Articles | Volume 24, issue 3
10 Mar 2020
Research article | 10 Mar 2020
Understanding the relative importance of vertical and horizontal flow in ice-wedge polygons
Nathan A. Wales et al.
No articles found.
Rachael E. McCaully, Carli A. Arendt, Brent D. Newman, Verity G. Salmon, Jeffrey M. Heikoop, Cathy J. Wilson, Sanna Sevanto, Nathan A. Wales, George B. Perkins, Oana C. Marina, and Stan D. Wullschleger
The Cryosphere, 16, 1889–1901,Short summary
Degrading permafrost and shrub expansion are critically important to tundra biogeochemistry. We observed significant variability in soil pore water NO3-N in an alder-dominated permafrost hillslope in Alaska. Proximity to alder shrubs and the presence or absence of topographic gradients and precipitation events strongly influence NO3-N availability and mobility. The highly dynamic nature of labile N on small spatiotemporal scales has implications for nutrient responses to a warming Arctic.
Nathan Alec Conroy, Jeffrey Heikoop, Emma Lathrop, Dea Musa, Brent Newman, Chonggang Xu, Rachael McCaully, Carli Arendt, Verity Salmon, Amy Breen, Vladimir Romanovsky, Katrina Bennett, Cathy Wilson, and Stan Wullschleger
This study combines field observations, non-parametric statistical analyses, and thermodynamic modeling to characterize the environmental causes of the spatial variability in soil pore water solute concentrations across two Arctic catchments with varying extents of permafrost. Vegetation type, soil moisture and redox conditions, weathering and hydrologic transport, and mineral solubility were all found to be the primary drivers of the existing spatial variability of some soil pore water solutes.
Elchin E. Jafarov, Daniil Svyatsky, Brent Newman, Dylan Harp, David Moulton, and Cathy Wilson
The Cryosphere, 16, 851–862,Short summary
Recent research indicates the importance of lateral transport of dissolved carbon in the polygonal tundra, suggesting that the freeze-up period could further promote lateral carbon transport. We conducted subsurface tracer simulations on high-, flat-, and low-centered polygons to test the importance of the freeze–thaw cycle and freeze-up time for tracer mobility. Our findings illustrate the impact of hydraulic and thermal gradients on tracer mobility, as well as of the freeze-up time.
Baptiste Dafflon, Stijn Wielandt, John Lamb, Patrick McClure, Ian Shirley, Sebastian Uhlemann, Chen Wang, Sylvain Fiolleau, Carlotta Brunetti, Franklin H. Akins, John Fitzpatrick, Samuel Pullman, Robert Busey, Craig Ulrich, John Peterson, and Susan S. Hubbard
The Cryosphere, 16, 719–736,Short summary
This study presents the development and validation of a novel acquisition system for measuring finely resolved depth profiles of soil and snow temperature at multiple locations. Results indicate that the system reliably captures the dynamics in snow thickness, as well as soil freezing and thawing depth, enabling advances in understanding the intensity and timing in surface processes and their impact on subsurface thermohydrological regimes.
Karis J. McFarlane, Heather M. Throckmorton, Jeffrey M. Heikoop, Brent D. Newman, Alexandra L. Hedgpeth, Marisa N. Repasch, Thomas P. Guilderson, and Cathy J. Wilson
Biogeosciences, 19, 1211–1223,Short summary
Planetary warming is increasing seasonal thaw of permafrost, making this extensive old carbon stock vulnerable. In northern Alaska, we found more and older dissolved organic carbon in small drainages later in summer as more permafrost was exposed by deepening thaw. Younger and older carbon did not differ in chemical indicators related to biological lability suggesting this carbon can cycle through aquatic systems and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions as warming increases permafrost thaw.
Haruko M. Wainwright, Sebastian Uhlemann, Maya Franklin, Nicola Falco, Nicholas J. Bouskill, Michelle E. Newcomer, Baptiste Dafflon, Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn, Burke J. Minsley, Kenneth H. Williams, and Susan S. Hubbard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 429–444,Short summary
This paper has developed a tractable approach for characterizing watershed heterogeneity and its relationship with key functions such as ecosystem sensitivity to droughts and nitrogen export. We have applied clustering methods to classify hillslopes into
watershed zonesthat have distinct distributions of bedrock-to-canopy properties as well as key functions. This is a powerful approach for guiding watershed experiments and sampling as well as informing hydrological and biogeochemical models.
Jiancong Chen, Baptiste Dafflon, Anh Phuong Tran, Nicola Falco, and Susan S. Hubbard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6041–6066,Short summary
The novel hybrid predictive modeling (HPM) approach uses a long short-term memory recurrent neural network to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) with only meteorological and remote-sensing inputs. We developed four use cases to demonstrate the applicability of HPM. The results indicate HPM is capable of providing ET and Reco estimations in challenging mountainous systems and enhances our understanding of watershed dynamics at sparsely monitored watersheds.
