tobias L. Hohenbrink, Theresa Blume, Hjalmar Laudon, Hilary McMillan, Patricia Saco, and Loes van Schaik
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5277–5285,
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, Konrad Greinwald, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation and vegetation succession across ten millennia on calcareous parent material shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. We provide important but rare data and observations for a proper handling of hydrologic processes and their role within the feedback cycle of the hydro-pedo-geomorphological system.
Anne Hartmann, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3189–3204,Short summary
Our analysis of soil physical and hydraulic properties across two soil chronosequences of 10 millennia in the Swiss Alps provides important observation of the evolution of soil hydraulic behavior. A strong co-evolution of soil physical and hydraulic properties was revealed by the observed change of fast-draining coarse-textured soils to slow-draining soils with a high water-holding capacity in correlation with a distinct change in structural properties and organic matter content.
Daniel Beiter, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5713–5744,Short summary
We investigated the interactions between streams and their adjacent hillslopes in terms of water flow. It could be revealed that soil structure has a strong influence on how hillslopes connect to the streams, while the groundwater table tells us a lot about when the two connect. This observation could be used to improve models that try to predict whether or not hillslopes are in a state where a rain event will be likely to produce a flood in the stream.
Conrad Jackisch, Samuel Knoblauch, Theresa Blume, Erwin Zehe, and Sibylle K. Hassler
Biogeosciences, 17, 5787–5808,Short summary
We developed software to calculate the root water uptake (RWU) of beech tree roots from soil moisture dynamics. We present our approach and compare RWU to measured sap flow in the tree stem. The study relates to two sites that are similar in topography and weather but with contrasting soils. While sap flow is very similar between the two sites, the RWU is different. This suggests that soil characteristics have substantial influence. Our easy-to-implement RWU estimate may help further studies.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5453–5472,Short summary
In recent decades the demand for detailed information of spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream network has grown in the fields of eco-hydrology and extreme flow prediction. We use temporal streamflow intermittency data obtained at various sites using innovative sensing technology as well as spatial predictors to predict and map probabilities of streamflow intermittency. This approach has the potential to provide intermittency maps for hydrological modelling and management practices.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Anne Hartmann, Ekaterina Semenova, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3271–3288,Short summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation, and vegetation succession across 10 millennia shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The increase found in water storage and preferential flow paths with increasing soil age shows the effect of the complex interaction of vegetation and soil development on flow paths, water balance, and runoff formation during landscape evolution.
Mirko Mälicke, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2633–2653,Short summary
We could show that distributed soil moisture time series bear a considerable amount of information about dynamic changes in soil moisture. We developed a new method to describe spatial patterns and analyze their persistency. By combining uncertainty propagation with information theory, we were able to calculate the information content of spatial similarity with respect to measurement uncertainty. This does help to understand when and why the soil is drying in an organized manner.
Dominic Demand, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4869–4889,Short summary
This study presents an analysis of 135 soil moisture profiles for identification of the spatial and temporal preferential flow occurrence in a complex landscape. Especially dry conditions and high rainfall intensities were found to increase preferential flow occurrence in soils. This results in a seasonal pattern of preferential flow with a higher occurrence in summer. During this time grasslands showed increased flow velocities, whereas forest sites exhibited a higher amount of bypass flow.
Nils Hinrich Kaplan, Ernestine Sohrt, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1363–1374,Short summary
Different sensing techniques including time-lapse imagery, electric conductivity and stage measurements were used to generate a combined dataset of the presence and absence of streamflow within a large number of nested sub-catchments in the Attert catchment, Luxembourg. The first sites of observation were established in 2013 and successively extended to a total number of 182 in 2016. The dataset can be used to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of the stream network.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Adriaan J. Teuling, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, and Martin Herold
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2077–2091,Short summary
Satellite images are often used to estimate land water fluxes over a larger area. In this study, we investigate the link between a well-known vegetation index derived from satellite data and sap velocity, in a temperate forest in Luxembourg. We show that the link between the vegetation index and transpiration is not constant. Therefore we suggest that the use of vegetation indices to predict transpiration should be limited to ecosystems and scales where the link has been confirmed.
