Articles | Volume 17, issue 4
Research article 15 Apr 2013
Research article | 15 Apr 2013
Estimation of evapotranspiration from MODIS TOA radiances in the Poyang Lake basin, China
J. Peng et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Hydrometeorology | Techniques and Approaches: Remote Sensing and GISValidation of SMAP L2 passive-only soil moisture products using upscaled in situ measurements collected in Twente, the NetherlandsSuitability of 17 gridded rainfall and temperature datasets for large-scale hydrological modelling in West AfricaData-driven estimates of evapotranspiration and its controls in the Congo BasinAbility of an Australian reanalysis dataset to characterise sub-daily precipitationA daily 25 km short-latency rainfall product for data-scarce regions based on the integration of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission rainfall and multiple-satellite soil moisture productsEvaluation of soil moisture from CCAM-CABLE simulation, satellite-based models estimates and satellite observations: a case study of Skukuza and Malopeni flux towersUse of dual-polarization weather radar quantitative precipitation estimation for climatologyStatistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution during rainy seasons in the Beijing urban area and implications for radar rainfall estimationAn evaluation of daily precipitation from a regional atmospheric reanalysis over AustraliaPerformance of bias-correction schemes for CMORPH rainfall estimates in the Zambezi River basinThe El Niño event of 2015–2016: climate anomalies and their impact on groundwater resources in East and Southern AfricaConsistency of satellite-based precipitation products in space and over time compared with gauge observations and snow- hydrological modelling in the Lake Titicaca regionUsing phase lags to evaluate model biases in simulating the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration: a case study in LuxembourgIntegrating multiple satellite observations into a coherent dataset to monitor the full water cycle – application to the Mediterranean regionAn improved perspective in the spatial representation of soil moisture: potential added value of SMOS disaggregated 1 km resolution “all weather” productTemporal- and spatial-scale and positional effects on rain erosivity derived from point-scale and contiguous rain dataThe PERSIANN family of global satellite precipitation data: a review and evaluation of productsExploring seasonal and regional relationships between the Evaporative Stress Index and surface weather and soil moisture anomalies across the United StatesDevelopment of soil moisture profiles through coupled microwave–thermal infrared observations in the southeastern United StatesEvaluation of multiple climate data sources for managing environmental resources in East AfricaPrecipitation downscaling using a probability-matching approach and geostationary infrared data: an evaluation over six climate regionsRegional co-variability of spatial and temporal soil moisture–precipitation coupling in North Africa: an observational perspectiveRegional evapotranspiration from an image-based implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model and its validation across an aridity gradient in the conterminous USRegional frequency analysis of extreme rainfall in Belgium based on radar estimatesAn assessment of the performance of global rainfall estimates without ground-based observationsWater–food–energy nexus with changing agricultural scenarios in India during recent decadesIntensity–duration–frequency curves from remote sensing rainfall estimates: comparing satellite and weather radar over the eastern MediterraneanThe effect of satellite-derived surface soil moisture and leaf area index land data assimilation on streamflow simulations over FranceReservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern BrazilRemote sensing algorithm for surface evapotranspiration considering landscape and statistical effects on mixed pixelsComparison of satellite-based evapotranspiration estimates over the Tibetan PlateauEvaluation of soil moisture downscaling using a simple thermal-based proxy – the REMEDHUS network (Spain) exampleThe SPARSE model for the prediction of water stress and evapotranspiration components from thermal infra-red data and its evaluation over irrigated and rainfed wheatEvaluation of precipitation estimates over CONUS derived from satellite, radar, and rain gauge data sets at daily to annual scales (2002–2012)Scoping a field experiment: error diagnostics of TRMM precipitation radar estimates in complex terrain as a basis for IPHEx2014Comparison of rainfall estimations by TRMM 3B42, MPEG and CFSR with ground-observed data for the Lake Tana basin in EthiopiaDownscaling of seasonal soil moisture forecasts using satellite dataLong term soil moisture mapping over the Tibetan plateau using Special Sensor Microwave/ImagerIntercomparison of four remote-sensing-based energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climateIntegrating ASCAT surface soil moisture and GEOV1 leaf area index into the SURFEX modelling platform: a land data assimilation application over FranceExperiences in using the TMPA-3B42R satellite data to complement rain gauge measurements in the Ecuadorian coastal foothillsA statistics-based temporal filter algorithm to map spatiotemporally continuous shortwave albedo from MODIS dataEvaluation of high-resolution satellite precipitation products using rain gauge observations over the Tibetan PlateauValidation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian PeninsulaJoint statistical correction of clutters, spokes and beam height for a radar derived precipitation climatology in southern GermanyEstimation of forest structure metrics relevant to hydrologic modelling using coordinate transformation of airborne laser scanning dataTowards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East AfricaPrecipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern GermanyImproving evapotranspiration in a land surface model using biophysical variables derived from MSG/SEVIRI satelliteSpatial and temporal variability of biophysical variables in southwestern France from airborne L-band radiometry
Rogier van der Velde, Andreas Colliander, Michiel Pezij, Harm-Jan F. Benninga, Rajat Bindlish, Steven K. Chan, Thomas J. Jackson, Dimmie M. D. Hendriks, Denie C. M. Augustijn, and Zhongbo Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 473–495,Short summary
NASA’s SMAP satellite provides estimates of the amount of water in the soil. With measurements from a network of 20 monitoring stations, the accuracy of these estimates has been studied for a 4-year period. We found an agreement between satellite and in situ estimates in line with the mission requirements once the large mismatches associated with rapidly changing water contents, e.g. soil freezing and rainfall, are excluded.