Katrina E. Bennett, Greta Miller, Robert Busey, Min Chen, Emma R. Lathrop, Julian B. Dann, Mara Nutt, Ryan Crumley, Baptiste Dafflon, Jitendra Kumar, W. Robert Bolton, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
In the Arctic, climate shifts are changing ecosystems, resulting in alterations in snow, shrubs, and permafrost. Thicker snow under shrubs can lead to warmer permafrost because a deeper snow will insulate the ground from the cold winter. In this paper, we examine how snow distribution is changing and leading to deeper snow, thawing permafrost, and changing Arctic landscapes. Eventually, this work will be used to improve models of the earth used to study future changes in Arctic snow patterns.
Carlotta Brunetti, John Lamb, Stijn Wielandt, Sebastian Uhlemann, Ian Shirley, Patrick McClure, and Baptiste Dafflon
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
This paper proposes a method to estimate thermal diffusivity and its uncertainty over time, at numerous locations and at an unprecedented vertical spatial resolution from soil temperature time-series. We validate and apply this method to synthetic and field case studies. The improved quantification of soil thermal properties is a cornerstone for advancing the indirect estimation of fraction of soil components needed to predict the subsurface storage and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients.
Qina Yan, Haruko Wainwright, Baptiste Dafflon, Sebastian Uhlemann, Carl I. Steefel, Nicola Falco, Jeffrey Kwang, and Susan S. Hubbard
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1347–1361,Short summary
We develop a hybrid model to estimate the spatial distribution of the thickness of the soil layer, which also provides estimations of soil transport and soil production rates. We apply this model to two examples of hillslopes in the East River watershed in Colorado and validate the model. The results show that the north-facing (NF) hillslope has a deeper soil layer than the south-facing (SF) hillslope and that the hybrid model provides better accuracy than a machine-learning model.
Yaoping Wang, Jiafu Mao, Mingzhou Jin, Forrest M. Hoffman, Xiaoying Shi, Stan D. Wullschleger, and Yongjiu Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4385–4405,Short summary
We developed seven global soil moisture datasets (1970–2016, monthly, half-degree, and multilayer) by merging a wide range of data sources, including in situ and satellite observations, reanalysis, offline land surface model simulations, and Earth system model simulations. Given the great value of long-term, multilayer, gap-free soil moisture products to climate research and applications, we believe this paper and the presented datasets would be of interest to many different communities.
Dylan R. Harp, Vitaly Zlotnik, Charles J. Abolt, Bob Busey, Sofia T. Avendaño, Brent D. Newman, Adam L. Atchley, Elchin Jafarov, Cathy J. Wilson, and Katrina E. Bennett
The Cryosphere, 15, 4005–4029,Short summary
Polygon-shaped landforms present in relatively flat Arctic tundra result in complex landscape-scale water drainage. The drainage pathways and the time to transition from inundated conditions to drained have important implications for heat and carbon transport. Using fundamental hydrologic principles, we investigate the drainage pathways and timing of individual polygons, providing insights into the effects of polygon geometry and preferential flow direction on drainage pathways and timing.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Liwen Wu, Jesus D. Gomez-Velez, Stefan Krause, Anders Wörman, Tanu Singh, Gunnar Nützmann, and Jörg Lewandowski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1905–1921,Short summary
With a physically based model that couples flow and heat transport in hyporheic zones, the present study provides the first insights into the dynamics of hyporheic responses to the impacts of daily groundwater withdrawal and river temperature fluctuations, allowing for a better understanding of transient hyporheic exchange processes and hence an improved pumping operational scheme.
Debjani Sihi, Xiaofeng Xu, Mónica Salazar Ortiz, Christine S. O'Connell, Whendee L. Silver, Carla López-Lloreda, Julia M. Brenner, Ryan K. Quinn, Jana R. Phillips, Brent D. Newman, and Melanie A. Mayes
Biogeosciences, 18, 1769–1786,Short summary
Humid tropical soils are important sources and sinks of methane. We used model simulation to understand how different kinds of microbes and observed soil moisture and oxygen dynamics contribute to production and consumption of methane along a wet tropical hillslope during normal and drought conditions. Drought alters the diffusion of oxygen and microbial substrates into and out of soil microsites, resulting in enhanced methane release from the entire hillslope during drought recovery.
Alba Zappone, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Melchior Grab, Quinn C. Wenning, Clément Roques, Claudio Madonna, Anne C. Obermann, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Matthias S. Brennwald, Rolf Kipfer, Florian Soom, Paul Cook, Yves Guglielmi, Christophe Nussbaum, Domenico Giardini, Marco Mazzotti, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 12, 319–343,Short summary
The success of the geological storage of carbon dioxide is linked to the availability at depth of a capable reservoir and an impermeable caprock. The sealing capacity of the caprock is a key parameter for long-term CO2 containment. Faults crosscutting the caprock might represent preferential pathways for CO2 to escape. A decameter-scale experiment on injection in a fault, monitored by an integrated network of multiparamerter sensors, sheds light on the mobility of fluids within the fault.
