Articles | Volume 21, issue 3
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Experimental study on retardation of a heavy NAPL vapor in partially saturated porous media
Department of Hydromechanics and Modelling of Hydrosystems, Institute for Modelling Hydraulic and Environmental Systems, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffendwaldring 61, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Facility for Subsurface Remediation, Institute for Modelling Hydraulic and Environmental Systems, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffendwaldring 61, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Roman Winter, Bernd Flemisch, Holger Class, and Rainer Merk
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 1, 31–31,
Martin Beck and Holger Class
Adv. Geosci., 49, 1–7,Short summary
Fluid injection in a geologic layer shifts pressure and stress conditions and may trigger the reactivation of pre-existing faults. We present an approach to describe changes in the stress-field upon such an induced seismic event by applying characteristic stress-drop terms based on reported literature values for a great variety of earthquakes, even at very different magnitudes. The article illustrates exemplary results and discusses also the effect of permeability on expectable seismicity.
Alexandru Tatomir, Christopher McDermott, Jacob Bensabat, Holger Class, Katriona Edlmann, Reza Taherdangkoo, and Martin Sauter
Adv. Geosci., 45, 185–192,Short summary
In the context of hydraulic fracturing we constructed a comprehensive FEP database and applied it to six key focused scenarios defined under the scope of FracRisk project (www.fracrisk.eu). The FEP database is ranked to show the relevance of each item in the FEP list per scenario. The main goal of the work is to illustrate the FEP database applicability to develop a conceptual model for regional-scale stray gas migration.
Dirk Scheer, Wilfried Konrad, Holger Class, Alexander Kissinger, Stefan Knopf, and Vera Noack
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2739–2750,Short summary
Stakeholder participation in numerical modeling of brine migration due to injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is tested in this work. Part 1 reports the process of participatory modeling in the development of a numerical model and Part 2 discusses essential technical findings obtained through this model, showing that notable increases in salt concentrations are confined to regions where they were already high a priori and where barrier layers are discontinuous.
Alexander Kissinger, Vera Noack, Stefan Knopf, Wilfried Konrad, Dirk Scheer, and Holger Class
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2751–2775,Short summary
Stakeholder participation in numerical modeling of brine migration due to injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is tested in this work. Part 1 reports the process of participatory modeling on the development of a numerical model and Part 2 discusses essential technical findings obtained through this model showing that notable increases in salt concentrations are confined to regions where they were already high a priori and where barrier layers are discontinuous.
Related subject area
Subject: Vadose Zone Hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesA change in perspective: downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing for the estimation of soil moistureImpacts of soil management and climate on saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity: analyses of the Open Tension-disk Infiltrometer Meta-database (OTIM)Physics-informed machine learning for understanding rock moisture dynamics in a sandstone caveRelationship of seasonal variations in drip water δ13CDIC, δ18O, and trace elements with surface and physical cave conditions of La Vallina cave, NW SpainTechnical note: Mobile, discrete in situ vapor sampling for measurements of matrix-bound water stable isotopesIn situ estimation of soil hydraulic and hydrodispersive properties by inversion of electromagnetic induction measurements and soil hydrological modelingOn the interest of ground penetrating radar data for the estimation of unsaturated soil parametersTowards disentangling heterogeneous soil moisture patterns in cosmic-ray neutron sensor footprintsThe International Soil Moisture Network: serving Earth system science for over a decadeTechnical note: Evaporating water is different from bulk soil water in δ2H and δ18O and has implications for evaporation calculationTechnical note: Unresolved aspects of the direct vapor equilibration method for stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ2H) of matrix-bound water: unifying protocols through empirical and mathematical scrutinySpatio-temporal soil moisture retrieval at the catchment scale using a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensorsDeep desiccation of soils observed by long-term high-resolution measurements on a large inclined lysimeterA novel analytical approach for the simultaneous measurement of nitrate and dissolved organic carbon in soil waterExploring the regolith with electrical resistivity tomography in large-scale surveys: electrode spacing-related issues and possibilitySoil dielectric characterization during freeze–thaw transitions using L-band coaxial and soil moisture probesHydrological signals in tilt and gravity residuals at Conrad Observatory (Austria)New measures of deep soil water recharge during the vegetation restoration process in semi-arid regions of northern ChinaEstimation of subsurface soil moisture from surface soil moisture in cold mountainous areasInvestigating unproductive water losses from irrigated agricultural crops in the