Moctar Dembélé, Bettina Schaefli, Nick van de Giesen, and Grégoire Mariéthoz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5379–5406,Short summary
This study evaluates 102 combinations of rainfall and temperature datasets from satellite and reanalysis sources as input to a fully distributed hydrological model. The model is recalibrated for each input dataset, and the outputs are evaluated with streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture and terrestrial water storage data. Results show that no single rainfall or temperature dataset consistently ranks first in reproducing the spatio-temporal variability of all hydrological processes.
Michael W. Burnett, Gregory R. Quetin, and Alexandra G. Konings
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4189–4211,Short summary
Water that evaporates from Africa's tropical forests provides rainfall throughout the continent. However, there are few sources of meteorological data in central Africa, so we use observations from satellites to estimate evaporation from the Congo Basin at different times of the year. We find that existing evaporation estimates in tropical Africa do not accurately capture seasonal variations in evaporation and that fluctuations in soil moisture and solar radiation drive evaporation rates.
Suwash Chandra Acharya, Rory Nathan, Quan J. Wang, Chun-Hsu Su, and Nathan Eizenberg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2951–2962,Short summary
BARRA is a high-resolution reanalysis dataset over the Oceania region. This study evaluates the performance of sub-daily BARRA precipitation at point and spatial scales over Australia. We find that the dataset reproduces some of the sub-daily characteristics of precipitation well, although it exhibits some spatial displacement errors, and it performs better in temperate than in tropical regions. The product is well suited to complement other estimates derived from remote sensing and rain gauges.
Christian Massari, Luca Brocca, Thierry Pellarin, Gab Abramowitz, Paolo Filippucci, Luca Ciabatta, Viviana Maggioni, Yann Kerr, and Diego Fernandez Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2687–2710,Short summary
Rain gauges are unevenly spaced around the world with extremely low gauge density over places like Africa and South America. Here, water-related problems like floods, drought and famine are particularly severe and able to cause fatalities, migration and diseases. We have developed a rainfall dataset that exploits the synergies between rainfall and soil moisture to provide accurate rainfall observations which can be used to face these problems.
Floyd Vukosi Khosa, Mohau Jacob Mateyisi, Martina Reynita van der Merwe, Gregor Timothy Feig, Francois Alwyn Engelbrecht, and Michael John Savage
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1587–1609,Short summary
The paper evaluates soil moisture outputs from three structurally distinct models against in situ data. Our goal is to find how representative the model outputs are for site and region. This is a question of interest as some of the models have a specific regional focus on their inceptions. Much focus is placed on how the models capture the soil moisture signal. We find that there is agreement on seasonal patterns between the models and observations with a tolerable level of model uncertainty.
Tanel Voormansik, Roberto Cremonini, Piia Post, and Dmitri Moisseev
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
A long set of operational polarimetric weather radar rainfall accumulations from Estonia and Italy are generated and investigated. Results show that the combined product of specific differential phase and horizontal reflectivity yields the best results when compared to rain gauge measurements. Specific differential phase based product overestimates weak precipitation and horizontal reflectivity based product underestimates heavy rainfall on all analysed accumulation periods.
Yu Ma, Guangheng Ni, Chandrasekar V. Chandra, Fuqiang Tian, and Haonan Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4153–4170,Short summary
Raindrop size distribution (DSD) information is fundamental in understanding the precipitation microphysics and quantitative precipitation estimation. This study extensively investigates the DSD characteristics during rainy seasons in the Beijing urban area using 5-year DSD observations from a Parsivel2 disdrometer. The statistical distributions of DSD parameters are examined and the polarimetric radar rainfall algorithms are derived to support the ongoing development of an X-band radar network.
