Articles | Volume 19, issue 9
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Use of satellite and modeled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale
Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
L. F. Termite
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Hydraulic and Forestry Division, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Vienna University of Technology, 10 Gusshausstr. 27–29, Vienna, Austria
No articles found.
Søren Julsgaard Kragh, Jacopo Dari, Sara Modanesi, Christian Massari, Luca Brocca, Rasmus Fensholt, Simon Stisen, and Julian Koch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
This study provides a comparison of methodologies to quantify irrigation to enhance regional irrigation estimates. To evaluate the methodologies, we compared various approaches to quantify irrigation using either soil moisture, evapotranspiration, or both within a novel baseline framework, together with irrigation estimates from other studies. We show, that the synergy from using two equally important components in joint approach within a baseline framework, yield better irrigation estimates.
Jacopo Dari, Luca Brocca, Sara Modanesi, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Silvia Barbetta, Raphael Quast, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Vahid Freeman, Anaïs Barella-Ortiz, Pere Quintana-Seguí, David Bretreger, and Espen Volden
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1555–1575,Short summary
Irrigation is the main source of global freshwater consumption. Despite this, a detailed knowledge of irrigation dynamics (i.e., timing, extent of irrigated areas, and amounts of water used) are generally lacking worldwide. Satellites represent a useful tool to fill this knowledge gap and monitor irrigation water from space. In this study, three regional-scale and high-resolution (1 and 6 km) products of irrigation amounts estimated by inverting the satellite soil moisture signals are presented.
Kunlong He, Wei Zhao, Luca Brocca, and Pere Quintana-Seguí
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 169–190,Short summary
In this study, we developed a soil moisture-based precipitation downscaling (SMPD) method for spatially downscaling the GPM daily precipitation product by exploiting the connection between surface soil moisture and precipitation according to the soil water balance equation. Based on this physical method, the spatial resolution of the daily precipitation product was downscaled to 1 km and the SMPD method shows good potential for the development of the high-resolution precipitation product.
Florian Roth, Bernhard Bauer-Marschallinger, Mark Edwin Tupas, Christoph Reimer, Peter Salamon, and Wolfgang Wagner
In August and September 2022, millions of people were impacted by a severe flood event in Pakistan. Since many roads and other infrastructure were destroyed, satellite data was the only way of providing large scale information of the flood's impact. Based on the flood mapping algorithm developed at Technische Universität Wien (TU Wien), we mapped an area of 30,492 km2 to be flooded at least once during the study's time period. This affected area matches about the total area of Belgium.
Sara Modanesi, Christian Massari, Michel Bechtold, Hans Lievens, Angelica Tarpanelli, Luca Brocca, Luca Zappa, and Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4685–4706,Short summary
Given the crucial impact of irrigation practices on the water cycle, this study aims at estimating irrigation through the development of an innovative data assimilation system able to ingest high-resolution Sentinel-1 radar observations into the Noah-MP land surface model. The developed methodology has important implications for global water resource management and the comprehension of human impacts on the water cycle and identifies main challenges and outlooks for future research.
Stefania Camici, Gabriele Giuliani, Luca Brocca, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Hassan Hashemi Farahani, Nico Sneeuw, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6935–6956,Short summary
This paper presents an innovative approach, STREAM (SaTellite-based Runoff Evaluation And Mapping), to derive daily river discharge and runoff estimates from satellite observations of soil moisture, precipitation, and terrestrial total water storage anomalies. Potentially useful for multiple operational and scientific applications, the added value of the STREAM approach is the ability to increase knowledge on the natural processes, human activities, and their interactions on the land.
M. Tupas, C. Navacchi, F. Roth, B. Bauer-Marschallinger, F. Reuß, and W. Wagner
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLVIII-4-W1-2022, 495–502,
Lorenzo Alfieri, Francesco Avanzi, Fabio Delogu, Simone Gabellani, Giulia Bruno, Lorenzo Campo, Andrea Libertino, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Dominik Rains, Diego G. Miralles, Raphael Quast, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Huan Wu, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3921–3939,Short summary
This work shows advances in high-resolution satellite data for hydrology. We performed hydrological simulations for the Po River basin using various satellite products, including precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and snow depth. Evaporation and snow depth improved a simulation based on high-quality ground observations. Interestingly, a model calibration relying on satellite data skillfully reproduces observed discharges, paving the way to satellite-driven hydrological applications.