humid tropics through analyses of stable isotopes of waterPacific climate reflected in Waipuna Cave drip water hydrochemistryField observations of soil hydrological flow path evolution over 10 millenniaA proposed method for estimating interception from near-surface soil moisture responseControls of fluorescent tracer retention by soils and sedimentsReflection tomography of time-lapse GPR data for studying dynamic unsaturated flow phenomenaEffects of preferential flow on snowmelt partitioning and groundwater recharge in frozen soilsSpatio-temporal relevance and controls of preferential flow at the landscape scaleReal-time monitoring of nitrate in soils as a key for optimization of agricultural productivity and prevention of groundwater pollutionA soil non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) flushing laboratory experiment based on measuring the dielectric properties of soil–organic mixtures via time domain reflectometry (TDR)The value of satellite remote sensing soil moisture data and the DISPATCH algorithm in irrigation fieldsEstimating epikarst water storage by time-lapse surface-to-depth gravity measurementsInter-laboratory comparison of cryogenic water extraction systems for stable isotope analysis of soil waterPreferential flow systems amended with biogeochemical components: imaging of a two-dimensional studyImaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoringCalibrating electromagnetic induction conductivities with time-domain reflectometry measurementsMultiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensorsField-scale water balance closure in seasonally frozen conditionsImproving calibration and validation of cosmic-ray neutron sensors in the light of spatial sensitivityIs annual recharge coefficient a valid concept in arid and semi-arid regions?Transport and degradation of perchlorate in deep vadose zone: implications from direct observations during bioremediation treatmentMonitoring soil moisture from middle to high elevation in Switzerland: set-up and first results from the SOMOMOUNT networkRepeated electromagnetic induction measurements for mapping soil moisture at the field scale: validation with data from a wireless soil moisture monitoring networkENSO–cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern AustraliaIncorporation of globally available datasets into the roving cosmic-ray neutron probe method for estimating field-scale soil water contentReal-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field – implications for groundwater protectionTechnical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution dataEstimating field-scale root zone soil moisture using the cosmic-ray neutron probeDoes drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?In situ unsaturated zone water stable isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments: a soil water balanceEstimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data
Daniel Rasche, Jannis Weimar, Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Markus Morgner, Andreas Güntner, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3059–3082,Short summary
We introduce passive downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing (d-CRNS) as an approach for the non-invasive estimation of soil moisture in deeper layers of the unsaturated zone which exceed the observational window of above-ground CRNS applications. Neutron transport simulations are used to derive mathematical descriptions and transfer functions, while experimental measurements in an existing groundwater observation well illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the approach.
Guillaume Blanchy, Lukas Albrecht, Gilberto Bragato, Sarah Garré, Nicholas Jarvis, and John Koestel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2703–2724,Short summary
We collated the Open Tension-disk Infiltrometer Meta-database (OTIM). We analysed topsoil hydraulic conductivities at supply tensions between 0 and 100 mm of 466 data entries. We found indications of different flow mechanisms at saturation and at tensions >20 mm. Climate factors were better correlated with near-saturated hydraulic conductivities than soil properties. Land use, tillage system, soil compaction and experimenter bias significantly influenced K to a similar degree to soil properties.
Kai-Gao Ouyang, Xiao-Wei Jiang, Gang Mei, Hong-Bin Yan, Ran Niu, Li Wan, and Yijian Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2579–2590,Short summary
Our knowledge on sources and dynamics of rock moisture is limited. By using frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), we monitored rock moisture in a cave. The results of an explainable deep learning model reveal that the direct source of rock moisture responsible for weathering in the studied cave is vapour, not infiltrating precipitation. A physics-informed deep learning model, which uses variables controlling vapor condensation as model inputs, leads to accurate rock water content predictions.
Oliver Kost, Saúl González-Lemos, Laura Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Jakub Sliwinski, Laura Endres, Negar Haghipour, and Heather Stoll
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2227–2255,Short summary
Cave monitoring studies including cave drip water are unique opportunities to sample water which has percolated through the soil and rock. The change in drip water chemistry is resolved over the course of 16 months, inferring seasonal and hydrological variations in soil and karst processes at the water–air and water–rock interface. Such data sets improve the understanding of hydrological and hydrochemical processes and ultimately advance the interpretation of geochemical stalagmite records.