Suwash Chandra Acharya, Rory Nathan, Quan J. Wang, Chun-Hsu Su, and Nathan Eizenberg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3387–3403,Short summary
BARRA is a novel regional reanalysis for Australia. Our research demonstrates that it is able to characterize a rich spatial variation in daily precipitation behaviour. In addition, its ability to represent large rainfalls is valuable for the analysis of extremes. It is a useful complement to existing precipitation datasets for Australia, especially in sparsely gauged regions.
Webster Gumindoga, Tom H. M. Rientjes, Alemseged Tamiru Haile, Hodson Makurira, and Paolo Reggiani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2915–2938,Short summary
We evaluate the influence of elevation and distance from large-scale open water bodies on bias for CMORPH satellite rainfall in the Zambezi basin. Effects of distance > 10 km from water bodies are minimal, whereas the effects at shorter distances are indicated but are not conclusive for lack of rain gauges. Taylor diagrams show station elevation influencing CMORPH performance. The
spatio-temporaland newly developed
elevation zonebias schemes proved more effective in removing CMORPH bias.
Seshagiri Rao Kolusu, Mohammad Shamsudduha, Martin C. Todd, Richard G. Taylor, David Seddon, Japhet J. Kashaigili, Girma Y. Ebrahim, Mark O. Cuthbert, James P. R. Sorensen, Karen G. Villholth, Alan M. MacDonald, and Dave A. MacLeod
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1751–1762,
Frédéric Satgé, Denis Ruelland, Marie-Paule Bonnet, Jorge Molina, and Ramiro Pillco
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 595–619,Short summary
This paper assesses the potential of satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs) for precipitation measurement and hydrological and snow modelling. A total of 12 SPEs is considered to provide a global overview of available SPE accuracy for users interested in such datasets. Results show that, over poorly monitored regions, SPEs represent a very efficient alternative to traditional precipitation gauges to follow precipitation in time and space and for hydrological and snow modelling.
Maik Renner, Claire Brenner, Kaniska Mallick, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Luigi Conte, Ivonne Trebs, Jianhui Wei, Volker Wulfmeyer, Karsten Schulz, and Axel Kleidon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 515–535,Short summary
We estimate the phase lag of surface states and heat fluxes to incoming solar radiation at the sub-daily timescale. While evapotranspiration reveals a minor phase lag, the vapor pressure deficit used as input by Penman–Monteith approaches shows a large phase lag. The surface-to-air temperature gradient used by energy balance residual approaches shows a small phase shift in agreement with the sensible heat flux and thus explains the better correlation of these models at the sub-daily timescale.
Victor Pellet, Filipe Aires, Simon Munier, Diego Fernández Prieto, Gabriel Jordá, Wouter Arnoud Dorigo, Jan Polcher, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 465–491,Short summary
This study is an effort for a better understanding and quantification of the water cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean region, by dealing with satellite products and their uncertainties. The aims of the paper are 3-fold: (1) developing methods with hydrological constraints to integrate all the datasets, (2) giving the full picture of the Mediterranean WC, and (3) building a model-independent database that can evaluate the numerous regional climate models (RCMs) for this region.
Samiro Khodayar, Amparo Coll, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 255–275,
Franziska K. Fischer, Tanja Winterrath, and Karl Auerswald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6505–6518,Short summary
The potential of rain to cause soil erosion by runoff is called rain erosivity. Rain erosivity is highly variable in space and time even over distances of less than 1 km. Contiguously measured radar rain data depict for the first time this spatio-temporal variation, but scaling factors are required to account for differences in spatial and temporal resolution compared to rain gauge data. These scaling factors were obtained from more than 2 million erosive events.
Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, Amir AghaKouchak, Dan Braithwaite, Hamed Ashouri, and Andrea Rose Thorstensen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5801–5816,Short summary
The goal of this article is to first provide an overview of the available PERSIANN precipitation retrieval algorithms and their differences. We evaluate the products over CONUS at different spatial and temporal scales using CPC data. Daily scale is the finest temporal scale used for the evaluation over CONUS. We provide a comparison of the available products at a quasi-global scale. We highlight the strengths and limitations of the PERSIANN products.
Jason A. Otkin, Yafang Zhong, David Lorenz, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5373–5386,Short summary
Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) – which depicts anomalies in evapotranspiration (ET) – and various land and atmospheric variables that impact ET. The results revealed that the ESI is more strongly correlated to anomalies in soil moisture and near-surface vapor pressure deficit than to precipitation and temperature anomalies. Large regional and seasonal dependencies in the strengths of the correlations were also observed.
Vikalp Mishra, James F. Cruise, Christopher R. Hain, John R. Mecikalski, and Martha C. Anderson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4935–4957,Short summary
Multiple satellite observations can be used for surface and subsurface soil moisture estimations. In this study, satellite observations along with a mathematical model were used to distribute and develop multiyear soil moisture profiles over the southeastern US. Such remotely sensed profiles become particularly useful at large spatiotemporal scales, can be a significant tool in data-scarce regions of the world, can complement various land and crop models, and can act as drought indicators etc.
