Articles | Volume 22, issue 3
Technical note 12 Mar 2018
Technical note | 12 Mar 2018
Technical note: False low turbidity readings from optical probes during high suspended-sediment concentrations
Nicholas Voichick et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Rivers and Lakes | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesTechnical note: Mobile open dynamic chamber measurement of methane macroseeps in lakesA Fast-Response Automated Gas Equilibrator (FaRAGE) for continuous in situ measurement of CH4 and CO2 dissolved in waterTechnical note: Greenhouse gas flux studies: an automated online system for gas emission measurements in aquatic environmentsEvolution and dynamics of the vertical temperature profile in an oligotrophic lakeLong-term changes in central European river discharge for 1869–2016: impact of changing snow covers, reservoir constructions and an intensified hydrological cycleReliable reference for the methane concentrations in Lake Kivu at the beginning of industrial exploitationSmall dams alter thermal regimes of downstream waterOxycline oscillations induced by internal waves in deep Lake IseoTurbulent mixing and heat fluxes under lake ice: the role of seiche oscillationsNew profiling and mooring records help to assess variability of Lake Issyk-Kul and reveal unknown features of its thermohaline structureEvaluation of lacustrine groundwater discharge, hydrologic partitioning, and nutrient budgets in a proglacial lake in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: using 222Rn and stable isotopesLong-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary studyActive heat pulse sensing of 3-D-flow fields in streambedsEffectiveness of distributed temperature measurements for early detection of piping in river embankmentsCitizen observations contributing to flood modelling: opportunities and challengesDead Sea evaporation by eddy covariance measurements vs. aerodynamic, energy budget, Priestley–Taylor, and Penman estimatesTechnical note: Stage and water width measurement of a mountain stream using a simple time-lapse cameraIdentifying, characterizing and predicting spatial patterns of lacustrine groundwater dischargeInformation content of stream level class data for hydrological model calibrationHydrology of inland tropical lowlands: the Kapuas and Mahakam wetlandsTechnical Note: Monitoring of unsteady open channel flows using the continuous slope-area methodApplication of CryoSat-2 altimetry data for river analysis and modellingTechnical Note: Advances in flash flood monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)Using radon to understand parafluvial flows and the changing locations of groundwater inflows in the Avon River, southeast AustraliaInfluence of environmental factors on spectral characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, ChinaDAHITI – an innovative approach for estimating water level time series over inland waters using multi-mission satellite altimetryThe Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR): integration of water isotopes in watershed observation and riverine researchA 2600-year history of floods in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland: frequencies, mechanisms and climate forcingTechnical Note: Semi-automated effective width extraction from time-lapse RGB imagery of a remote, braided Greenlandic riverCharacterization of sediment layer composition in a shallow lake: from open water zones to reed belt areasMorphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration – the Thur River case studyDynamics of auto- and heterotrophic picoplankton and associated viruses in Lake GenevaHistoric maps as a data source for socio-hydrology: a case study of the Lake Balaton wetland system, HungarySpatio-temporal heterogeneity of riparian soil morphology in a restored floodplainFlood discharge measurement of a mountain river – Nanshih River in TaiwanHydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetlandMeasurement of spatial and temporal fine sediment dynamics in a small riverTechnical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurementDischarge estimation in a backwater affected meandering riverEphemeral stream sensor design using state loggersEvidence for double diffusion in temperate meromictic lakes
Frederic Thalasso, Katey Walter Anthony, Olya Irzak, Ethan Chaleff, Laughlin Barker, Peter Anthony, Philip Hanke, and Rodrigo Gonzalez-Valencia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 6047–6058,Short summary
Methane (CH4) seepage is the steady or episodic flow of gaseous hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs that has been identified as a significant source of atmospheric CH4. The monitoring of these emissions is important and despite several available methods, large macroseeps are still difficult to measure due to a lack of a lightweight and inexpensive method deployable in remote environments. Here, we report the development of a mobile chamber for measuring intense CH4 macroseepage in lakes.
Shangbin Xiao, Liu Liu, Wei Wang, Andreas Lorke, Jason Woodhouse, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3871–3880,Short summary
To better understand the fate of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in freshwaters, dissolved CH4 and CO2 need to be measured with a high temporal resolution. We developed the Fast-Response Automated Gas Equilibrator (FaRAGE) for real-time in situ measurement of dissolved gases in water. FaRAGE can achieve a short response time (CH4: t95 % = 12 s; CO2: t95 % = 10 s) while retaining a high equilibration ratio and accuracy.