A. D. Collins, C. G. Andresen, L. M. Charsley-Groffman, T. Cochran, J. Dann, E. Lathrop, G. J. Riemersma, E. M. Swanson, A. Tapadinhas, and C. J. Wilson
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIV-M-2-2020, 1–8,
Yilin Fang, Xingyuan Chen, Jesus Gomez Velez, Xuesong Zhang, Zhuoran Duan, Glenn E. Hammond, Amy E. Goldman, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, and Emily B. Graham
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3553–3569,Short summary
Surface water quality along river corridors can be improved by the area of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater or hyporheic zones (HZs). These zones are ubiquitous and dominated by microorganisms that can process the dissolved nutrients exchanged at this interface of these zones. The modulation of surface water quality can be simulated by connecting the channel water and HZs through hyporheic exchanges using multirate mass transfer representation.
Kurt C. Solander, Brent D. Newman, Alessandro Carioca de Araujo, Holly R. Barnard, Z. Carter Berry, Damien Bonal, Mario Bretfeld, Benoit Burban, Luiz Antonio Candido, Rolando Célleri, Jeffery Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Matteo Detto, Wouter A. Dorigo, Brent E. Ewers, Savio José Filgueiras Ferreira, Alexander Knohl, L. Ruby Leung, Nate G. McDowell, Gretchen R. Miller, Maria Terezinha Ferreira Monteiro, Georgianne W. Moore, Robinson Negron-Juarez, Scott R. Saleska, Christian Stiegler, Javier Tomasella, and Chonggang Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2303–2322,Short summary
We evaluate the soil moisture response in the humid tropics to El Niño during the three most recent super El Niño events. Our estimates are compared to in situ soil moisture estimates that span five continents. We find the strongest and most consistent soil moisture decreases in the Amazon and maritime southeastern Asia, while the most consistent increases occur over eastern Africa. Our results can be used to improve estimates of soil moisture in tropical ecohydrology models at multiple scales.
Dylan R. Harp, Vitaly Zlotnik, Charles J. Abolt, Brent D. Newman, Adam L. Atchley, Elchin Jafarov, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Polygon shaped land forms present in relatively flat Arctic tundra result in complex landscape scale water drainage. The drainage pathways and the time to transition from inundated conditions to drained have important implications for heat and carbon transport. Using fundamental hydrologic principles, we investigate the drainage pathways and timing of individual polygons providing insights into the effects of polygon geometry and preferential flow direction on drainage pathways and timing.
Christian G. Andresen, David M. Lawrence, Cathy J. Wilson, A. David McGuire, Charles Koven, Kevin Schaefer, Elchin Jafarov, Shushi Peng, Xiaodong Chen, Isabelle Gouttevin, Eleanor Burke, Sarah Chadburn, Duoying Ji, Guangsheng Chen, Daniel Hayes, and Wenxin Zhang
The Cryosphere, 14, 445–459,Short summary
Widely-used land models project near-surface drying of the terrestrial Arctic despite increases in the net water balance driven by climate change. Drying was generally associated with increases of active-layer depth and permafrost thaw in a warming climate. However, models lack important mechanisms such as thermokarst and soil subsidence that will change the hydrological regime and add to the large uncertainty in the future Arctic hydrological state and the associated permafrost carbon feedback.
Elchin E. Jafarov, Dylan R. Harp, Ethan T. Coon, Baptiste Dafflon, Anh Phuong Tran, Adam L. Atchley, Youzuo Lin, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere, 14, 77–91,Short summary
Improved subsurface parameterization and benchmarking data are needed to reduce current uncertainty in predicting permafrost response to a warming climate. We developed a subsurface parameter estimation framework that can be used to estimate soil properties where subsurface data are available. We utilize diverse geophysical datasets such as electrical resistance data, soil moisture data, and soil temperature data to recover soil porosity and soil thermal conductivity.
Emmanuel Léger, Baptiste Dafflon, Yves Robert, Craig Ulrich, John E. Peterson, Sébastien C. Biraud, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, and Susan S. Hubbard
The Cryosphere, 13, 2853–2867,Short summary
We propose a new strategy called distributed temperature profiling (DTP) for improving the estimation of soil thermal properties through the use of an unprecedented number of laterally and vertically distributed temperature measurements. We tested a DTP system prototype by moving it sequentially across a discontinuous permafrost environment. The DTP enabled high-resolution identification of near-surface permafrost location and covariability with topography, vegetation, and soil properties.
Jianqiu Zheng, Peter E. Thornton, Scott L. Painter, Baohua Gu, Stan D. Wullschleger, and David E. Graham
Biogeosciences, 16, 663–680,Short summary
Arctic warming exposes soil carbon to increased degradation, increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. Models underrepresent anaerobic decomposition that predominates wet soils. We simulated microbial growth, pH regulation, and anaerobic carbon decomposition in a new model, parameterized and validated with prior soil incubation data. The model accurately simulated CO2 production and strong influences of water content, pH, methanogen biomass, and competing electron acceptors on CH4 production.
Charles J. Abolt, Michael H. Young, Adam L. Atchley, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere, 13, 237–245,Short summary
We present a workflow that uses a machine-learning algorithm known as a convolutional neural network (CNN) to rapidly delineate ice wedge polygons in high-resolution topographic datasets. Our workflow permits thorough assessments of polygonal microtopography at the kilometer scale or greater, which can improve understanding of landscape hydrology and carbon budgets. We demonstrate that a single CNN can be trained to delineate polygons with high accuracy in diverse tundra settings.