Solomon Hailu Gebrechorkos, Stephan Hülsmann, and Christian Bernhofer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4547–4564,Short summary
In Africa field-based meteorological data are scarce; therefore global data sources based on remote sensing and climate models are often used as alternatives. To assess their suitability for a large and topographically complex area in East Africa, we evaluated multiple climate data products with available ground station data at multiple timescales over 21 regions. The comprehensive evaluation resulted in identification of preferential data sources to be used for climate and hydrological studies.
Ruifang Guo, Yuanbo Liu, Han Zhou, and Yaqiao Zhu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3685–3699,Short summary
Existing satellite products are often insufficient for use in small-scale (< 10 km) hydrological and meteorological studies. We propose a new approach based on the cumulative distribution of frequency to downscale satellite precipitation products with geostationary (GEO) data. This paper uses CMORPH and FY2-E GEO data to examine the approach in six different climate regions. The downscaled precipitation performed better for convective systems.
Irina Y. Petrova, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, Cathy Hohenegger, and Françoise Guichard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3275–3294,Short summary
In North Africa rain storms can be as vital as they are devastating. The present study uses multi-year satellite data to better understand how and where soil moisture conditions affect development of rainfall in the area. Our results reveal two major regions in the southwest and southeast, where drier soils show higher potential to cause rainfall development. This knowledge is essential for the hydrological sector, and can be further used by models to improve prediction of rainfall and droughts.
Nishan Bhattarai, Kaniska Mallick, Nathaniel A. Brunsell, Ge Sun, and Meha Jain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2311–2341,Short summary
We report the first ever regional-scale implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) using MODIS land surface and gridded climate datasets to overcome the existing uncertainties in aerodynamic temperature and conductance estimation in global ET models. Validation and intercomparison with SEBS and MOD16 products across an aridity gradient in the US manifested better ET mapping potential of STIC1.2 in different climates and biomes.
Edouard Goudenhoofdt, Laurent Delobbe, and Patrick Willems
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5385–5399,Short summary
Knowing the characteristics of extreme precipitation is useful for flood management applications like sewer system design. The potential of a 12-year high-quality weather radar precipitation dataset is investigated by comparison with rain gauges. Despite known limitations, a good agreement is found between the radar and the rain gauges. Using the radar data allow us to reduce the uncertainty of the extreme value analysis, especially for short duration extremes related to thunderstorms.
Christian Massari, Wade Crow, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4347–4361,Short summary
The paper explores a method for the assessment of the performance of global rainfall estimates without relying on ground-based observations. Thanks to this method, different global correlation maps are obtained (for the first time without relying on a benchmark dataset) for some of the most used globally available rainfall products. This is central for hydroclimatic studies within data-scarce regions, where ground observations are scarce to evaluate the relative quality of a rainfall product
Beas Barik, Subimal Ghosh, A. Saheer Sahana, Amey Pathak, and Muddu Sekhar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3041–3060,Short summary
The article summarises changing patterns of the water-food-energy nexus in India during recent decades. The work first analyses satellite data of water storage with a validation using the observed well data. Northern India shows a declining trend of water storage and western-central India shows an increasing trend of the same. Major droughts result in a drop in water storage which is not recovered due to uncontrolled ground water irrigation for agricultural activities even in good monsoon years.
Francesco Marra, Efrat Morin, Nadav Peleg, Yiwen Mei, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2389–2404,Short summary
Rainfall frequency analyses from radar and satellite estimates over the eastern Mediterranean are compared examining different climatic conditions. Correlation between radar and satellite results is high for frequent events and decreases with return period. The uncertainty related to record length is larger for drier climates. The agreement between different sensors instills confidence on their use for rainfall frequency analysis in ungauged areas of the Earth.
David Fairbairn, Alina Lavinia Barbu, Adrien Napoly, Clément Albergel, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2015–2033,Short summary
This study assesses the impact on river discharge simulations over France of assimilating ASCAT-derived surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) observations into the ISBA land surface model. Wintertime LAI has a notable impact on river discharge. SSM assimilation degrades river discharge simulations. This is caused by limitations in the simplified versions of the Kalman filter and ISBA model used in this study. Implementing an observation operator for ASCAT is needed.
Davi de C. D. Melo, Bridget R. Scanlon, Zizhan Zhang, Edson Wendland, and Lei Yin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4673–4688,Short summary
Drought propagation from rainfall deficits to reservoir depletion was studied based on remote sensing, monitoring and modelling data. Regional droughts were shown by widespread depletion in total water storage that reduced soil moisture storage and runoff, greatly reducing reservoir storage. The multidisciplinary approach to drought assessment shows the linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts that are essential for managing water resources subjected to climate extremes.