Barbara Herbstritt, Benjamin Gralher, Stefan Seeger, Michael Rinderer, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
We present a new method to collect discrete water vapor samples in the field without an in-field analyser, followed by isotope analysis in the lab. It resolves even fine-scaled natural isotope variations. It combines low-cost and light-weight components for maximum spatial and temporal flexibility regarding environmental setups. Hence, it allows for sampling even in terrains that are rather difficult to access, enabling future extended isotope datasets in soil sciences and ecohydrology.
Giovanna Dragonetti, Mohammad Farzamian, Angelo Basile, Fernando Monteiro Santos, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5119–5136,Short summary
Soil hydraulic and hydrodispersive properties are necessary for modeling water and solute fluxes in agricultural and environmental systems. Despite the major efforts in developing methods (e.g., lab-based, pedotransfer functions), their characterization at applicative scales remains an imperative requirement. Thus, this paper proposes a noninvasive in situ method integrating electromagnetic induction and hydrological modeling to estimate soil hydraulic and transport properties at the plot scale.
Rohianuu Moua, Nolwenn Lesparre, Jean-François Girard, Benjamin Belfort, François Lehmann, and Anis Younes
This work is an extension of what is known about a protocol used to measure the hydraulic properties of the soil. For instance, such properties characterize the ability of water to move through the soil, or the amount of water that is held in the soil in dry or wet conditions. We propose a modified version of the protocol, with which we show (i) how the data obtained with this protocol is influenced by the soil hydraulic properties and (ii) how to use it to estimate these properties.
Daniel Rasche, Markus Köhli, Martin Schrön, Theresa Blume, and Andreas Güntner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6547–6566,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing provides areal average soil moisture measurements. We investigated how distinct differences in spatial soil moisture patterns influence the soil moisture estimates and present two approaches to improve the estimate of soil moisture close to the instrument by reducing the influence of soil moisture further afield. Additionally, we show that the heterogeneity of soil moisture can be assessed based on the relationship of different neutron energies.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Hongxiu Wang, Jingjing Jin, Buli Cui, Bingcheng Si, Xiaojun Ma, and Mingyi Wen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5399–5413,Short summary
Evaporation led to progressively more heavy-isotope-enriched bulk soil water (BW) following the precipitation/irrigation of heavy-isotope-depleted new water but causes progressively more heavy-isotope-depleted BW following irrigation of heavy-isotope-enriched new water. The results indicated that δ2H and δ18O in evaporating water (EW) were similar to new water and differed from BW. However, the evaporative water loss calculated from BW did not differ significantly from that of EW.
Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5219–5235,Short summary
We scrutinized the quickest currently available method for stable isotope analysis of matrix-bound water. Simulating common procedures, we demonstrated the limits of certain materials currently used and identified a reliable and cost-efficient alternative. Further, we calculated the optimum proportions of important protocol aspects critical for precise and accurate analyses. Our unifying protocol suggestions increase data quality and comparability as well as the method's general applicability.
Maik Heistermann, Till Francke, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4807–4824,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a powerful technique for retrieving representative estimates of soil moisture in footprints extending over hectometres in the horizontal and decimetres in the vertical. This study, however, demonstrates the potential of CRNS to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture beyond isolated footprints. To that end, we analyse data from a unique observational campaign that featured a dense network of more than 20 neutron detectors in an area of just 1 km2.
Markus Merk, Nadine Goeppert, and Nico Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3519–3538,Short summary
Soil moisture levels have decreased significantly over the past 2 decades. This decrease is not uniformly distributed over the observation period. The largest changes occur at tipping points during years of extreme drought, after which soil moisture levels reach significantly different alternate stable states. Not only the overall trend in soil moisture is affected, but also the seasonal dynamics.
Elad Yeshno, Ofer Dahan, Shoshana Bernstain, and Shlomi Arnon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2159–2168,Short summary
In this research, we present a novel approach, enabling the measurement of nitrate concentrations in natural soil porewater containing natural soil dissolved organic carbon. This method can be used as the basis onto which an affordable and miniaturized nitrate monitoring sensor for soils can be developed. This sensor can play a significant role in reducing nitrate pollution in water resources, optimizing fertilizers application during agricultural activity and decreasing food production costs.
Laurent Gourdol, Rémi Clément, Jérôme Juilleret, Laurent Pfister, and Christophe Hissler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1785–1812,Short summary
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a remarkable tool for characterizing the regolith, but its use over large areas remains cumbersome due to the requirement of small electrode spacing (ES). In this study we document the issues of using oversized ESs and propose a new approach to overcome this limitation. We demonstrate that our protocol significantly improves the accuracy of ERT profiles using large ES and offers a cost-effective means for carrying out large-scale surveys.