Gautam Bisht, William J. Riley, Haruko M. Wainwright, Baptiste Dafflon, Fengming Yuan, and Vladimir E. Romanovsky
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 61–76,Short summary
The land model integrated into the Energy Exascale Earth System Model was extended to include snow redistribution (SR) and lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes. Simulation results at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska, showed that inclusion of SR resulted in a better agreement with observations. Excluding lateral subsurface processes had a small impact on mean states but caused a large overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and temperature.
Anh Phuong Tran, Baptiste Dafflon, and Susan S. Hubbard
The Cryosphere, 11, 2089–2109,Short summary
Soil organics carbon (SOC) and its influence on terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks to global warming in permafrost regions are particularly important for the prediction of future climate variation. Our study proposes a new surface–subsurface, joint deterministic–stochastic hydrological–thermal–geophysical inversion approach and documents the benefit of including multiple types of data to estimate the vertical profile of SOC content and its influence on hydrological–thermal dynamics.
Haruko M. Wainwright, Anna K. Liljedahl, Baptiste Dafflon, Craig Ulrich, John E. Peterson, Alessio Gusmeroli, and Susan S. Hubbard
The Cryosphere, 11, 857–875,Short summary
Snow has a profound impact on permafrost and ecosystem functioning in the Arctic tundra. This paper aims to characterize the variability of end-of-winter snow depth and its relationship to topography in ice-wedge polygon tundra of Arctic Alaska. In addition, we develop a Bayesian geostatistical method to integrate multiscale observational platforms (a snow probe, ground penetrating radar, unmanned aerial system and airborne lidar) for estimating snow depth in high resolution over a large area.
Anh Phuong Tran, Baptiste Dafflon, Susan S. Hubbard, Michael B. Kowalsky, Philip Long, Tetsu K. Tokunaga, and Kenneth H. Williams
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3477–3491,Short summary
Quantifying water and heat fluxes in the shallow subsurface is particularly important due to their strong control on recharge, evaporation and biogeochemical processes. This study developed and tested a new inversion scheme to estimate subsurface hydro-thermal parameters by joint using different hydrological, thermal and geophysical data. It is especially useful for the increasing number of studies that are taking advantage of autonomously collected measurements to explore ecosystem dynamics.
A. A. Ali, C. Xu, A. Rogers, R. A. Fisher, S. D. Wullschleger, E. C. Massoud, J. A. Vrugt, J. D. Muss, N. G. McDowell, J. B. Fisher, P. B. Reich, and C. J. Wilson
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 587–606,Short summary
We have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacities at the global scale based on the optimization of key leaf-level metabolic processes. LUNA model predicts that future climatic changes would mostly affect plant photosynthetic capabilities in high-latitude regions and that Earth system models using fixed photosynthetic capabilities are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.
D. R. Harp, A. L. Atchley, S. L. Painter, E. T. Coon, C. J. Wilson, V. E. Romanovsky, and J. C. Rowland
The Cryosphere, 10, 341–358,Short summary
This paper investigates the uncertainty associated with permafrost thaw projections at an intensively monitored site. Permafrost thaw projections are simulated using a thermal hydrology model forced by a worst-case carbon emission scenario. The uncertainties associated with active layer depth, saturation state, thermal regime, and thaw duration are quantified and compared with the effects of climate model uncertainty on permafrost thaw projections.
A. L. Atchley, S. L. Painter, D. R. Harp, E. T. Coon, C. J. Wilson, A. K. Liljedahl, and V. E. Romanovsky
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2701–2722,Short summary
Development and calibration of a process-rich model representation of thaw-depth dynamics in Arctic tundra is presented. Improved understanding of polygonal tundra thermal hydrology processes, of thermal conduction, surface and subsurface saturation and snowpack dynamics is gained by using measured field data to calibrate and refine model structure. The refined model is then used identify future data needs and observational studies.
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Subject: Groundwater hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesEvidence for high-elevation salar recharge and interbasin groundwater flow in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian AndesTechnical note: Effects of iron(II) on fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter at circumneutral pHThe evolution of stable silicon isotopes in a coastal carbonate aquifer on Rottnest Island, Western AustraliaDynamics of hydrological and geomorphological processes in evaporite karst at the eastern Dead Sea – a multidisciplinary studyUsing multiple methods to investigate the effects of land-use changes on groundwater recharge in a semi-arid areaIdentifying recharge under subtle ephemeral features in a flat-lying semi-arid region using a combined geophysical approachIsotopic and chromatographic fingerprinting of the sources of dissolved organic carbon in a shallow coastal aquiferTime-lapse cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (CHERT) for monitoring seawater intrusion dynamics in a Mediterranean aquiferGroundwater–glacier meltwater interaction in proglacial aquifersA review of methods for measuring groundwater–surface water exchange in braided riversError in hydraulic head and gradient time-series measurements: a quantitative appraisalThe effect of sediment thermal conductivity on vertical groundwater flux estimatesHydrogeological conceptual model of andesitic watersheds revealed by high-resolution heliborne geophysicsMicrobial community changes induced by Managed Aquifer Recharge activities: linking hydrogeological and biological processesApplication of the pore water stable isotope method and hydrogeological approaches to characterise a wetland systemComment on “Origin of water in the Badain Jaran Desert, China: new insight from isotopes” by Wu et al. 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Odiney Alvarez-Campos, Elizabeth J. Olson, Lisa R. Welp, Marty D. Frisbee, Sebastián A. Zuñiga Medina, José Díaz Rodríguez, Wendy R. Roque Quispe, Carol I. Salazar Mamani, Midhuar R. Arenas Carrión, Juan Manuel Jara, Alexander Ccanccapa-Cartagena, and Chad T. Jafvert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 483–503,Short summary
We present results of a hydrologic study of groundwater recharge near the city of Arequipa, Peru. There are a number of springs below a high-elevation salar that show some chemical evidence of connectivity to the salar basin, possibly facilitated by faults in region. These results suggest that this salar basin is not a strictly terminal lake but that some interbasin groundwater flow exists. In addition, a high-elevation forest ecosystem seems important for groundwater recharge as well.