Zhi Qing Peng, Xiaozhou Xin, Jin Jun Jiao, Ti Zhou, and Qinhuo Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4409–4438,Short summary
A remote sensing algorithm named temperature sharpening and flux aggregation (TSFA) was applied to HJ-1B satellite data to estimate evapotranspiration over heterogeneous surface considering landscape and statistical effects on mixed pixels. Footprint validation results showed TSFA was more accurate and less uncertain than other two upscaling methods. Additional analysis and comparison showed TSFA can capture land surface heterogeneities and integrate the effect of landscapes within mixed pixels.
Jian Peng, Alexander Loew, Xuelong Chen, Yaoming Ma, and Zhongbo Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3167–3182,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau plays a major role in regional and global climate. The knowledge of latent heat flux can help to better describe the complex interactions between land and atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed cross-comparison of existing latent heat flux products over the TP. The results highlight the recently developed latent heat product – High Resolution Land Surface Parameters from Space (HOLAPS).
J. Peng, J. Niesel, and A. Loew
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4765–4782,Short summary
This paper gives a comprehensive evaluation of a simple newly developed downscaling scheme using in situ measurements from REMEDHUS network, a first cross-comparison of the performance of the downscaled soil moisture from MODIS and MSG SEVIRI, an evaluation of the performance of the downscaled soil moisture at different spatial resolutions, and an exploration of the influence of LST, vegetation index, terrain, clouds, and land cover heterogeneity on the performance of VTCI.
G. Boulet, B. Mougenot, J.-P. Lhomme, P. Fanise, Z. Lili-Chabaane, A. Olioso, M. Bahir, V. Rivalland, L. Jarlan, O. Merlin, B. Coudert, S. Er-Raki, and J.-P. Lagouarde
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4653–4672,Short summary
The paper presents a new model (SPARSE) to estimate total evapotranspiration as well as its components (evaporation and transpiration) from remote-sensing data in the thermal infra-red domain. The limits of computing two unknowns (evaporation and transpiration) out of one piece of information (one surface temperature) are assessed theoretically. The model performance in retrieving the components as well as the water stress is assessed for two wheat crops (one irrigated and one rainfed).
O. P. Prat and B. R. Nelson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2037–2056,
Y. Duan, A. M. Wilson, and A. P. Barros
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1501–1520,Short summary
A diagnostic analysis of the space-time structure of error in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) from the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission satellite is presented here in preparation for the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) in 2014. A high-density raingauge network over the southern Appalachians allows for direct comparison between ground-based measurements and satellite-based QPE (PR 2A25 Version 7 with 5 years of data 2008-2013).
A. W. Worqlul, B. Maathuis, A. A. Adem, S. S. Demissie, S. Langan, and T. S. Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4871–4881,
S. Schneider, A. Jann, and T. Schellander-Gorgas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2899–2905,
R. van der Velde, M. S. Salama, T. Pellarin, M. Ofwono, Y. Ma, and Z. Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1323–1337,
J. Chirouze, G. Boulet, L. Jarlan, R. Fieuzal, J. C. Rodriguez, J. Ezzahar, S. Er-Raki, G. Bigeard, O. Merlin, J. Garatuza-Payan, C. Watts, and G. Chehbouni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1165–1188,
A. L. Barbu, J.-C. Calvet, J.-F. Mahfouf, and S. Lafont
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 173–192,
M. Arias-Hidalgo, B. Bhattacharya, A. E. Mynett, and A. van Griensven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2905–2915,
N. F. Liu, Q. Liu, L. Z. Wang, S. L. Liang, J. G. Wen, Y. Qu, and S. H. Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2121–2129,
Y. C. Gao and M. F. Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 837–849,
J. Cristóbal and M. C. Anderson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 163–175,
A. Wagner, J. Seltmann, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4101–4117,
A. Varhola, G. W. Frazer, P. Teti, and N. C. Coops
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3749–3766,
W. B. Anderson, B. F. Zaitchik, C. R. Hain, M. C. Anderson, M. T. Yilmaz, J. Mecikalski, and L. Schultz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2893–2913,
C. Chwala, A. Gmeiner, W. Qiu, S. Hipp, D. Nienaber, U. Siart, T. Eibert, M. Pohl, J. Seltmann, J. Fritz, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2647–2661,
N. Ghilain, A. Arboleda, G. Sepulcre-Cantò, O. Batelaan, J. Ardö, and F. Gellens-Meulenberghs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2567–2583,
E. Zakharova, J.-C. Calvet, S. Lafont, C. Albergel, J.-P. Wigneron, M. Pardé, Y. Kerr, and M. Zribi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1725–1743,
Batra, N., Islam, S., Venturini, V., Bisht, G., and Jiang, L.: Estimation and comparison of evapotranspiration from MODIS and AVHRR sensors for clear sky days over the Southern Great Plains, Remote Sens. Environ., 103, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.02.019, 2006.