Erwin Zehe, Ralf Loritz, Conrad Jackisch, Martijn Westhoff, Axel Kleidon, Theresa Blume, Sibylle K. Hassler, and Hubert H. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 971–987,
Mirko Mälicke, Sibylle K. Hassler, Markus Weiler, Theresa Blume, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this study we use time dependent variograms to identify periods of organized soil moisture during drying. We could identify emerging spatial patterns which imply periods of terrestrial control on soil moisture organization. The coupling of time dependent variograms with density based clustering is a new approach to detect similarity in spatial patterns. The presented method is useful to describe states of organization and improve kriging workflows by extending their prerequisites.
Sibylle Kathrin Hassler, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 13–30,Short summary
We use sap velocity measurements from 61 trees on 132 days to gain knowledge about the controls of landscape-scale transpiration, distinguishing tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on sap velocity and sap flow patterns and examining their dynamics during the vegetation period. Our results show that these patterns are not exclusively determined by tree characteristics. Thus, including site characteristics such as geology and aspect could be beneficial for modelling or management purposes.
Lisa Angermann, Conrad Jackisch, Niklas Allroggen, Matthias Sprenger, Erwin Zehe, Jens Tronicke, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3727–3748,Short summary
This study investigates the temporal dynamics and response velocities of lateral preferential flow at the hillslope. The results are compared to catchment response behavior to infer the large-scale implications of the observed processes. A large portion of mobile water flows through preferential flow paths in the structured soils, causing an immediate discharge response. The study presents a methodological approach to cover the spatial and temporal domain of these highly heterogeneous processes.
Conrad Jackisch, Lisa Angermann, Niklas Allroggen, Matthias Sprenger, Theresa Blume, Jens Tronicke, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3749–3775,Short summary
Rapid subsurface flow in structured soils facilitates fast vertical and lateral redistribution of event water. We present its in situ exploration through local measurements and irrigation experiments. Special emphasis is given to a coherent combination of hydrological and geophysical methods. The study highlights that form and function operate as conjugated pairs. Dynamic imaging through time-lapse GPR was key to observing both and to identifying hydrologically relevant structures.
Maik Renner, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, Anke Hildebrandt, Marcus Guderle, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2063–2083,Short summary
We estimated forest transpiration (European beech) along a steep valley cross section. Atmospheric demand, obtained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power, is the dominant control of transpiration at all sites. To our surprise we find that transpiration is rather similar across sites with different aspect (north vs. south) and different stand structure due to systematically varying sap velocities. Such a compensation effect is highly relevant for modeling and upscaling of transpiration.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1269–1288,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors bridge the gap between point-scale measurements of soil moisture and remote sensing applications. We tested four distinct methods to calibrate the sensor in a temperate forest environment using different soil moisture weighting approaches. While the variable leaf biomass of the deciduous trees had no significant influence on the calibration, it proved necessary to modify the standard calibration method to achieve the best sensor performance.
M. Sprenger, T. H. M. Volkmann, T. Blume, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2617–2635,Short summary
We present a novel approach that includes information about the pore water stable isotopic composition in inverse model approaches to estimate soil hydraulic parameters. Different approaches are presented and their adequacy regarding the model efficiency, realism and parameter identifiability are discussed. The advantages of the new approach are shown by an application of the inverse estimated parameters to infer the water balance and the transit time for three different study sites.