Nguyen Thanh Duc, Samuel Silverstein, Martin Wik, Patrick Crill, David Bastviken, and Ruth K. Varner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3417–3430,Short summary
Under rapid ongoing climate change, accurate quantification of natural greenhouse gas emissions in aquatic environments such as lakes and ponds is needed to understand regulation and feedbacks. Building on the rapid development in wireless communication, sensors, and computation technology, we present a low-cost, open-source, automated and remotely accessed and controlled device for carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from open-water environments along with tests showing their potential.
Zvjezdana B. Klaić, Karmen Babić, and Mirko Orlić
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3399–3416,Short summary
Fine-resolution lake temperature measurements (2 min, 15 depths) show different lake responses to atmospheric forcings: (1) continuous diurnal oscillations in the temperature in the first 5 m of the lake, (2) occasional diurnal oscillations in the temperature at depths from 7 to 20 m, and (3) occasional surface and internal seiches. Due to the sloped lake bottom, surface seiches produced the high-frequency oscillations in the lake temperatures with periods of 9 min at depths from 9 to 17 m.
Erwin Rottler, Till Francke, Gerd Bürger, and Axel Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1721–1740,Short summary
In the attempt to identify and disentangle long-term impacts of changes in snow cover and precipitation along with reservoir constructions, we employ a set of analytical tools on hydro-climatic time series. We identify storage reservoirs as an important factor redistributing runoff from summer to winter. Furthermore, our results hint at more (intense) rainfall in recent decades. Detected increases in high discharge can be traced back to corresponding changes in precipitation.
Bertram Boehrer, Wolf von Tümpling, Ange Mugisha, Christophe Rogemont, and Augusta Umutoni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4707–4716,Short summary
Dissolved methane in Lake Kivu (East Africa) represents a precious energy deposit, but the high gas loads have also been perceived as a threat by the local population. Our measurements confirm the huge amount of methane and carbon dioxide present, but do not support the current theory of a significant recharge. Direct measurements of gas pressure indicate no imminent danger due to limnic eruptions. A continuous survey is mandatory to support responsible action during industrial exploitation.
André Chandesris, Kris Van Looy, Jacob S. Diamond, and Yves Souchon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4509–4525,Short summary
We found that small dams in rivers alter the thermal regimes of downstream waters in two distinct ways: either only the downstream daily minimum temperatures increase, or both the downstream daily minimum and maximum temperatures increase. We further show that only two physical dam characteristics can explain this difference in temperature response: (1) residence time, and (2) surface area. These results may help managers prioritize efforts to restore the fragmented thermalscapes of rivers.
Giulia Valerio, Marco Pilotti, Maximilian Peter Lau, and Michael Hupfer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1763–1777,Short summary
This paper provides experimental evidence of the occurrence of large and periodic movements induced by the wind at 95 m in depth in Lake Iseo, where a permanent chemocline is located. These movements determine vertical oscillations of the oxycline up to 20 m. Accordingly, in 3 % of the sediment area alternating redox conditions occur, which might force unsteady sediment–water fluxes. This finding has major implications for the internal matter cycle in Lake Iseo.
Georgiy Kirillin, Ilya Aslamov, Matti Leppäranta, and Elisa Lindgren
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6493–6504,Short summary
We have discovered transient appearances of strong turbulent mixing beneath the ice of an Arctic lake. Such mixing events increase heating of the ice base up to an order of magnitude and can significantly accelerate ice melting. The source of mixing was identified as oscillations of the entire lake water body triggered by strong winds over the lake surface. This previously unknown mechanism of ice melt may help understand the link between the climate conditions and the seasonal ice formation.
Peter O. Zavialov, Alexander S. Izhitskiy, Georgiy B. Kirillin, Valentina M. Khan, Boris V. Konovalov, Peter N. Makkaveev, Vadim V. Pelevin, Nikolay A. Rimskiy-Korsakov, Salmor A. Alymkulov, and Kubanychbek M. Zhumaliev
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6279–6295,Short summary
This paper reports the results of field surveys conducted in Lake Issyk-Kul in 2015–2017 and compares the present-day data with the available historical records. Our data do not confirm the reports of progressive warming of the deep Issyk-Kul waters as suggested in some previous publications. However, they do indicate a positive trend of salinity in the lake’s interior over the last 3 decades. An important newly found feature is a persistent salinity maximum at depths of 70–120 m.
Xin Luo, Xingxing Kuang, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Sihai Liang, Rong Mao, Xiaolang Zhang, and Hailong Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5579–5598,
David Eschbach, Laurent Schmitt, Gwenaël Imfeld, Jan-Hendrik May, Sylvain Payraudeau, Frank Preusser, Mareike Trauerstein, and Grzegorz Skupinski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2717–2737,Short summary
In this study we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of past trajectories in complex hydrosystems. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the future.
