Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 657–673, 2015
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 657–673, 2015
Research article
02 Feb 2015
Research article | 02 Feb 2015

Drivers of spatial and temporal variability of streamflow in the Incomati River basin

A. M. L. Saraiva Okello et al.

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Cited articles

Beumer, J. and Mallory, S.: Water Requirements and Availability Reconciliation Strategy for the Mbombela Municipal Area. Final Reconcialiation Strategy, Department of Water Affairs, South Africa, 2014.
Birkel, C., Soulsby, C., Ali, G., and Tetzlaff, D.: Assessing the cumulative impacts of hydropower regulation on the flow characteristics of a large atlantic Salmon river system, River Res. Applic., 30, 456–475,, 2014.
Bunn, S. E. and Arthington, A. H.: Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity, Environ. Manage., 30, 492–507,, 2002.
De Winnaar, G. and Jewitt, G.: Ecohydrological implications of runoff harvesting in the headwaters of the Thukela River basin, South Africa, Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C, 35, 634–642,, 2010.
DWAF – Department of Water Affairs and Forestry: Inkomati Water Availability Assessment Study, Water Requirements Volume 1, prepared by: Water for Africa Environmental, Engineering and Management Consultants, SRK Consulting and CPH20, PWMA 05/X22/00/0908, Pretoria, 2009a.
Short summary
We studied long-term daily records of rainfall and streamflow of the Incomati River basin in southern Africa. We used statistical analysis and the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration tool to describe the spatial and temporal variability flow regime. We found significant declining trends in October flows, and low flow indicators; however, no significant trend was found in rainfall. Land use and flow regulation are larger drivers of temporal changes in streamflow than climatic forces in the basin.