Ashwini Petchiappan, Susan C. Steele-Dunne, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Sebastian Hahn, Wolfgang Wagner, and Rafael Oliveira
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2997–3019,Short summary
This study investigates spatial and temporal patterns in the incidence angle dependence of backscatter from the ASCAT C-band scatterometer and relates those to precipitation, humidity, and radiation data and GRACE equivalent water thickness in ecoregions in the Amazon. The results show that the ASCAT data record offers a unique perspective on vegetation water dynamics exhibiting sensitivity to moisture availability and demand and phenological change at interannual, seasonal, and diurnal scales.
Paolo Filippucci, Luca Brocca, Raphael Quast, Luca Ciabatta, Carla Saltalippi, Wolfgang Wagner, and Angelica Tarpanelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2481–2497,Short summary
A high-resolution (1 km) rainfall product with 10–30 d temporal resolution was obtained starting from SM data from Sentinel-1. Good performances are achieved using observed data (gauge and radar) over the Po River Valley, Italy, as a benchmark. The comparison with a product characterized by lower spatial resolution (25 km) highlights areas where the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-1 has great benefits. Possible applications include water management, agriculture and index-based insurances.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Daniele Masseroni, Stefania Camici, Alessio Cislaghi, Giorgio Vacchiano, Christian Massari, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5589–5601,Short summary
We evaluate 63 years of changes in annual streamflow volume across Europe, using a data set of more than 3000 stations, with a special focus on the Mediterranean basin. The results show decreasing (increasing) volumes in the southern (northern) regions. These trends are strongly consistent with the changes in temperature and precipitation.
A. Iglseder, M. Bruggisser, A. Dostálová, N. Pfeifer, S. Schlaffer, W. Wagner, and M. Hollaus
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B3-2021, 567–574,
Maria Teresa Brunetti, Massimo Melillo, Stefano Luigi Gariano, Luca Ciabatta, Luca Brocca, Giriraj Amarnath, and Silvia Peruccacci
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3267–3279,Short summary
Satellite and rain gauge data are tested to predict landslides in India, where the annual toll of human lives and loss of property urgently demands the implementation of strategies to prevent geo-hydrological instability. For this purpose, we calculated empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide initiation. The validation of thresholds showed that satellite-based rainfall data perform better than ground-based data, and the best performance is obtained with an hourly temporal resolution.
Rui Tong, Juraj Parajka, Andreas Salentinig, Isabella Pfeil, Jürgen Komma, Borbála Széles, Martin Kubáň, Peter Valent, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Wolfgang Wagner, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1389–1410,Short summary
We used a new and experimental version of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil water index data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) C6 snow cover products for multiple objective calibrations of the TUWmodel in 213 catchments of Austria. Combined calibration to runoff, satellite soil moisture, and snow cover improves runoff (40 % catchments), soil moisture (80 % catchments), and snow (~ 100 % catchments) simulation compared to traditional calibration to runoff only.
Louise Mimeau, Yves Tramblay, Luca Brocca, Christian Massari, Stefania Camici, and Pascal Finaud-Guyot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 653–669,Short summary
Soil moisture is a key variable related to droughts and flood genesis, but little is known about the evolution of soil moisture under climate change. Here, using a simulation approach, we show that changes in soil moisture are driven by changes in precipitation intermittence rather than changes in precipitation intensity or in temperature.
Stefania Camici, Christian Massari, Luca Ciabatta, Ivan Marchesini, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4869–4885,Short summary
The paper performs the most comprehensive European-scale evaluation to date of satellite rainfall products for river flow prediction. In doing so, how errors transfer from satellite-based rainfall products into flood simulation is investigated in depth and, for the first time, quantitative guidelines on the use of these products for hydrological applications are provided. This result can represent a keystone in the use of satellite rainfall products, especially in data-scarce regions.
El Mahdi El Khalki, Yves Tramblay, Christian Massari, Luca Brocca, Vincent Simonneaux, Simon Gascoin, and Mohamed El Mehdi Saidi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2591–2607,Short summary
In North Africa, the vulnerability to floods is high, and there is a need to improve the flood-forecasting systems. Remote-sensing and reanalysis data can palliate the lack of in situ measurements, in particular for soil moisture, which is a crucial parameter to consider when modeling floods. In this study we provide an evaluation of recent globally available soil moisture products for flood modeling in Morocco.