Eddie W. Banks, Margaret A. Shanafield, Saskia Noorduijn, James McCallum, Jörg Lewandowski, and Okke Batelaan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1917–1929,Short summary
This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude below the water–sediment interface. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analyzed using a heat transport equation. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes.
Silvia Bersan, André R. Koelewijn, and Paolo Simonini
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1491–1508,Short summary
Backward erosion piping is the cause of a significant percentage of failures and incidents involving dams and river embankments. In the past 20 years fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) has proved to be effective for the detection of leakages and internal erosion in dams. This work investigates the effectiveness of DTS for monitoring backward erosion piping in river embankments. Data from a large-scale piping test performed on an instrumented dike are presented and discussed.
Thaine H. Assumpção, Ioana Popescu, Andreja Jonoski, and Dimitri P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1473–1489,Short summary
Citizens can contribute to science by providing data, analysing them and as such contributing to decision-making processes. For example, citizens have collected water levels from gauges, which are important when simulating/forecasting floods, where data are usually scarce. This study reviewed such contributions and concluded that integration of citizen data may not be easy due to their spatio-temporal characteristics but that citizen data still proved valuable and can be used in flood modelling.
Jutta Metzger, Manuela Nied, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jörg Kleffmann, and Christoph Kottmeier
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1135–1155,Short summary
This paper is motivated by the need for more precise evaporation rates from the Dead Sea (DS) and methods to estimate and forecast evaporation. A new approach to measure lake evaporation with a station located at the shoreline, also transferable to other lakes, is introduced. The first directly measured DS evaporation rates are presented as well as applicable methods for evaporation calculation. These results enable us to further close the DS water budget and to facilitate the water management.
Pauline Leduc, Peter Ashmore, and Darren Sjogren
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1–11,Short summary
We show the utility of ground-based time-lapse cameras for automated monitoring of stream stage and flow characteristics. High-frequency flow stage, water surface width and other information on the state of flow can be acquired for extended time periods with simple local calibration using a low-cost time-lapse camera and a few simple field measurements for calibration and for automated image selection and sorting. The approach is a useful substitute or complement to the conventional stage data.
Christina Tecklenburg and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5043–5063,Short summary
We characterized groundwater–lake exchange patterns and identified their controls based on extensive field measurements. Our measurement design bridges the gap between the detailed local characterisation and low resolution regional investigations. Results indicated strong spatial variability in groundwater inflow rates: large scale inflow patterns correlated with topography and the groundwater flow field and small scale patterns correlated with grainsize distributions of the lake sediment.
H. J. Ilja van Meerveld, Marc J. P. Vis, and Jan Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4895–4905,Short summary
We tested the usefulness of stream level class data for hydrological model calibration. Only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, particularly when the boundary was chosen at a high stream level. There was hardly any improvement in model performance when using more than five stream level classes. These results suggest that model based streamflow time series can be obtained from citizen science based water level class data.
Hidayat Hidayat, Adriaan J. Teuling, Bart Vermeulen, Muh Taufik, Karl Kastner, Tjitske J. Geertsema, Dinja C. C. Bol, Dirk H. Hoekman, Gadis Sri Haryani, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Robert M. Delinom, Roel Dijksma, Gusti Z. Anshari, Nining S. Ningsih, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Antonius J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2579–2594,Short summary
Hydrological prediction is crucial but in tropical lowland it is difficult, considering data scarcity and river system complexity. This study offers a view of the hydrology of two tropical lowlands in Indonesia. Both lowlands exhibit the important role of upstream wetlands in regulating the flow downstream. We expect that this work facilitates a better prediction of fire-prone conditions in these regions.
Kyutae Lee, Ali R. Firoozfar, and Marian Muste
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1863–1874,Short summary
Accurate estimation of stream/river flows is important in many aspects, including public safety during floods, effective uses of water resources for hydropower generation and irrigation, and environments. In this paper, we investigated a feasibility of the continuous slope area (CSA) method which measures dynamic changes in instantaneous water surface elevations, and the results showed promising capabilities of the suggested method for the accurate estimation of flows in natural streams/rivers.
Raphael Schneider, Peter Nygaard Godiksen, Heidi Villadsen, Henrik Madsen, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 751–764,Short summary
We use water level observations from the CryoSat-2 satellite in combination with a river model of the Brahmaputra River, extracting satellite data over a dynamic river mask derived from Landsat imagery. The novelty of this work is the use of the CryoSat-2 water level observations, collected using a complex spatio-temporal sampling scheme, to calibrate a hydrodynamic river model. The resulting model accurately reproduces water levels, without precise knowledge of river bathymetry.