Bhattacharya, B. K., Mallick, K., Patel, N. K., and Parihar, J. S.: Regional clear sky evapotranspiration over agricultural land using remote sensing data from Indian geostationary meteorological satellite, J. Hydrol., 387, 65–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.030, 2010.
Bisht, G. and Bras, R. L.: Estimation of net radiation from the MODIS data under all sky conditions: Southern Great Plains case study, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 1522–1534, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.02.007, 2010.
Bisht, G., Venturini, V., Islam, S., and Jiang, L.: Estimation of the net radiation using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for clear sky days, Remote Sens. Environ., 97, 52–67, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.03.014, 2005.
Caparrini, F., Castelli, F., and Entekhabi, D.: Estimation of Surface Turbulent Fluxes through Assimilation of Radiometric Surface Temperature Sequences, J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 145–159, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0145:eostft>2.0.co;2, 2004.
Carlson, T. N.: An overview of the "triangle method" for estimating surface evapotranspiration and soil moisture from satellite imagery, Sensors, 7, 1612–1629, https://doi.org/10.3390/s7081612, 2007.
Carlson, T. N., Gillies, R. R., and Schmugge, T. J.: An interpretation of methodologies for indirect measurement of soil water content, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 77, 191–205, 1995.
Cleugh, H. A., Leuning, R., Mu, Q., and Running, S. W.: Regional evaporation estimates from flux tower and MODIS satellite data, Remote Sens. Environ., 106, 285–304, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.07.007, 2007.
Crago, R. D.: Conservation and variability of the evaporative fraction during the daytime, J. Hydrol., 180, 173–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02903-6, 1996.
Davies, J. A. and Allen, C. D.: Equilibrium, Potential and Actual Evaporation from Cropped Surfaces in Southern Ontario, J. Appl. Meteorol., 12, 649–657, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1973)012<0649:epaaef>2.0.co;2, 1973.
Eichinger, W. E., Parlange, M. B., and Stricker, H.: On the Concept of Equilibrium Evaporation and the Value of the Priestley-Taylor Coefficient, Water Resour. Res., 32, 161–164, https://doi.org/10.1029/95wr02920, 1996.
Farah, H., Bastiaanssen, W., and Feddes, R.: Evaluation of the temporal variability of the evaporative fraction in a tropical watershed, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 5, 129–140, 2004.
Farahani, H. J., Howell, T. A., Shuttleworth, W. J., and Bausch, W. C.: Evapotranspiration: Progress in measurement and modeling in agriculture, T. Asabe, 50, 1627–1638, 2007.
Frey, R. A., Ackerman, S. A., Liu, Y., Strabala, K. I., Zhang, H., Key, J. R., and Wang, X.: Cloud detection with MODIS. Part I: Improvements in the MODIS cloud mask for collection 5, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 25, 1057–1072, 2008.
Galleguillos, M., Jacob, F., Prévot, L., French, A., and Lagacherie, P.: Comparison of two temperature differencing methods to estimate daily evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean vineyard watershed from ASTER data, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 1326–1340, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.01.013, 2011.
Garatuza-Payan, J., Pinker, R. T., Shuttleworth, W. J., and Watts, C. J.: Solar radiation and evapotranspiration in northern Mexico estimated from remotely sensed measurements of cloudiness, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 46, 465–478, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626660109492839, 2001.
Glenn, E., Nagler, P., and Huete, A.: Vegetation Index Methods for Estimating Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing, Surv. Geophys., 31, 531–555, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-010-9102-2, 2010.
Hall, F. G., Huemmrich, K. F., Goetz, S. J., Sellers, P. J., and Nickeson, J. E.: Satellite Remote Sensing of Surface Energy Balance: Success, Failures, and Unresolved Issues in FIFE, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 19061–19089, https://doi.org/10.1029/92jd02189, 1992.
Han, Y., Wang, Y., and Zhao, Y.: Estimating soil moisture conditions of the greater Changbai Mountains by land surface temperature and NDVI, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 48, 2509–2515, 2010.
Hoedjes, J., Chehbouni, A., Jacob, F., Ezzahar, J., and Boulet, G.: Deriving daily evapotranspiration from remotely sensed instantaneous evaporative fraction over olive orchard in semi-arid Morocco, J. Hydrol., 354, 53–64, 2008.