J. Zhao, M. Chini, R. Pelich, P. Matgen, R. Hostache, S. Cao, and W. Wagner
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-1-2020, 395–400,
W. Wagner, V. Freeman, S. Cao, P. Matgen, M. Chini, P. Salamon, N. McCormick, S. Martinis, B. Bauer-Marschallinger, C. Navacchi, M. Schramm, C. Reimer, and C. Briese
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-3-2020, 641–648,
Christian Massari, Luca Brocca, Thierry Pellarin, Gab Abramowitz, Paolo Filippucci, Luca Ciabatta, Viviana Maggioni, Yann Kerr, and Diego Fernandez Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2687–2710,Short summary
Rain gauges are unevenly spaced around the world with extremely low gauge density over places like Africa and South America. Here, water-related problems like floods, drought and famine are particularly severe and able to cause fatalities, migration and diseases. We have developed a rainfall dataset that exploits the synergies between rainfall and soil moisture to provide accurate rainfall observations which can be used to face these problems.
Luca Brocca, Paolo Filippucci, Sebastian Hahn, Luca Ciabatta, Christian Massari, Stefania Camici, Lothar Schüller, Bojan Bojkov, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1583–1601,Short summary
SM2RAIN–ASCAT is a new 12-year (2007–2018) global-scale rainfall dataset obtained by applying the SM2RAIN algorithm to ASCAT soil moisture data. The dataset has a spatiotemporal sampling resolution of 12.5 km and 1 d. Results show that the new dataset performs particularly well in Africa and South America, i.e. in the continents in which ground observations are scarce and the need for satellite rainfall data is high. SM2RAIN–ASCAT is available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.340556.
Alexander Gruber, Tracy Scanlon, Robin van der Schalie, Wolfgang Wagner, and Wouter Dorigo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 717–739,Short summary
Soil moisture is a key variable in our Earth system. Knowledge of soil moisture and its dynamics across scales is vital for many applications such as the prediction of agricultural yields or irrigation demands, flood and drought monitoring, weather forecasting and climate modelling. To date, the ESA CCI SM products are the only consistent long-term multi-satellite soil moisture data sets available. This paper reviews the evolution of these products and their underlying merging methodology.
Felix Zaussinger, Wouter Dorigo, Alexander Gruber, Angelica Tarpanelli, Paolo Filippucci, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 897–923,Short summary
About 70 % of global freshwater is consumed by irrigation. Yet, policy-relevant estimates of irrigation water use (IWU) are virtually lacking at regional to global scales. To bridge this gap, we develop a method for quantifying IWU from a combination of state-of-the-art remotely sensed and modeled soil moisture products and apply it over the United States for the period 2013–2016. Overall, our estimates agree well with reference data on irrigated area and irrigation water withdrawals.
Victor Pellet, Filipe Aires, Simon Munier, Diego Fernández Prieto, Gabriel Jordá, Wouter Arnoud Dorigo, Jan Polcher, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 465–491,Short summary
This study is an effort for a better understanding and quantification of the water cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean region, by dealing with satellite products and their uncertainties. The aims of the paper are 3-fold: (1) developing methods with hydrological constraints to integrate all the datasets, (2) giving the full picture of the Mediterranean WC, and (3) building a model-independent database that can evaluate the numerous regional climate models (RCMs) for this region.
Luca Ciabatta, Christian Massari, Luca Brocca, Alexander Gruber, Christoph Reimer, Sebastian Hahn, Christoph Paulik, Wouter Dorigo, Richard Kidd, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 267–280,Short summary
In this study, rainfall is estimated starting from satellite soil moisture observation on a global scale, using the ESA CCI soil moisture datasets. The new obtained rainfall product has proven to correctly identify rainfall events, showing performance sometimes higher than those obtained by using classical rainfall estimation approaches.