Matthew T. Perks, Andrew J. Russell, and Andrew R. G. Large
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4005–4015,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to capture information about the earth’s surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Here we present a method whereby image acquisition and subsequent analysis have enabled the highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomenon present during high-energy flash floods to be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions.
Ian Cartwright and Harald Hofmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3581–3600,Short summary
This paper uses the natural geochemical tracer Rn together with streamflow measurements to differentiate between actual groundwater inflows and water that exits the river, flows through the near-river sediments, and subsequently re-enters the river downstream (parafluvial flow). Distinguishing between these two components is important to understanding the water balance in gaining streams and in managing and protecting surface water resources.
Z. D. Wen, K. S. Song, Y. Zhao, J. Du, and J. H. Ma
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 787–801,Short summary
The study indicated that CDOM in rivers had higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and vascular plant contribution than in terminal lakes in the Hulun Buir plateau, Northeast China. The autochthonous sources of CDOM in plateau waters were higher than in other freshwater rivers reported in the literature. Study of the optical–physicochemical correlations is helpful in the evaluation of the potential influence of water quality factors on non-water light absorption in plateau water environments.
C. Schwatke, D. Dettmering, W. Bosch, and F. Seitz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4345–4364,
J. Halder, S. Terzer, L. I. Wassenaar, L. J. Araguás-Araguás, and P. K. Aggarwal
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3419–3431,Short summary
We introduce a new online global database of riverine water stable isotopes (Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers) and evaluate its longer-term data holdings. A regionalized, cluster-based precipitation isotope model was used to compare measured to predicted isotope compositions of riverine catchments. The study demonstrated that the seasonal isotopic composition and variation of river water can be predicted, which will improve the application of water stable isotopes in rivers.
L. Schulte, J. C. Peña, F. Carvalho, T. Schmidt, R. Julià, J. Llorca, and H. Veit
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3047–3072,Short summary
A 2600-year long composite palaeoflood record is reconstructed from high-resolution delta plain sediments of the Hasli-Aare floodplain on the northern slope of the Swiss Alps. Natural proxies compiled from sedimentary, geochemical and geomorphological data were calibrated by textual and factual sources and instrumental data. Geomorphological, historical and instrumental data provide evidence for flood damage intensities and discharge estimations of severe and catastrophic historical floods.
C. J. Gleason, L. C. Smith, D. C. Finnegan, A. L. LeWinter, L. H Pitcher, and V. W. Chu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2963–2969,Short summary
Here, we give a semi-automated processing workflow to extract hydraulic parameters from over 10,000 time-lapse images of the remote Isortoq River in Greenland. This workflow allows efficient and accurate (mean accuracy 79.6%) classification of images following an automated similarity filtering process. We also give an effective width hydrograph (a proxy for discharge) for the Isortoq using this workflow, showing the potential of this workflow for enhancing understanding of remote rivers.
I. Kogelbauer and W. Loiskandl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1427–1438,
M. Schirmer, J. Luster, N. Linde, P. Perona, E. A. D. Mitchell, D. A. Barry, J. Hollender, O. A. Cirpka, P. Schneider, T. Vogt, D. Radny, and E. Durisch-Kaiser
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2449–2462,
A. Parvathi, X. Zhong, A. S. Pradeep Ram, and S. Jacquet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1073–1087,
A. Zlinszky and G. Timár
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4589–4606,
B. Fournier, C. Guenat, G. Bullinger-Weber, and E. A. D. Mitchell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4031–4042,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1951–1962,
A. T. Rezende Filho, S. Furian, R. L. Victoria, C. Mascré, V. Valles, and L. Barbiero
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2723–2737,
Y. Schindler Wildhaber, C. Michel, P. Burkhardt-Holm, D. Bänninger, and C. Alewell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1501–1515,
K. P. Hilgersom and W. M. J. Luxemburg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 345–356,
H. Hidayat, B. Vermeulen, M. G. Sassi, P. J. J. F. Torfs, and A. J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2717–2728,
R. Bhamjee and J. B. Lindsay
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1009–1021,
C. von Rohden, B. Boehrer, and J. Ilmberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 667–674,
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This paper describes instances in the Grand Canyon study area and a laboratory experiment in which very high suspended-sediment concentrations result in incorrectly low turbidity recorded with a commonly used field instrument. If associated with the monitoring of a construction or dredging project, false low turbidity could result in regulators being unaware of environmental damage caused by the actually much higher turbidity.
This paper describes instances in the Grand Canyon study area and a laboratory experiment in...