Alex Mavrovic, Renato Pardo Lara, Aaron Berg, François Demontoux, Alain Royer, and Alexandre Roy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1117–1131,Short summary
This paper presents a new probe that measures soil microwave permittivity in the frequency range of satellite L-band sensors. The probe capacities will allow for validation and calibration of the models used to estimate landscape physical properties from raw microwave satellite datasets. Our results show important discrepancies between model estimates and instrument measurements that will need to be addressed.
Bruno Meurers, Gábor Papp, Hannu Ruotsalainen, Judit Benedek, and Roman Leonhardt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 217–236,Short summary
Gravity and tilt time series acquired at Conrad Observatory (Austria) reflect gravity and deformation associated with short- and long-term environmental processes, revealing a complex water transport process after heavy rain and rapid snowmelt. Gravity residuals are sensitive to the Newtonian effect of water mass transport. Tilt residual anomalies capture strain–tilt coupling effects due to surface or subsurface deformation from precipitation or pressure changes in the adjacent fracture system.
Yiben Cheng, Xinle Li, Yunqi Wang, Hongbin Zhan, Wenbin Yang, and Qunou Jiang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5875–5890,Short summary
The Three North Forest Program has produced a vast area of lined forest in semi-arid regions, which consumes a large amount of water resources. This study uses a newly designed lysimeter to measure water distribution without destroying the in situ vegetation soil structure. It addresses the shortcomings of a traditional lysimeter, in terms of changing the in situ soil structure and destroying the vegetation root system, and the shortcomings of high costs and inconvenient installation.
Jie Tian, Zhibo Han, Heye Reemt Bogena, Johan Alexander Huisman, Carsten Montzka, Baoqing Zhang, and Chansheng He
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4659–4674,Short summary
Large-scale profile soil moisture (SM) is important for water resource management, but its estimation is a challenge. Thus, based on in situ SM observations in a cold mountain, a strong relationship between the surface SM and subsurface SM is found. Both the subsurface SM of 10–30 cm and the profile SM of 0–70 cm can be estimated from the surface SM of 0–10 cm accurately. By combing with the satellite product, we improve the large-scale profile SM estimation in the cold mountains finally.
Amani Mahindawansha, Christoph Külls, Philipp Kraft, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3627–3642,Short summary
Stable isotopes of soil water are an effective tool to reveal soil hydrological processes in irrigated agricultural fields. Flow mechanisms and isotopic patterns of soil water in the soil matrix differ, depending on the crop and irrigation practices. Isotope data supported the fact that unproductive water losses via evaporation can be reduced by introducing dry seasonal crops to the crop rotation system.
Cinthya Nava-Fernandez, Adam Hartland, Fernando Gázquez, Ola Kwiecien, Norbert Marwan, Bethany Fox, John Hellstrom, Andrew Pearson, Brittany Ward, Amanda French, David A. Hodell, Adrian Immenhauser, and Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3361–3380,Short summary
Speleothems are powerful archives of past climate for understanding modern local hydrology and its relation to regional circulation patterns. We use a 3-year monitoring dataset to test the sensitivity of Waipuna Cave to seasonal changes and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics. Drip water data suggest a fast response to rainfall events; its elemental composition reflects a seasonal cycle and ENSO variability. Waipuna Cave speleothems have a high potential for past ENSO reconstructions.
Anne Hartmann, Ekaterina Semenova, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3271–3288,Short summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation, and vegetation succession across 10 millennia shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The increase found in water storage and preferential flow paths with increasing soil age shows the effect of the complex interaction of vegetation and soil development on flow paths, water balance, and runoff formation during landscape evolution.
Subodh Acharya, Daniel McLaughlin, David Kaplan, and Matthew J. Cohen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1859–1870,Short summary
Interception is the storage and subsequent evaporation of rain by vegetation and surface litter. Quantifying interception is critical for understanding the water balance, but it can be difficult and costly to measure. We developed an approach to estimate interception using automated soil moisture measurements during rainfall events. Results suggest that interception can be estimated using soil moisture data, leading to potential cost savings and logistical advantages over conventional methods.