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, L. Pfister, T. Blume, B. Schröder, M. Westhoff, C. Jackisch, S. J. Schymanski, M. Weiler, K. Schulz, N. Allroggen, J. Tronicke, L. van Schaik, P. Dietrich, U. Scherer, J. Eccard, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4635–4655,
H. M. Holländer, H. Bormann, T. Blume, W. Buytaert, G. B. Chirico, J.-F. Exbrayat, D. Gustafsson, H. Hölzel, T. Krauße, P. Kraft, S. Stoll, G. Blöschl, and H. Flühler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2065–2085,
E. Zehe, U. Ehret, T. Blume, A. Kleidon, U. Scherer, and M. Westhoff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4297–4322,
Related subject area
Subject: Rivers and Lakes | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesHydrological, meteorological, and watershed controls on the water balance of thermokarst lakes between Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, CanadaInfluence of vegetation maintenance on flow and mixing: case study comparing fully cut with high-coverage conditionsAssessing the influence of lake and watershed attributes on snowmelt bypass at thermokarst lakesTechnical note: Analyzing river network dynamics and the active length–discharge relationship using water presence sensorsTechnical note: Efficient imaging of hydrological units below lakes and fjords with a floating, transient electromagnetic (FloaTEM) systemDrastic decline of flood pulse in the Cambodian floodplains (Mekong River and Tonle Sap system)Seasonality of density currents induced by differential coolingImplications of variations in stream specific conductivity for estimating baseflow using chemical mass balance and calibrated hydrograph techniquesEnhanced flood hazard assessment beyond decadal climate cycles based on centennial historical data (Duero basin, Spain)Contrasting hydrological and thermal intensities determine seasonal lake-level variations – a case study at Paiku Co on the southern Tibetan PlateauTechnical note: Mobile open dynamic chamber measurement of methane macroseeps in lakesA Fast-Response Automated Gas Equilibrator (FaRAGE) for continuous in situ measurement of CH4 and CO2 dissolved in waterTechnical note: Greenhouse gas flux studies: an automated online system for gas emission measurements in aquatic environmentsEvolution and dynamics of the vertical temperature profile in an oligotrophic lakeLong-term changes in central European river discharge for 1869–2016: impact of changing snow covers, reservoir constructions and an intensified hydrological cycleReliable reference for the methane concentrations in Lake Kivu at the beginning of industrial exploitationSmall dams alter thermal regimes of downstream waterOxycline oscillations induced by internal waves in deep Lake IseoTurbulent mixing and heat fluxes under lake ice: the role of seiche oscillationsNew profiling and mooring records help to assess variability of Lake Issyk-Kul and reveal unknown features of its thermohaline structureEvaluation of lacustrine groundwater discharge, hydrologic partitioning, and nutrient budgets in a proglacial lake in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: using 222Rn and stable isotopesLong-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary studyActive heat pulse sensing of 3-D-flow fields in streambedsTechnical note: False low turbidity readings from optical probes during high suspended-sediment concentrationsEffectiveness of distributed temperature measurements for early detection of piping in river embankmentsCitizen observations contributing to flood modelling: opportunities and challengesDead Sea evaporation by 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satellite altimetryThe Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR): integration of water isotopes in watershed observation and riverine researchA 2600-year history of floods in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland: frequencies, mechanisms and climate forcingTechnical Note: Semi-automated effective width extraction from time-lapse RGB imagery of a remote, braided Greenlandic riverCharacterization of sediment layer composition in a shallow lake: from open water zones to reed belt areasMorphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration – the Thur River case studyDynamics of auto- and heterotrophic picoplankton and associated viruses in Lake GenevaHistoric maps as a data source for socio-hydrology: a case study of the Lake Balaton wetland system, HungarySpatio-temporal heterogeneity of riparian soil morphology in a restored floodplainFlood discharge measurement of a mountain river – Nanshih River in TaiwanHydrochemical variability at the Upper 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Evan J. Wilcox, Brent B. Wolfe, and Philip Marsh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2173–2188,Short summary
The Arctic is warming quickly and influencing lake water balances. We used water isotope concentrations taken from samples of 25 lakes in the Canadian Arctic and estimated the average ratio of evaporation to inflow (E / I) for each lake. The ratio of watershed area (the area that flows into the lake) to lake area (WA / LA) strongly predicted E / I, as lakes with relatively smaller watersheds received less inflow. The WA / LA could be used to predict the vulnerability of Arctic lakes to future change.