Jia, L., Xi, G., Liu, S., Huang, C., Yan, Y., and Liu, G.: Regional estimation of daily to annual regional evapotranspiration with MODIS data in the Yellow River Delta wetland, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1775–1787, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-1775-2009, 2009.
Jiang, L. and Islam, S.: A methodology for estimation of surface evapotranspiration over large areas using remote sensing observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2773–2776, 1999.
Jiang, L. and Islam, S.: Estimation of surface evaporation map over southern Great Plains using remote sensing data, Water Resour. Res., 37, 329–340, 2001.
Jiang, L. and Islam, S.: An intercomparison of regional latent heat flux estimation using remote sensing data, Int. J. Remote Sens., 24, 2221–2236, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160210154821, 2003.
Jiang, L., Islam, S., and Carlson, T. N.: Uncertainties in latent heat flux measurement and estimation: implications for using a simplified approach with remote sensing data, Can. J. Remote Sens., 30, 769–787, https://doi.org/10.5589/m04-038, 2004.
Jiang, L., Islam, S., Guo, W., Singh Jutla, A., Senarath, S. U. S., Ramsay, B. H., and Eltahir, E.: A satellite-based Daily Actual Evapotranspiration estimation algorithm over South Florida, Global Planet. Change, 67, 62–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.12.008, 2009.
Jin, Y., Randerson, J. T., and Goulden, M. L.: Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 2302–2319, 2011.
Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Ciais, P., Seneviratne, S. I., Sheffield, J., Goulden, M. L., Bonan, G., Cescatti, A., Chen, J., and de Jeu, R.: Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply, Nature, 467, 951–954, 2010.
Kalma, J., McVicar, T., and McCabe, M.: Estimating Land Surface Evaporation: A Review of Methods Using Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature Data, Surveys in Geophysics, 29, 421–469, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-008-9037-z, 2008.
Kim, H.-Y. and Liang, S.: Development of a hybrid method for estimating land surface shortwave net radiation from MODIS data, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 2393–2402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.05.012, 2010.
Kim, J. and Hogue, T. S.: Evaluation of a MODIS-Based Potential Evapotranspiration Product at the Point Scale, J. Hydrometeorol., 9, 444–460, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007jhm902.1, 2008.
King, M. D., Menzel, W. P., Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., Gao, B. C., Platnick, S., Ackerman, S. A., Remer, L. A., Pincus, R., and Hubanks, P. A.: Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41, 442–458, 2003.
Komatsu, T. S.: Toward a Robust Phenomenological Expression of Evaporation Efficiency for Unsaturated Soil Surfaces, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 1330–1334, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1330:tarpeo>2.0.co;2, 2003.
Kustas, W. P., Li, F., Jackson, T. J., Prueger, J. H., MacPherson, J. I., and Wolde, M.: Effects of remote sensing pixel resolution on modeled energy flux variability of croplands in Iowa, Remote Sens. Environ., 92, 535–547, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2004.02.020, 2004.
Lambin, E. F. and Ehrlich, D.: The surface temperature-vegetation index space for land cover and land-cover change analysis, Int. J. Remote Sens., 17, 463–487, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169608949021, 1996.
Liu, B., Jiang, T., Zhai, J., and Zhang, W.: New Design and Observation of Lysimeter on Actual Evapotranspiration, Meteorological Monthly, 36, 112–116, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8341, 2010 (in Chinese).
Long, D., Singh, V. P., and Scanlon, B. R.: Deriving theoretical boundaries to address scale dependencies of triangle models for evapotranspiration estimation, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 117, D05113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd017079, 2012.
Margulis, S. A., Kim, J., and Hogue, T.: A Comparison of the Triangle Retrieval and Variational Data Assimilation Methods for Surface Turbulent Flux Estimation, J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 1063–1072, https://doi.org/10.1175/jhm451.1, 2005.
McCabe, M. F. and Wood, E. F.: Scale influences on the remote estimation of evapotranspiration using multiple satellite sensors, Remote Sens. Environ., 105, 271–285, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.07.006, 2006.
Menzel, W. P., Seemann, S. W., Li, J., and Gumley, L. E.: MODIS atmospheric profile retrieval algorithm theoretical basis document, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002.
Monteith, J. L.: Evaporation and surface temperature, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 107, 1–27, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710745102, 1981.
Nishida, K., Nemani, R. R., Running, S. W., and Glassy, J. M.: An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evaporation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4270, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002062, 2003.
Peng, J. and Liu, Y.: Estimation of evaporative fraction from top-of-atmosphere radiance, IAHS-AISH P., 343, 47–52, 2011.
Peng, J., Liu, Y., and Loew, A.: Uncertainties in estimating Normalized Difference Temperature Index from TOA radiances, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., online first, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2012.2213603, 2012.