Kun Jia, Cara C. M. Manning, Ashlee Jollymore, and Roger D. Beckie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4983–4993,Short summary
The effect of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), on fluorescence data (excitation–emission matrix spectra parsed using parallel factor analysis) is difficult to quantitatively assign. We added varying quantities of Fe(II) into groundwater from an anaerobic aquifer. We showed that the overall fluorescence intensity decreased nonlinearly as Fe(II) increased from 1 to 306 mg L-1 but that the parallel factor analysis component distribution was relatively insensitive to Fe(II) concentration.
Ashley N. Martin, Karina Meredith, Andy Baker, Marc D. Norman, and Eliza Bryan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3837–3853,Short summary
We measured the silicon isotopic composition of groundwater from Rottnest Island, Western Australia, to investigate water–rock interactions in a coastal aquifer. Silicon isotopic ratios varied spatially across the island and were related to secondary mineral formation and vertical mixing within the aquifer. We find that silicate dissolution occurs in the freshwater–seawater transition zone, supporting the recent recognition of submarine groundwater discharge in the oceanic silicon isotope cycle.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Rena Meyer, Ulrich Polom, Fernando M. Dos Santos, Xavier Comas, Hussam Alrshdan, Charlotte M. Krawczyk, and Torsten Dahm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3351–3395,Short summary
The rapid decline of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked a dynamic reaction from the coastal groundwater system, with physical and chemical erosion creating subsurface voids and conduits. By combining remote sensing, geophysical methods, and numerical modelling at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore, we link groundwater flow patterns to the formation of surface stream channels, sinkholes and uvalas. Better understanding of this karst system will improve regional hazard assessment.
Shovon Barua, Ian Cartwright, P. Evan Dresel, and Edoardo Daly
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 89–104,Short summary
We evaluate groundwater recharge rates in a semi-arid area that has undergone land-use changes. The widespread presence of old saline groundwater indicates that pre-land-clearing recharge rates were low and present-day recharge rates are still modest. The fluctuations of the water table and tritium activities reflect present-day recharge rates; however, the water table fluctuation estimates are unrealistically high, and this technique may not be suited for estimating recharge in semi-arid areas.
Brady A. Flinchum, Eddie Banks, Michael Hatch, Okke Batelaan, Luk J. M. Peeters, and Sylvain Pasquet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4353–4368,Short summary
Identifying and quantifying recharge processes linked to ephemeral surface water features is challenging due to their episodic nature. We use a unique combination of well-established near-surface geophysical methods to provide evidence of a surface and groundwater connection in a flat, semi-arid region north of Adelaide, Australia. We show that a combined geophysical approach can provide a unique perspective that can help shape the hydrogeological conceptualization.
Karina T. Meredith, Andy Baker, Martin S. Andersen, Denis M. O'Carroll, Helen Rutlidge, Liza K. McDonough, Phetdala Oudone, Eliza Bryan, and Nur Syahiza Zainuddin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2167–2178,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon within groundwater and processes controlling it remain largely unknown. The average groundwater concentration at this coastal site was 5 times higher than the global median, doubling with depth, but with no change in chromatographic character. The lack of oxygen limited the rate of organic matter processing, leading to enhanced preservation. Changes in coastal hydrology could lead to the flux of unreacted organic carbon.
Andrea Palacios, Juan José Ledo, Niklas Linde, Linda Luquot, Fabian Bellmunt, Albert Folch, Alex Marcuello, Pilar Queralt, Philippe A. Pezard, Laura Martínez, Laura del Val, David Bosch, and Jesús Carrera
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2121–2139,Short summary
Coastal areas are highly populated and seawater intrusion endangers the already scarce freshwater resources. We use, for the first time, a geophysical experiment called cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography to monitor seawater intrusion dynamics. The technique relies on readings of rock and water electrical conductivity to detect salt in the aquifer. Two years of experiment allowed us to reveal variations in aquifer salinity due to natural seasonality, heavy-rain events and droughts.