Monika Barbara Kalinowska, Kaisa Västilä, Michael Nones, Adam Kiczko, Emilia Karamuz, Andrzej Brandyk, Adam Kozioł, and Marcin Krukowski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 953–968,Short summary
Vegetation is commonly found in rivers and channels. Using field investigations, we evaluated the influence of different vegetation coverages on the flow and mixing in the small naturally vegetated channel. The obtained results are expected to be helpful for practitioners, enlarge our still limited knowledge, and show the further required scientific directions for a better understanding of the influence of vegetation on the flow and mixing of dissolved substances in real natural conditions.
Evan J. Wilcox, Brent B. Wolfe, and Philip Marsh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 6185–6205,Short summary
We estimated how much of the water flowing into lakes during snowmelt replaced the pre-snowmelt lake water. Our data show that, as lake depth increases, the amount of water mixed into lakes decreased, because vertical mixing is reduced as lake depth increases. Our data also show that the water mixing into lakes is not solely snow-sourced but is a mixture of snowmelt and soil water. These results are relevant for lake biogeochemistry given the unique properties of snowmelt runoff.
Francesca Zanetti, Nicola Durighetto, Filippo Vingiani, and Gianluca Botter
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3497–3516,Short summary
River networks are highly dynamical. Characterizing expansion and retraction of flowing streams is a significant scientific challenge. Electrical resistance sensors were used to monitor stream network patterns in an alpine catchment. Our data show the presence of spatial heterogeneity in network dynamics and that the active length is more sensitive than discharge to small rain events. The study unravels potentials and limitations of the sensors for the characterization of temporary streams.
Pradip Kumar Maurya, Frederik Ersted Christensen, Masson Andy Kass, Jesper B. Pedersen, Rasmus R. Frederiksen, Nikolaj Foged, Anders Vest Christiansen, and Esben Auken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2813–2827,Short summary
In this paper, we present an application of the electromagnetic method to image the subsurface below rivers, lakes, or any surface water body. The scanning of the subsurface is carried out by sailing an electromagnetic sensor called FloaTEM. Imaging results show a 3D distribution of different sediment types below the freshwater lakes. In the case of saline water, the system is capable of identifying the probable location of groundwater discharge into seawater.
Samuel De Xun Chua, Xi Xi Lu, Chantha Oeurng, Ty Sok, and Carl Grundy-Warr
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 609–625,Short summary
We found that the annual flood at the Cambodian floodplains decreased from 1960 to 2019. Consequently, the Tonle Sap Lake, the largest lake in Southeast Asia, is shrinking. The results are worrying because the local fisheries and planting calendar might be disrupted. This drastic decline of flooding extent is caused mostly by local factors, namely water withdrawal for irrigation and channel incision from sand mining activities.
Tomy Doda, Cintia L. Ramón, Hugo N. Ulloa, Alfred Wüest, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 331–353,Short summary
At night or during cold periods, the shallow littoral region of lakes cools faster than their deeper interior. This induces a cold downslope current that carries littoral waters offshore. From a 1-year-long database collected in a small temperate lake, we resolve the seasonality of this current and report its frequent occurrence from summer to winter. This study contributes to a better quantification of lateral exchange in lakes, with implications for the transport of dissolved compounds.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 183–195,Short summary
Using specific conductivity (SC) to estimate groundwater inflow to rivers is complicated by bank return waters, interflow, and flows off floodplains contributing to baseflow in all but the driest years. Using the maximum SC of the river in dry years to estimate the SC of groundwater produces the best baseflow vs. streamflow trends. The variable composition of baseflow hinders calibration of hydrograph-based techniques to estimate groundwater inflows.