Marcus Bork, Jens Lange, Markus Graf-Rosenfellner, and Friederike Lang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 977–989,Short summary
Fluorescent tracers such as uranine and sulforhodamine B are useful tools to gain knowledge about water and solute fluxes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we systematically investigated the influence of important soil properties (pH, organic carbon content and texture) on tracer adsorption in soils and sediments. These properties also determine whether the tracers in the respective soil behave conservatively or non-conservatively.
Adam R. Mangel, Stephen M. J. Moysey, and John Bradford
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 159–167,Short summary
Water flows through soils in an incredibly complex network of pathways. Understanding these pathways is critical to sustainable use of water resources. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can image water in near-surface soils the same way an X-ray is used to image the human body. Utilizing innovative ways of collecting and processing the GPR data, we can image complex water flow in space and through time, which allows for the continued development of our ideas and models of subsurface water flow.
Aaron A. Mohammed, Igor Pavlovskii, Edwin E. Cey, and Masaki Hayashi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5017–5031,Short summary
In cold regions, the permeability of the frozen ground is an important factor influencing a watershed's response to snowmelt. This study highlights the effects of preferential flow in frozen soils on snowmelt redistribution and groundwater recharge in seasonally frozen landscapes.
Dominic Demand, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4869–4889,Short summary
This study presents an analysis of 135 soil moisture profiles for identification of the spatial and temporal preferential flow occurrence in a complex landscape. Especially dry conditions and high rainfall intensities were found to increase preferential flow occurrence in soils. This results in a seasonal pattern of preferential flow with a higher occurrence in summer. During this time grasslands showed increased flow velocities, whereas forest sites exhibited a higher amount of bypass flow.
Elad Yeshno, Shlomi Arnon, and Ofer Dahan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3997–4010,Short summary
Lack of adequate instrumentation for monitoring nutrient availability in agricultural soils leads in most cases to over-application of fertilizers, often resulting in groundwater pollution. This research presents a novel approach for real-time, in situ monitoring of nitrate in soils using absorption spectroscopy techniques while preventing interference from dissolved organic carbon. Column experiments with this system resulted in accurate nitrate measurements in three different soil types.
Alessandro Comegna, Antonio Coppola, Giovanna Dragonetti, and Angelo Sommella
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3593–3602,Short summary
We carried out a series of laboratory-controlled experiments in order to simulate different scenarios of practical interest aiming to analyze, from a dielectric point of view, the influence of different washing solutions on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, we validated a dielectric mixing model for predicting the volumetric amounts of NAPL (θNAPL) within the contaminated soil as the decontamination process progressed.
Mireia Fontanet, Daniel Fernàndez-Garcia, and Francesc Ferrer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5889–5900,Short summary
One of the main objectives of remote sensing methodology is to downscale soil moisture to improve irrigation management. The DISPATCH algorithm is able to measure soil moisture at 1 km resolution using SMOS and MODIS data. In this work DISPATCH has been evaluated with soil moisture sensors, under heterogeneous conditions where local irrigation is applied. Results show that DISPATCH is not sensitive when local irrigation is applied even at low resolution.
Cédric Champollion, Sabrina Deville, Jean Chéry, Erik Doerflinger, Nicolas Le Moigne, Roger Bayer, Philippe Vernant, and Naomi Mazzilli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3825–3839,Short summary
Gravity monitoring at the surface and in situ (in caves) has been conducted in a karst hydro-system in the south of France (Larzac plateau). Subsurface water storage is evidenced with a spatial variability probably associated with lithology differences and confirmed by MRS measurements. Gravity allows transient water storage to be estimated on the seasonal scale.
Natalie Orlowski, Lutz Breuer, Nicolas Angeli, Pascal Boeckx, Christophe Brumbt, Craig S. Cook, Maren Dubbert, Jens Dyckmans, Barbora Gallagher, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Christophe Hissler, Paul Koeniger, Arnaud Legout, Chandelle Joan Macdonald, Carlos Oyarzún, Regine Redelstein, Christof Seidler, Rolf Siegwolf, Christine Stumpp, Simon Thomsen, Markus Weiler, Christiane Werner, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3619–3637,Short summary
To extract water from soils for isotopic analysis, cryogenic water extraction is the most widely used removal technique. This work presents results from a worldwide laboratory intercomparison test of cryogenic extraction systems. Our results showed large differences in retrieved isotopic signatures among participating laboratories linked to interactions between soil type and properties, system setup, extraction efficiency, extraction system leaks, and each lab’s internal accuracy.