Brighid É. Ó Dochartaigh, Alan M. MacDonald, Andrew R. Black, Jez Everest, Paul Wilson, W. George Darling, Lee Jones, and Mike Raines
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4527–4539,Short summary
We provide evidence of high groundwater storage and flow in catchments with active glaciers. Groundwater is found within gravels at the front of glaciers and replenished by both ice melt and precipitation. We studied a glacier in Iceland for 3 years, characterising the aquifer properties and measuring groundwater, river flow and precipitation. The results are important for accurately measuring meltwater and show that groundwater can provide strategic water supplies in de-glaciating catchments.
Katie Coluccio and Leanne Kaye Morgan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4397–4417,Short summary
Braided rivers are uncommon internationally but are important freshwater resources. However, there is limited understanding of how characteristics unique to braided rivers affect groundwater–surface water flow paths. This article reviews prior studies that have investigated groundwater–surface water interactions in these rivers and their associated aquifers to provide guidance on methodologies most suitable for future work in braided rivers and highlight gaps in current knowledge.
Gabriel C. Rau, Vincent E. A. Post, Margaret Shanafield, Torsten Krekeler, Eddie W. Banks, and Philipp Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3603–3629,Short summary
The flow of water is often inferred from water levels and gradients whose measurements are considered trivial despite the many steps and complexity of the instruments involved. We systematically review the four measurement steps required and summarise the systematic errors. To determine the accuracy with which flow can be resolved, we quantify and propagate the random errors. Our results illustrate the limitations of current practice and provide concise recommendations to improve data quality.
Eva Sebok and Sascha Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3305–3317,Short summary
Exchange fluxes between groundwater and surface waters can be quantified using temperature measurements from the upper sediment layers of streams and lakes assuming the thermal properties of sediments. This study quantified the natural variabiilty in sediment thermal conductivity in the vertical direction at the bed of surface waters and showed that fluxes can change by up to +/-75 % depending on using standard literature values or in situ measurements for sediment thermal conductivity.
Benoit Vittecoq, Pierre-Alexandre Reninger, Frédéric Lacquement, Guillaume Martelet, and Sophie Violette
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2321–2338,Short summary
Water resource management on volcanic islands is challenging and faces several issues. Taking advantage of new heliborne geophysical technology, correlated with borehole and spring data, we develop a watershed-scale conceptual model and demonstrate that permeability increases with age for the studied formations. Moreover, complex geological structures lead to preferential flow circulations and to discrepancy between topographical and hydrogeological watersheds, influencing river flow rates.
Carme Barba, Albert Folch, Núria Gaju, Xavier Sanchez-Vila, Marc Carrasquilla, Alba Grau-Martínez, and Maira Martínez-Alonso
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 139–154,Short summary
Managed aquifer recharge allows increasing water resources and can be used to improve water quality. We assess the degradative capabilities of infiltrating pollutants by mapping the composition of microbial communities linked to periods of infiltration/drought. From samples of soil, surface and groundwater, we found some microbial species involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles. Furthermore, we found that, during infiltration, microbial abundance rises, increasing degradative capabilities.
Katarina David, Wendy Timms, Catherine E. Hughes, Jagoda Crawford, and Dayna McGeeney
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6023–6041,Short summary
We investigated the wetland system classified as a threatened ecological community and found that organic-rich soil close to surfaces retains significant moisture necessary for ecosystems. At the base of the swamp an identified sand layer allows relatively rapid drainage and lateral groundwater interaction. Evaporation estimated from stable water isotopes from sediments indicated that groundwater contribution to the swamp is significant in dry periods, supporting ecosystems when water is scarce.
Lucheng Zhan, Jiansheng Chen, Ling Li, and David A. Barry
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4449–4454,Short summary
Using the arithmetic averages of precipitation isotope values, Wu et al. (2017) concluded that the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD) groundwater is recharged by modern local meteoric water. However, based on weighted mean precipitation isotope values, our further analysis shows that modern precipitation on the Qilian Mountains is more likely to be the main source of the groundwater and lake water in the BJD, as found. We believe this comment provides an important improvement for their study.
Dongmei Han and Matthew J. Currell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3473–3491,Short summary
Based on hydrochemical and isotopic analysis, we investigated the potential hydrogeological processes responsible for the increasing groundwater salinity in the coastal aquifer of Yang–Dai River coastal plain, northern China. Seawater intrusion is the major aspect and can be caused by vertical infiltration along the riverbed at the downstream areas, and lateral inflow into fresh aquifer. Geothermal water also makes a significant contribution to increasing the groundwater salinity.
Stephan Costabel, Christoph Weidner, Mike Müller-Petke, and Georg Houben
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1713–1729,Short summary
Laboratory experiments using water-filled sand and gravel samples with significant contents of iron oxide coatings were performed to identify the relationship between effective hydraulic radius and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response. Our interpretation approach for the NMR data leads to reliable estimates of hydraulic conductivity without calibration, but is limited to coarse material for physical reasons. An NMR-based observation system for iron clogging in boreholes is planned.
Etienne Bresciani, Roger H. Cranswick, Eddie W. Banks, Jordi Batlle-Aguilar, Peter G. Cook, and Okke Batelaan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1629–1648,Short summary
This article tackles the problem of finding the origin of groundwater in basin aquifers adjacent to mountains. In particular, we aim to determine whether the recharge occurs predominantly through stream infiltration along the mountain front or through subsurface flow from the mountain. To this end, we discuss the use of routinely measured variables: hydraulic head, chloride and electrical conductivity. A case study from Australia demonstrates the approach.