Gerardo Benito, Olegario Castillo, Juan A. Ballesteros-Cánovas, Maria Machado, and Mariano Barriendos
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6107–6132,Short summary
Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of floods, but changes are difficult to project. We compiled historical and modern flood data of the Rio Duero (Spain) to evaluate flood hazards beyond decadal climate cycles. Historical floods were obtained from documentary sources, identifying 69 floods over 1250–1871 CE. Discharges were calculated from reported flood heights. Flood frequency using historical datasets showed the most robust results, guiding climate change adaptation.
Yanbin Lei, Tandong Yao, Kun Yang, Lazhu, Yaoming Ma, and Broxton W. Bird
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3163–3177,Short summary
Lake evaporation from Paiku Co on the TP is low in spring and summer and high in autumn and early winter. There is a ~ 5-month lag between net radiation and evaporation due to large lake heat storage. High evaporation and low inflow cause significant lake-level decrease in autumn and early winter, while low evaporation and high inflow cause considerable lake-level increase in summer. This study implies that evaporation can affect the different amplitudes of lake-level variations on the TP.
Frederic Thalasso, Katey Walter Anthony, Olya Irzak, Ethan Chaleff, Laughlin Barker, Peter Anthony, Philip Hanke, and Rodrigo Gonzalez-Valencia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 6047–6058,Short summary
Methane (CH4) seepage is the steady or episodic flow of gaseous hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs that has been identified as a significant source of atmospheric CH4. The monitoring of these emissions is important and despite several available methods, large macroseeps are still difficult to measure due to a lack of a lightweight and inexpensive method deployable in remote environments. Here, we report the development of a mobile chamber for measuring intense CH4 macroseepage in lakes.
Shangbin Xiao, Liu Liu, Wei Wang, Andreas Lorke, Jason Woodhouse, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3871–3880,Short summary
To better understand the fate of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in freshwaters, dissolved CH4 and CO2 need to be measured with a high temporal resolution. We developed the Fast-Response Automated Gas Equilibrator (FaRAGE) for real-time in situ measurement of dissolved gases in water. FaRAGE can achieve a short response time (CH4: t95 % = 12 s; CO2: t95 % = 10 s) while retaining a high equilibration ratio and accuracy.
Nguyen Thanh Duc, Samuel Silverstein, Martin Wik, Patrick Crill, David Bastviken, and Ruth K. Varner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3417–3430,Short summary
Under rapid ongoing climate change, accurate quantification of natural greenhouse gas emissions in aquatic environments such as lakes and ponds is needed to understand regulation and feedbacks. Building on the rapid development in wireless communication, sensors, and computation technology, we present a low-cost, open-source, automated and remotely accessed and controlled device for carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from open-water environments along with tests showing their potential.
Zvjezdana B. Klaić, Karmen Babić, and Mirko Orlić
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3399–3416,Short summary
Fine-resolution lake temperature measurements (2 min, 15 depths) show different lake responses to atmospheric forcings: (1) continuous diurnal oscillations in the temperature in the first 5 m of the lake, (2) occasional diurnal oscillations in the temperature at depths from 7 to 20 m, and (3) occasional surface and internal seiches. Due to the sloped lake bottom, surface seiches produced the high-frequency oscillations in the lake temperatures with periods of 9 min at depths from 9 to 17 m.
Erwin Rottler, Till Francke, Gerd Bürger, and Axel Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1721–1740,Short summary
In the attempt to identify and disentangle long-term impacts of changes in snow cover and precipitation along with reservoir constructions, we employ a set of analytical tools on hydro-climatic time series. We identify storage reservoirs as an important factor redistributing runoff from summer to winter. Furthermore, our results hint at more (intense) rainfall in recent decades. Detected increases in high discharge can be traced back to corresponding changes in precipitation.
Bertram Boehrer, Wolf von Tümpling, Ange Mugisha, Christophe Rogemont, and Augusta Umutoni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4707–4716,Short summary
Dissolved methane in Lake Kivu (East Africa) represents a precious energy deposit, but the high gas loads have also been perceived as a threat by the local population. Our measurements confirm the huge amount of methane and carbon dioxide present, but do not support the current theory of a significant recharge. Direct measurements of gas pressure indicate no imminent danger due to limnic eruptions. A continuous survey is mandatory to support responsible action during industrial exploitation.