Ashley R. Pales, Biting Li, Heather M. Clifford, Shyla Kupis, Nimisha Edayilam, Dawn Montgomery, Wei-zhen Liang, Mine Dogan, Nishanth Tharayil, Nicole Martinez, Stephen Moysey, Brian Powell, and Christophe J. G. Darnault
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2487–2509,
Arnaud Watlet, Olivier Kaufmann, Antoine Triantafyllou, Amaël Poulain, Jonathan E. Chambers, Philip I. Meldrum, Paul B. Wilkinson, Vincent Hallet, Yves Quinif, Michel Van Ruymbeke, and Michel Van Camp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1563–1592,Short summary
Understanding water infiltration in karst regions is crucial as the aquifers they host provide drinkable water for a quarter of the world's population. We present a non-invasive tool to image hydrological processes in karst systems. At our field site, the injection of electrical current in the ground, repeated daily over a 3-year period, allowed imaging changes in the groundwater content. We show that specific geological layers control seasonal to rainfall-triggered water infiltration dynamics.
Giovanna Dragonetti, Alessandro Comegna, Ali Ajeel, Gian Piero Deidda, Nicola Lamaddalena, Giuseppe Rodriguez, Giulio Vignoli, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1509–1523,Short summary
The paper aims to infer the bulk electrical conductivity distribution in the root zone from EMI readings. TDR measurements were used as ground-truth data to evaluate the goodness of the estimations by EMI inversion. The approach is based on the mean and standard deviation of the EMI and TDR series. It looks for the physical reasons for the differences between EMI- and TDR-based electrical conductivity and provides a correction of the bias based on the statistical sources of the discrepancies.
David McJannet, Aaron Hawdon, Brett Baker, Luigi Renzullo, and Ross Searle
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6049–6067,Short summary
Satellite and broad-scale model estimates of soil moisture have improved in resolution. However, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. We use a mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the
rover, to derive soil moisture at 9 km and 1 km resolution. We describe methods to calculate soil moisture and present results from multiple surveys. The products produced are well suited to validation studies.
Xicai Pan, Warren Helgason, Andrew Ireson, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5401–5413,Short summary
In this paper we present a case study from a heterogeneous pasture site in the Canadian prairies, where we have quantified the various components of the water balance on the field scale, and critically examine some of the simplifying assumptions which are often invoked when applying water budget approaches in applied hydrology. We highlight challenges caused by lateral fluxes of blowing snow and ambiguous partitioning of snow melt water into runoff and infiltration.
Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Lena Scheiffele, Joost Iwema, Heye R. Bogena, Ling Lv, Edoardo Martini, Gabriele Baroni, Rafael Rosolem, Jannis Weimar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Corinna Rebmann, Sascha E. Oswald, Peter Dietrich, Ulrich Schmidt, and Steffen Zacharias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5009–5030,Short summary
A field-scale average of near-surface water content can be sensed by cosmic-ray neutron detectors. To interpret, calibrate, and validate the integral signal, it is important to account for its sensitivity to heterogeneous patterns like dry or wet spots. We show how point samples contribute to the neutron signal based on their depth and distance from the detector. This approach robustly improves the sensor performance and data consistency, and even reveals otherwise hidden hydrological features.
Yiben Cheng, Hongbin Zhan, Wenbin Yang, Hongzhong Dang, and Wei Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5031–5042,Short summary
This study uses a newly designed lysimeter to study three consecutive years (2013–2015) of deep soil recharge (DSR) underneath bare sand land on the eastern margin of Mu Us Sandy Land in the Ordos Basin of China. The objective is to identify the characteristics of the DSR distribution and the factors affecting the DSR distribution. Specifically, we would like to examine if the commonly used recharge coefficient concept can be applied for arid and semi-arid regions.
Ofer Dahan, Idan Katz, Lior Avishai, and Zeev Ronen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4011–4020,Short summary
In situ bioremediation of a perchlorate-contaminated vadose zone was conducted through infiltration of electron-donor-enriched water. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) provided real-time tracking of the hydraulic and chemical conditions across the unsaturated zone. Variations in concentration profiles of perchlorate, chloride, DOC and bromide in the vadose zone pore water showed limited migration capacity of biologically consumable carbon and significant mobilization of perchlorate.