Bernd Kohlhepp, Robert Lehmann, Paul Seeber, Kirsten Küsel, Susan E. Trumbore, and Kai U. Totsche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6091–6116,
Charlotte P. Iverach, Dioni I. Cendón, Karina T. Meredith, Klaus M. Wilcken, Stuart I. Hankin, Martin S. Andersen, and Bryce F. J. Kelly
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5953–5969,Short summary
This study uses a multi-tracer geochemical approach to determine the extent of artesian groundwater discharge into an economically important alluvial aquifer. We compare estimates for artesian discharge into the alluvial aquifer derived from water balance modelling and geochemical data to show that there is considerable divergence in the results. The implications of this work involve highlighting that geochemical data should be used as a critical component of water budget assessments.
Virgil Drăguşin, Sorin Balan, Dominique Blamart, Ferenc Lázár Forray, Constantin Marin, Ionuţ Mirea, Viorica Nagavciuc, Iancu Orăşeanu, Aurel Perşoiu, Laura Tîrlă, Alin Tudorache, and Marius Vlaicu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5357–5373,
Monique Beyer, Uwe Morgenstern, Rob van der Raaij, and Heather Martindale
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4213–4231,Short summary
The determination of groundwater age can aid characterization of aquifers, providing information on groundwater mixing, flow, volume, and recharge rates. Here we assess a recently discovered groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301. Its performance as an age tracer is assessed against six other well-established, widely used age tracers in 302 groundwater samples. We show Halon-1301 reliably inferred age, thus potentially becoming a useful groundwater age tracer where other tracers are compromised.
Colby M. Steelman, Celia S. Kennedy, Donovan C. Capes, and Beth L. Parker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3105–3123,Short summary
The Eramosa River flows along a fractured sedimentary bedrock aquifer with large subsurface channel features. This study examines the potential for groundwater–surface water exchange beneath the fractured bedrock riverbed and the impacts of seasonal and intraseasonal flow system transience on the geoelectrical properties of the rock. Our results will have implications to the conceptual understanding of groundwater–surface water interaction within fractured bedrock river environments.
Linsong Wang, Chao Chen, Jinsong Du, and Tongqing Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2905–2922,Short summary
The North China Plain (NCP), as the interest region in this study, is one of the most uniformly and extensively altered areas due to overexploitation of groundwater by humans. Here, we use GRACE and GPS to study the seasonal and long-term mass change and its resulting vertical displacement. We also removed the vertical rates, which are induced by terrestrial water storage (TWS) from GPS-derived data to obtain the corrected vertical velocities caused by tectonic movement and human activities.
Klaus Haaken, Gian Piero Deidda, Giorgio Cassiani, Rita Deiana, Mario Putti, Claudio Paniconi, Carlotta Scudeler, and Andreas Kemna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1439–1454,Short summary
The paper presents a general methodology that will help understand how freshwater and saltwater may interact in natural porous media, with a particular view at practical applications such as the storage of freshwater underground in critical areas, e.g., semi-arid zones around the Mediterranean sea. The methodology is applied to a case study in Sardinia and shows how a mix of advanced monitoring and mathematical modeling tremendously advance our understanding of these systems.
Donald O. Rosenberry, Martin A. Briggs, Emily B. Voytek, and John W. Lane
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4323–4339,Short summary
The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM) (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were thought to be located in areas of substantial groundwater discharge to the river. Physical, thermal, and geophysical methods applied at several spatial scales indicate that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial groundwater discharge to the river. DWM may depend on groundwater discharge for their survival.
T. McCormack, O. Naughton, P. M. Johnston, and L. W. Gill
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2119–2133,Short summary
In this study, the influence of surface water–groundwater interaction on the nutrient flux in a lowland karst catchment in western Ireland was investigated with the aid of alkalinity sampling and a hydrological model. Results indicated that denitrification within a number of ephemeral lakes is the main process reducing nitrogen concentrations within the turloughs, whereas phosphorus loss is thought to occur mostly via sedimentation and subsequent soil deposition.
Dongmei Han, Xianfang Song, and Matthew J. Currell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1983–1999,Short summary
We report new data for carbon and sulfur isotopes of the groundwater flow system in a coastal carbonate aquifer of northeast China. It shows how these can be used to determine the major processes controlling sulfate cycling and transport. Hopefully the study will be of broad international interest, and is expected to improve the understanding of techniques to determine impacts on groundwater quality and flow, leading to improved groundwater protection and monitoring strategies.
W. A. Timms, R. Crane, D. J. Anderson, S. Bouzalakos, M. Whelan, D. McGeeney, P. F. Rahman, and R. I. Acworth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 39–54,Short summary
Low permeability sediments and rock can leak slowly, yet can act as important barriers to flow for resource development and for waste sequestration. Relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic tests of "tight" geological materials are possible by accelerating gravity. Results from geotechnical centrifuge testing of drill core and in situ pore pressure monitoring were compared with a regional flow model, and considered in the context of inherent geological variability at site and formation scale.