André Chandesris, Kris Van Looy, Jacob S. Diamond, and Yves Souchon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4509–4525,Short summary
We found that small dams in rivers alter the thermal regimes of downstream waters in two distinct ways: either only the downstream daily minimum temperatures increase, or both the downstream daily minimum and maximum temperatures increase. We further show that only two physical dam characteristics can explain this difference in temperature response: (1) residence time, and (2) surface area. These results may help managers prioritize efforts to restore the fragmented thermalscapes of rivers.
Giulia Valerio, Marco Pilotti, Maximilian Peter Lau, and Michael Hupfer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1763–1777,Short summary
This paper provides experimental evidence of the occurrence of large and periodic movements induced by the wind at 95 m in depth in Lake Iseo, where a permanent chemocline is located. These movements determine vertical oscillations of the oxycline up to 20 m. Accordingly, in 3 % of the sediment area alternating redox conditions occur, which might force unsteady sediment–water fluxes. This finding has major implications for the internal matter cycle in Lake Iseo.
Georgiy Kirillin, Ilya Aslamov, Matti Leppäranta, and Elisa Lindgren
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6493–6504,Short summary
We have discovered transient appearances of strong turbulent mixing beneath the ice of an Arctic lake. Such mixing events increase heating of the ice base up to an order of magnitude and can significantly accelerate ice melting. The source of mixing was identified as oscillations of the entire lake water body triggered by strong winds over the lake surface. This previously unknown mechanism of ice melt may help understand the link between the climate conditions and the seasonal ice formation.
Peter O. Zavialov, Alexander S. Izhitskiy, Georgiy B. Kirillin, Valentina M. Khan, Boris V. Konovalov, Peter N. Makkaveev, Vadim V. Pelevin, Nikolay A. Rimskiy-Korsakov, Salmor A. Alymkulov, and Kubanychbek M. Zhumaliev
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6279–6295,Short summary
This paper reports the results of field surveys conducted in Lake Issyk-Kul in 2015–2017 and compares the present-day data with the available historical records. Our data do not confirm the reports of progressive warming of the deep Issyk-Kul waters as suggested in some previous publications. However, they do indicate a positive trend of salinity in the lake’s interior over the last 3 decades. An important newly found feature is a persistent salinity maximum at depths of 70–120 m.
Xin Luo, Xingxing Kuang, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Sihai Liang, Rong Mao, Xiaolang Zhang, and Hailong Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5579–5598,
David Eschbach, Laurent Schmitt, Gwenaël Imfeld, Jan-Hendrik May, Sylvain Payraudeau, Frank Preusser, Mareike Trauerstein, and Grzegorz Skupinski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2717–2737,Short summary
In this study we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of past trajectories in complex hydrosystems. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the future.
Eddie W. Banks, Margaret A. Shanafield, Saskia Noorduijn, James McCallum, Jörg Lewandowski, and Okke Batelaan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1917–1929,Short summary
This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude below the water–sediment interface. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analyzed using a heat transport equation. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes.
Nicholas Voichick, David J. Topping, and Ronald E. Griffiths
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1767–1773,Short summary
This paper describes instances in the Grand Canyon study area and a laboratory experiment in which very high suspended-sediment concentrations result in incorrectly low turbidity recorded with a commonly used field instrument. If associated with the monitoring of a construction or dredging project, false low turbidity could result in regulators being unaware of environmental damage caused by the actually much higher turbidity.
Silvia Bersan, André R. Koelewijn, and Paolo Simonini
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1491–1508,Short summary
Backward erosion piping is the cause of a significant percentage of failures and incidents involving dams and river embankments. In the past 20 years fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) has proved to be effective for the detection of leakages and internal erosion in dams. This work investigates the effectiveness of DTS for monitoring backward erosion piping in river embankments. Data from a large-scale piping test performed on an instrumented dike are presented and discussed.