Hylke E. Beck, Noemi Vergopolan, Ming Pan, Vincenzo Levizzani, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Graham P. Weedon, Luca Brocca, Florian Pappenberger, George J. Huffman, and Eric F. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6201–6217,Short summary
This study represents the most comprehensive global-scale precipitation dataset evaluation to date. We evaluated 13 uncorrected precipitation datasets using precipitation observations from 76 086 gauges, and 9 gauge-corrected ones using hydrological modeling for 9053 catchments. Our results highlight large differences in estimation accuracy, and hence, the importance of precipitation dataset selection in both research and operational applications.
Christian Massari, Wade Crow, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4347–4361,Short summary
The paper explores a method for the assessment of the performance of global rainfall estimates without relying on ground-based observations. Thanks to this method, different global correlation maps are obtained (for the first time without relying on a benchmark dataset) for some of the most used globally available rainfall products. This is central for hydroclimatic studies within data-scarce regions, where ground observations are scarce to evaluate the relative quality of a rainfall product
Matthew F. McCabe, Matthew Rodell, Douglas E. Alsdorf, Diego G. Miralles, Remko Uijlenhoet, Wolfgang Wagner, Arko Lucieer, Rasmus Houborg, Niko E. C. Verhoest, Trenton E. Franz, Jiancheng Shi, Huilin Gao, and Eric F. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3879–3914,Short summary
We examine the opportunities and challenges that technological advances in Earth observation will present to the hydrological community. From advanced space-based sensors to unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based distributed networks, these emergent systems are set to revolutionize our understanding and interpretation of hydrological and related processes.
Christopher J. Merchant, Frank Paul, Thomas Popp, Michael Ablain, Sophie Bontemps, Pierre Defourny, Rainer Hollmann, Thomas Lavergne, Alexandra Laeng, Gerrit de Leeuw, Jonathan Mittaz, Caroline Poulsen, Adam C. Povey, Max Reuter, Shubha Sathyendranath, Stein Sandven, Viktoria F. Sofieva, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 511–527,Short summary
Climate data records (CDRs) contain data describing Earth's climate and should address uncertainty in the data to communicate what is known about climate variability or change and what range of doubt exists. This paper discusses good practice for including uncertainty information in CDRs for the essential climate variables (ECVs) derived from satellite data. Recommendations emerge from the shared experience of diverse ECV projects within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative.
Xiaodong Gao, Xining Zhao, Luca Brocca, Gaopeng Huo, Ting Lv, and Pute Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
Profile soil moisture is key state variable in the Critical Zone ecology and hydrology. This paper sucessfully used a simple statistical method, the cumulative distribution frequency (CDF) matching method for the first time, to predict profile soil moisture (0–100 cm) from surface measurement (5 cm). The findings here can provide insights into profile soil moisture estimation from remote sensing moisture products.
Wuletawu Abera, Giuseppe Formetta, Luca Brocca, and Riccardo Rigon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3145–3165,Short summary
This study documents a state-of-the-art estimation of the water budget (rainfall, evapotranspiration, discharge, and soil and groundwater storage) components for the Upper Blue Nile river. The budget uses various JGrass-NewAGE components, satellite data and all ground measurements available. The analysis shows that precipitation of the basin is 1360 ± 230 mm per year. Evapotranspiration accounts for 56 %, runoff is 33 %, and storage varies from minus 10 % to plus 17 % of the annual water budget.
Xiaodong Gao, Xining Zhao, Luca Brocca, Ting Lv, Gaopeng Huo, and Pute Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
We built observation operators by the CDF matching method. Two-year duration was identified as the optimal data length in prediction accuracy. Application in different climates in USA showed these operators are a robust statistical tool for upscaling soil moisture from surface to profile by using exponential filter as a reference method. The findings here may be applied in the prediction of profile soil moisture from surface measurements via remote sensing techniques.
Markus Enenkel, Christoph Reimer, Wouter Dorigo, Wolfgang Wagner, Isabella Pfeil, Robert Parinussa, and Richard De Jeu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4191–4208,Short summary
Soil moisture is a crucial variable for a variety of applications, ranging from weather forecasting and agricultural production to the monitoring of floods and droughts. Satellite observations are particularly important in regions where no in situ measurements are available. Our study presents a method to integrate global near-real-time satellite observations from different sensors into one harmonized, daily data set. A first validation shows good results on a global scale.