Penman, H. L.: Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass, P. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 193, 120–145, 1948.
Petropoulos, G., Carlson, T., Wooster, M., and Islam, S.: A review of Ts/VI remote sensing based methods for the retrieval of land surface energy fluxes and soil surface moisture, Progr. Phys. Geogr., 33, 224–250, 2009.
Priestley, C. and Taylor, R.: On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters, Mon. Weather Rev., 100, 81–92, 1972.
Remer, L. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., Mattoo, S., Chu, D. A., Martins, J. V., Li, R. R., Ichoku, C., Levy, R. C., Kleidman, R. G., Eck, T. F., Vermote, E., and Holben, B. N.: The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products, and Validation, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947–973, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas3385.1, 2005.
Running, S. W., Baldocchi, D. D., Turner, D. P., Gower, S. T., Bakwin, P. S., and Hibbard, K. A.: A Global Terrestrial Monitoring Network Integrating Tower Fluxes, Flask Sampling, Ecosystem Modeling and EOS Satellite Data, Remote Sens. Environ., 70, 108–127, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(99)00061-9, 1999.
Sánchez, J. M., Scavone, G., Caselles, V., Valor, E., Copertino, V. A., and Telesca, V.: Monitoring daily evapotranspiration at a regional scale from Landsat-TM and ETM+ data: Application to the Basilicata region, J. Hydrol., 351, 58–70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.11.041, 2008.
Sandholt, I., Rasmussen, K., and Andersen, J.: A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status, Remote Sens. Environ., 79, 213–224, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(01)00274-7, 2002.
Schaaf, C. B., Gao, F., Strahler, A. H., Lucht, W., Li, X., Tsang, T., Strugnell, N. C., Zhang, X., Jin, Y., and Muller, J. P.: First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 135–148, 2002.
Shu, Y., Stisen, S., Jensen, K. H., and Sandholt, I.: Estimation of regional evapotranspiration over the North China Plain using geostationary satellite data, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 13, 192–206, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2010.11.002, 2011.
Stisen, S., Sandholt, I., Nørgaard, A., Fensholt, R., and Jensen, K. H.: Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration – Applied to MSG-SEVIRI data in the Senegal River basin, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 1242–1255, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.08.013, 2008.
Sun, D. and Kafatos, M.: Note on the NDVI-LST relationship and the use of temperature-related drought indices over North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24406, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031485, 2007.
Tang, B., Li, Z.-L., and Zhang, R.: A direct method for estimating net surface shortwave radiation from MODIS data, Remote Sens. Environ., 103, 115–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.04.008, 2006.
Tang, R., Li, Z.-L., and Tang, B.: An application of the Ts-VI triangle method with enhanced edges determination for evapotranspiration estimation from MODIS data in arid and semi-arid regions: Implementation and validation, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 540–551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.012, 2010.
Tang, R., Li, Z.-L., and Chen, K.-S.: Validating MODIS-derived land surface evapotranspiration with in situ measurements at two AmeriFlux sites in a semiarid region, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D04106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014543, 2011.
Toller, G. N., Isaacman, A., Kuyper, J., and Salomonson, V.: MODIS Level 1B Product User's Guide, Greenbelt, MD: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 2006.
Vermote, E. F. and Kotchenova, S.: Atmospheric correction for the monitoring of land surfaces, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23S90, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009662, 2008.
Verstraeten, W., Veroustraete, F., and Feyen, J.: Assessment of Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture Content Across Different Scales of Observation, Sensors, 8, 70–117, 2008.
Vinukollu, R. K., Wood, E. F., Ferguson, C. R., and Fisher, J. B.: Global estimates of evapotranspiration for climate studies using multi-sensor remote sensing data: Evaluation of three process-based approaches, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 801–823, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.11.006, 2011.
Wan, Z. M. and Dozier, J.: A generalized split-window algorithm for retrieving land-surface temperature from space, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 34, 892–905, 1996.
Wan, Z., Wang, P., and Li, X.: Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index products for monitoring drought in the southern Great Plains, USA, Int. J. Remote Sens., 25, 61–72, 2004.
Wang, K., Li, Z., and Cribb, M.: Estimation of evaporative fraction from a combination of day and night land surface temperatures and NDVI: A new method to determine the Priestley–Taylor parameter, Remote Sens. Environ., 102, 293–305, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.02.007, 2006.
Wang, W. and Liang, S.: Estimation of high-spatial resolution clear-sky longwave downward and net radiation over land surfaces from MODIS data, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 745–754, 2009.
Wang, W., Liang, S., and Augustine, J. A.: Estimating high spatial resolution clear-sky land surface upwelling longwave radiation from MODIS data, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 47, 1559–1570, 2009.