Thaine H. Assumpção, Ioana Popescu, Andreja Jonoski, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1473–1489,Short summary
Citizens can contribute to science by providing data, analysing them and as such contributing to decision-making processes. For example, citizens have collected water levels from gauges, which are important when simulating/forecasting floods, where data are usually scarce. This study reviewed such contributions and concluded that integration of citizen data may not be easy due to their spatio-temporal characteristics but that citizen data still proved valuable and can be used in flood modelling.
Jutta Metzger, Manuela Nied, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jörg Kleffmann, and Christoph Kottmeier
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1135–1155,Short summary
This paper is motivated by the need for more precise evaporation rates from the Dead Sea (DS) and methods to estimate and forecast evaporation. A new approach to measure lake evaporation with a station located at the shoreline, also transferable to other lakes, is introduced. The first directly measured DS evaporation rates are presented as well as applicable methods for evaporation calculation. These results enable us to further close the DS water budget and to facilitate the water management.
Pauline Leduc, Peter Ashmore, and Darren Sjogren
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1–11,Short summary
We show the utility of ground-based time-lapse cameras for automated monitoring of stream stage and flow characteristics. High-frequency flow stage, water surface width and other information on the state of flow can be acquired for extended time periods with simple local calibration using a low-cost time-lapse camera and a few simple field measurements for calibration and for automated image selection and sorting. The approach is a useful substitute or complement to the conventional stage data.
H. J. Ilja van Meerveld, Marc J. P. Vis, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4895–4905,Short summary
We tested the usefulness of stream level class data for hydrological model calibration. Only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, particularly when the boundary was chosen at a high stream level. There was hardly any improvement in model performance when using more than five stream level classes. These results suggest that model based streamflow time series can be obtained from citizen science based water level class data.
Hidayat Hidayat, Adriaan J. Teuling, Bart Vermeulen, Muh Taufik, Karl Kastner, Tjitske J. Geertsema, Dinja C. C. Bol, Dirk H. Hoekman, Gadis Sri Haryani, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Robert M. Delinom, Roel Dijksma, Gusti Z. Anshari, Nining S. Ningsih, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Antonius J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2579–2594,Short summary
Hydrological prediction is crucial but in tropical lowland it is difficult, considering data scarcity and river system complexity. This study offers a view of the hydrology of two tropical lowlands in Indonesia. Both lowlands exhibit the important role of upstream wetlands in regulating the flow downstream. We expect that this work facilitates a better prediction of fire-prone conditions in these regions.
Kyutae Lee, Ali R. Firoozfar, and Marian Muste
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1863–1874,Short summary
Accurate estimation of stream/river flows is important in many aspects, including public safety during floods, effective uses of water resources for hydropower generation and irrigation, and environments. In this paper, we investigated a feasibility of the continuous slope area (CSA) method which measures dynamic changes in instantaneous water surface elevations, and the results showed promising capabilities of the suggested method for the accurate estimation of flows in natural streams/rivers.
Raphael Schneider, Peter Nygaard Godiksen, Heidi Villadsen, Henrik Madsen, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 751–764,Short summary
We use water level observations from the CryoSat-2 satellite in combination with a river model of the Brahmaputra River, extracting satellite data over a dynamic river mask derived from Landsat imagery. The novelty of this work is the use of the CryoSat-2 water level observations, collected using a complex spatio-temporal sampling scheme, to calibrate a hydrodynamic river model. The resulting model accurately reproduces water levels, without precise knowledge of river bathymetry.
Matthew T. Perks, Andrew J. Russell, and Andrew R. G. Large
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4005–4015,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to capture information about the earth’s surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Here we present a method whereby image acquisition and subsequent analysis have enabled the highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomenon present during high-energy flash floods to be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions.