M. K. van der Molen, R. A. M. de Jeu, W. Wagner, I. R. van der Velde, P. Kolari, J. Kurbatova, A. Varlagin, T. C. Maximov, A. V. Kononov, T. Ohta, A. Kotani, M. C. Krol, and W. Peters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 605–624,Short summary
Boreal Eurasia contains extensive forests, which play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Droughts can modify this cycle considerably, although very few ground-based observations are available in the region. We test whether satellite-observed soil moisture may be used to improve carbon cycle models in this region. This paper explains when and where this works best. The interpretation of satellite soil moisture is best in summer conditions, and is hampered by snow, ice and ponding.
G. Blöschl, A. P. Blaschke, M. Broer, C. Bucher, G. Carr, X. Chen, A. Eder, M. Exner-Kittridge, A. Farnleitner, A. Flores-Orozco, P. Haas, P. Hogan, A. Kazemi Amiri, M. Oismüller, J. Parajka, R. Silasari, P. Stadler, P. Strauss, M. Vreugdenhil, W. Wagner, and M. Zessner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 227–255,Short summary
This paper illustrates the experimental and monitoring set-up of the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, which allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The HOAL catchment features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), and is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network.
S. Manfreda, L. Brocca, T. Moramarco, F. Melone, and J. Sheffield
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1199–1212,
C. Massari, L. Brocca, S. Barbetta, C. Papathanasiou, M. Mimikou, and T. Moramarco
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 839–853,
L. Brocca, S. Liersch, F. Melone, T. Moramarco, and M. Volk
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3159–3169,
Related subject area
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data assimilation for high-resolution hydrologic forecastingMulti-source data assimilation for physically based hydrological modeling of an experimental hillslopeA new method, with application, for analysis of the impacts on flood risk of widely distributed enhanced hillslope storageTowards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystemReconstructing long-term gully dynamics in Mediterranean agricultural areasEvaluating performance of simplified physically based models for shallow landslide susceptibilityMultiresponse modeling of variably saturated flow and isotope tracer transport for a hillslope experiment at the Landscape Evolution ObservatoryDeterminants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics: a reviewQuantification of the influence of preferential flow on slope stability using a numerical modelling approachHydrological hysteresis and its value for assessing process consistency in catchment conceptual modelsDerivation and evaluation of landslide-triggering thresholds by a Monte Carlo approachStable water isotope tracing through hydrological models for disentangling runoff generation processes at the hillslope scaleAnalysis of landslide triggering conditions in the Sarno area using a physically based modelThe influence of grid resolution on the prediction of natural and road-related shallow landslidesIncipient subsurface heterogeneity and its effect on overland flow generation – insight from a modeling study of the first experiment at the Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution ObservatoryCoupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm- and cold-season events in the Southern Appalachians, USAPredicting subsurface stormflow response of a forested hillslope – the role of connected flow pathsInterplay of riparian forest and groundwater in the hillslope hydrology of Sudanian West Africa (northern Benin)A model-based 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Yanglin Guo and Chao Ma
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1667–1682,Short summary
In a localized area with the same vegetation, an overwhelming propensity of shallow landslides on the south-facing slope over the north-facing slope could not be attributed to plant roots. We provide new evidence from the pore water pressure of failing mass, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, water storage, and drainage and the hillslope stability fluctuation to prove that the infinite slope model may be suitable for elucidating the aspect-dependent landslide distribution in the study area.
Clément Roques, David E. Rupp, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Laurent Longuevergne, Elizabeth R. Jachens, Gordon Grant, Luc Aquilina, and John S. Selker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4391–4405,Short summary
Streamflow dynamics are directly dependent on contributions from groundwater, with hillslope heterogeneity being a major driver in controlling both spatial and temporal variabilities in recession discharge behaviors. By analysing new model results, this paper identifies the major structural features of aquifers driving streamflow dynamics. It provides important guidance to inform catchment-to-regional-scale models, with key geological knowledge influencing groundwater–surface water interactions.
Hongkai Gao, Chuntan Han, Rensheng Chen, Zijing Feng, Kang Wang, Fabrizio Fenicia, and Hubert Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4187–4208,Short summary
Frozen soil hydrology is one of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH). In this study, we developed a novel conceptual frozen soil hydrological model, FLEX-Topo-FS. The model successfully reproduced the soil freeze–thaw process, and its impacts on hydrologic connectivity, runoff generation, and groundwater. We believe this study is a breakthrough for the 23 UPH, giving us new insights on frozen soil hydrology, with broad implications for predicting cold region hydrology in future.