Cécile Pellet and Christian Hauck
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3199–3220,Short summary
This paper presents a detailed description of the new Swiss soil moisture monitoring network SOMOMOUNT, which comprises six stations distributed along an elevation gradient ranging from 1205 to 3410 m. The liquid soil moisture (LSM) data collected during the first 3 years are discussed with regard to their soil type and climate dependency as well as their altitudinal distribution. The elevation dependency of the LSM was found to be non-linear with distinct dynamics at high and low elevation.
Edoardo Martini, Ulrike Werban, Steffen Zacharias, Marco Pohle, Peter Dietrich, and Ute Wollschläger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 495–513,Short summary
With a process-based interpretation of electromagnetic induction measurements, we discussed the potential and limitations of such a method for soil moisture mapping. Results will help clarify the complex and time-varying effect of stable soil properties and dynamic state variables on the physical parameters measured, with implications for future studies. We highlighted the importance of time-series data and the need for a multidisciplinary approach for proper interpretation.
Carol V. Tadros, Pauline C. Treble, Andy Baker, Ian Fairchild, Stuart Hankin, Regina Roach, Monika Markowska, and Janece McDonald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4625–4640,Short summary
We investigated the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. Using 7 years of cave monitoring data, we constrained the hydrological processes impacting the drip-water composition and identified a robust ENSO–drip water hydrochemical relationship. These findings are fundamental for reconstructing past ENSO variability from speleothems (cave deposits) regionally and globally.
William Alexander Avery, Catherine Finkenbiner, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Andrew Suyker, Timothy Arkebauer, and Francisco Muñoz-Arriola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3859–3872,Short summary
Here we present a strategy to use globally available datasets in the calibration function used to convert observed moderated neutron counts into volumetric soil water content. While local sampling protocols are well documented for fixed probes, the use of roving probes presents new calibration challenges. With over 200 fixed probes and 10 roving probes in use globally, we anticipate this paper will serve as a keystone for the growing cosmic-ray neutron probe and hydrologic community.
Tuvia Turkeltaub, Daniel Kurtzman, and Ofer Dahan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3099–3108,Short summary
Efficient groundwater protection from pollution originating in agriculture requires effective monitoring means capable of tacking pollution processes in the vadose zone, long before groundwater pollution turns into an unavoidable fact. In this study, a vadose zone monitoring system that was installed under a crop field fertilized by dairy slurry enabled real-time tracking of nitrate plum migration down the vadose zone from the land surface to the water table at 18m depth.
Andre Peters, Thomas Nehls, and Gerd Wessolek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2309–2315,Short summary
The AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter routine for high-resolution lysimeter data is improved. The threshold scheme with original step interpolation yields unrealistic fluxes for high temporal resolution. Improvement applies linear and spline interpolation schemes so that fluxes in high temporal resolution are automatically calculated. The spline scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound.
Amber M. Peterson, Warren D. Helgason, and Andrew M. Ireson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1373–1385,Short summary
Remote sensing techniques can provide useful large-scale estimates of soil moisture. However, these methods often only sense near-surface soil moisture, whereas many applications require estimates of the entire root zone. In this study we propose and test methods to "depth-scale" the shallow soil moisture measurements obtained using the cosmic-ray neutron probe to represent the entire root zone, thereby improving the applicability of this measurement approach.
Katharina F. Gimbel, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1301–1317,Short summary
It is usually assumed that soil properties are not affected by drought events. We used dye tracer experiments to test this assumption on six forest soils, which were forced into drought conditions. The results of this study show clear evidence for changes in infiltration pathways. In addition, most soils developed soil water repellency. Overall, the results suggest that the past climatic conditions are more important than the actual soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration.
Marcel Gaj, Matthias Beyer, Paul Koeniger, Heike Wanke, Josefina Hamutoko, and Thomas Himmelsbach
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 715–731,
K. Mahmud, G. Mariethoz, A. Baker, P. C. Treble, M. Markowska, and E. McGuire
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 359–373,Short summary
Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. In this study, we develop a method that combines automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques to quantify the infiltration processes within a cave.
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Retardation of migrating contaminant vapors in the subsurface may mitigate groundwater contamination or vapor intrusion into buildings. An experimental investigation was conducted to quantify the retardation of carbon disulfide (CS2) vapor in moist porous media based on the analysis of concentration breakthrough curves. Findings linked retardation to types of porous media and water saturation. Moreover, the first evidence of biodegradation of the CS2 vapor was found in the column experiments.
Retardation of migrating contaminant vapors in the subsurface may mitigate groundwater...