Ian Cartwright and Harald Hofmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3581–3600,Short summary
This paper uses the natural geochemical tracer Rn together with streamflow measurements to differentiate between actual groundwater inflows and water that exits the river, flows through the near-river sediments, and subsequently re-enters the river downstream (parafluvial flow). Distinguishing between these two components is important to understanding the water balance in gaining streams and in managing and protecting surface water resources.
Z. D. Wen, K. S. Song, Y. Zhao, J. Du, and J. H. Ma
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 787–801,Short summary
The study indicated that CDOM in rivers had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal lakes in the Hulun Buir plateau, Northeast China. The autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. Study of the optical–physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in plateau water environments.
C. Schwatke, D. Dettmering, W. Bosch, and F. Seitz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4345–4364,
J. Halder, S. Terzer, L. I. Wassenaar, L. J. Araguás-Araguás, and P. K. Aggarwal
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3419–3431,Short summary
We introduce a new online global database of riverine water stable isotopes (Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers) and evaluate its longer-term data holdings. A regionalized, cluster-based precipitation isotope model was used to compare measured to predicted isotope compositions of riverine catchments. The study demonstrated that the seasonal isotopic composition and variation of river water can be predicted, which will improve the application of water stable isotopes in rivers.
L. Schulte, J. C. Peña, F. Carvalho, T. Schmidt, R. Julià, J. Llorca, and H. Veit
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3047–3072,Short summary
A 2600-year long composite palaeoflood record is reconstructed from high-resolution delta plain sediments of the Hasli-Aare floodplain on the northern slope of the Swiss Alps. Natural proxies compiled from sedimentary, geochemical and geomorphological data were calibrated by textual and factual sources and instrumental data. Geomorphological, historical and instrumental data provide evidence for flood damage intensities and discharge estimations of severe and catastrophic historical floods.
C. J. Gleason, L. C. Smith, D. C. Finnegan, A. L. LeWinter, L. H Pitcher, and V. W. Chu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2963–2969,Short summary
Here, we give a semi-automated processing workflow to extract hydraulic parameters from over 10,000 time-lapse images of the remote Isortoq River in Greenland. This workflow allows efficient and accurate (mean accuracy 79.6%) classification of images following an automated similarity filtering process. We also give an effective width hydrograph (a proxy for discharge) for the Isortoq using this workflow, showing the potential of this workflow for enhancing understanding of remote rivers.
I. Kogelbauer and W. Loiskandl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1427–1438,
M. Schirmer, J. Luster, N. Linde, P. Perona, E. A. D. Mitchell, D. A. Barry, J. Hollender, O. A. Cirpka, P. Schneider, T. Vogt, D. Radny, and E. Durisch-Kaiser
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2449–2462,
A. Parvathi, X. Zhong, A. S. Pradeep Ram, and S. Jacquet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1073–1087,
A. Zlinszky and G. Timár
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4589–4606,
B. Fournier, C. Guenat, G. Bullinger-Weber, and E. A. D. Mitchell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4031–4042,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1951–1962,
A. T. Rezende Filho, S. Furian, R. L. Victoria, C. Mascré, V. Valles, and L. Barbiero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2723–2737,
Y. Schindler Wildhaber, C. Michel, P. Burkhardt-Holm, D. Bänninger, and C. Alewell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1501–1515,
K. P. Hilgersom and W. M. J. Luxemburg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 345–356,
H. Hidayat, B. Vermeulen, M. G. Sassi, P. J. J. F. Torfs, and A. J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2717–2728,
R. Bhamjee and J. B. Lindsay
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1009–1021,
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We characterized groundwater–lake exchange patterns and identified their controls based on extensive field measurements. Our measurement design bridges the gap between the detailed local characterisation and low resolution regional investigations. Results indicated strong spatial variability in groundwater inflow rates: large scale inflow patterns correlated with topography and the groundwater flow field and small scale patterns correlated with grainsize distributions of the lake sediment.
We characterized groundwater–lake exchange patterns and identified their controls based on...