M. J. Hendry, E. Schmeling, L. I. Wassenaar, S. L. Barbour, and D. Pratt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4427–4440,Short summary
Improvements and limitations to the measurement δ2H and δ18O of pore waters in geologic core samples using laser spectrometry are presented. These included the use of a δ2H spike to assess the extent of drill fluid contamination and the effect of storage time and type of sample bag on pore water values.
M. Beyer, R. van der Raaij, U. Morgenstern, and B. Jackson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2775–2789,Short summary
We assess the potential of Halon-1301 as a new groundwater age tracer, which had not been assessed in detail. We determine Halon-1301 and infer age in 17 New Zealand groundwater samples and various modern waters. Halon-1301 reliably inferred age in 71% of the sites within 1 SD of the ages inferred from tritium and SF6. The remaining (anoxic) waters show reduced concentrations of Halon-1301 along with even further reduced concentrations of CFCs. The reason(s) for this need to be further assessed.
A. C. King, M. Raiber, D. I. Cendón, M. E. Cox, and S. E. Hollins
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2315–2335,
M. Huebsch, F. Grimmeisen, M. Zemann, O. Fenton, K. G. Richards, P. Jordan, A. Sawarieh, P. Blum, and N. Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1589–1598,Short summary
Two different in situ spectrophotometers, which were used in the field to determine highly time resolved nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations at two distinct spring discharge sites, are compared: a double and a multiple wavelength spectrophotometer. The objective of the study was to review the hardware options, determine ease of calibration, accuracy, influence of additional substances and to assess positive and negative aspects of the two sensors as well as troubleshooting and trade-offs.
A. Armandine Les Landes, L. Aquilina, P. Davy, V. Vergnaud-Ayraud, and C. Le Carlier
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1413–1426,Short summary
The crystalline rock aquifers of the Armorican Massif present clear evidence of a marine origin of the saline component in the fluids on the regional scale. High chloride concentrations are attributed to three past marine transgressions. The relationship between chloride concentration and transgression age provides constraints for the timescales of fluid circulation. This time frame is useful information for developing conceptual models of the paleo-functioning of Armorican aquifers.
J. F. Dean, J. A. Webb, G. E. Jacobsen, R. Chisari, and P. E. Dresel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1107–1123,Short summary
This paper examines modern and historical groundwater recharge rates to determine the impacts of reforestation in south-eastern Australia. This study shows that over both the long and short term, groundwater recharge in the study area occurs predominantly in the lower catchment areas. The results of this study show that spatial variations in recharge are important considerations for locating tree plantations, especially when looking to conserve water for downstream users in low rainfall regions.
F. Liu, X. Song, L. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. Han, Y. Ma, and H. Bu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 551–565,Short summary
Due to intensive groundwater exploitation in energy base, significant changes in groundwater system will take place. This research identified the origin and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Subei Lake basin under the influence of human activity, enhancing the knowledge of lake basins in groundwater discharge area and providing valuable groundwater information for decision makers to formulate sustainable groundwater management strategies for other similar lake basins in arid regions.
Z. Zhang, H. Hu, F. Tian, X. Yao, and M. Sivapalan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3951–3967,
C. E. Bon, A. S. Reeve, L. Slater, and X. Comas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 953–965,
U. Lauber, W. Ufrecht, and N. Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 435–445,
B. Rogiers, K. Beerten, T. Smeekens, D. Mallants, M. Gedeon, M. Huysmans, O. Batelaan, and A. Dassargues
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5155–5166,
N. P. Unland, I. Cartwright, M. S. Andersen, G. C. Rau, J. Reed, B. S. Gilfedder, A. P. Atkinson, and H. Hofmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3437–3453,
G. Mongelli, S. Monni, G. Oggiano, M. Paternoster, and R. Sinisi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2917–2928,
X. Chen, W. Dong, G. Ou, Z. Wang, and C. Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2569–2579,
Y. Zhou, J. Wenninger, Z. Yang, L. Yin, J. Huang, L. Hou, X. Wang, D. Zhang, and S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2435–2447,
V. Hakoun, N. Mazzilli, S. Pistre, and H. Jourde
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1975–1984,
J. A. Marshall, A. J. Castillo, and M. B. Cardenas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 829–836,
J.-M. Vouillamoz, J. Hoareau, M. Grammare, D. Caron, L. Nandagiri, and A. Legchenko
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4387–4400,
L. Yang, X. Song, Y. Zhang, D. Han, B. Zhang, and D. Long
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4265–4277,
F. Cervi, F. Ronchetti, G. Martinelli, T. A. Bogaard, and A. Corsini
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4205–4221,
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Rapid warming in the Arctic is causing increased permafrost temperatures and ground ice degradation. To study the effects of ice degradation on water distribution, tracer was applied to two end members of ice-wedge polygons – a ubiquitous landform in the Arctic. End member type was found to significantly affect water distribution as lower flux was observed with ice-wedge degradation. Results suggest ice degradation can influence partitioning of sequestered carbon as carbon dioxide or methane.
Rapid warming in the Arctic is causing increased permafrost temperatures and ground ice...