Fadji Z. Maina, Haruko M. Wainwright, Peter James Dennedy-Frank, and Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3805–3823,Short summary
We propose a hillslope clustering approach based on the seasonal changes in groundwater levels and test its performance by comparing it to several common clustering approaches (aridity index, topographic wetness index, elevation, land cover, and machine-learning clustering). The proposed approach is robust as it reasonably categorizes hillslopes with similar elevation, land cover, hydroclimate, land surface processes, and subsurface hydrodynamics, hence a similar hydrologic function.
Mingming Guo, Zhuoxin Chen, Wenlong Wang, Tianchao Wang, Qianhua Shi, Hongliang Kang, Man Zhao, and Lanqian Feng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4473–4494,Short summary
Gully headcut erosion is always a difficult issue in soil erosion, which hinders the revelation of gully erosion mechanisms and the establishment of a gully erosion model. This study clarified the spatiotemporal changes in flow properties, energy consumption, and soil loss, confirming that gully head consumed the most of flow energy (78 %) and can contribute 89 % of total soil loss. Critical energy consumption initiating soil erosion of the upstream area, gully head, and gully bed is confirmed.
Qiang Dai, Jingxuan Zhu, Shuliang Zhang, Shaonan Zhu, Dawei Han, and Guonian Lv
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5407–5422,Short summary
Rainfall is a driving force that accounts for a large proportion of soil loss around the world. Most previous studies used a fixed rainfall–energy relationship to estimate rainfall energy, ignoring the spatial and temporal changes of raindrop microphysical processes. This study proposes a novel method for large-scale and long-term rainfall energy and rainfall erosivity investigations based on rainfall microphysical parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.
Pedro Henrique Lima Alencar, José Carlos de Araújo, and Adunias dos Santos Teixeira
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4239–4255,Short summary
Soil erosion by water has been emphasized as a key problem to be faced in the 21st century. Thus, it is critical to understand land degradation and to answer fundamental questions regarding how and why such processes occur. Here, we present a model for gully erosion (channels carved by rainwater) based on existing equations, and we identify some major variables that influence the initiation and evolution of this process. The successful model can help in planning soil conservation practices.
Fabien Cochand, Daniel Käser, Philippe Grosvernier, Daniel Hunkeler, and Philip Brunner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 213–226,Short summary
Roads in sloping fens constitute a hydraulic barrier for surface and subsurface flow. This can lead to the drying out of downslope areas of the fen as well as gully erosion. By combining fieldwork and numerical models, this study presents an assessment of the hydrogeological impact of three road structures especially designed to limit their impact. The study shows that the impact of roads on the hydrological regime in fens can be significantly reduced by using appropriate engineering measures.
Rubianca Benavidez, Bethanna Jackson, Deborah Maxwell, and Kevin Norton
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6059–6086,Short summary
Soil erosion is a global problem and models identify vulnerable areas for management. One such model is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. We review its different sub-factors and compile studies and equations that modified it for local conditions. The limitations of RUSLE include its data requirements and exclusion of gullying and landslides. Future directions include accounting for these erosion types. This paper serves as a reference for others working with RUSLE and related approaches.
Felipe Hernández and Xu Liang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5759–5779,Short summary
Predicting floods requires first knowing the amount of water in the valleys, which is complicated because we cannot know for sure how much water there is in the soil. We created a unique system that combines the best methods to estimate these conditions accurately based on the observed water flow in the rivers and on detailed simulations of the valleys. Comparisons with popular methods show that our system can produce realistic predictions efficiently, even for very detailed river networks.
Anna Botto, Enrica Belluco, and Matteo Camporese
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4251–4266,Short summary
We present a multivariate application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in hydrological modeling of a real-world hillslope test case with dominant unsaturated dynamics and strong nonlinearities. Overall, the EnKF is able to correctly update system state and soil parameters. However, multivariate data assimilation may lead to significant tradeoffs between model predictions of different variables, if the observation data are not high quality or representative.
Peter Metcalfe, Keith Beven, Barry Hankin, and Rob Lamb
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2589–2605,Short summary
Flooding is a significant hazard and extreme events in recent years have focused attention on effective means of reducing its risk. An approach known as natural flood management (NFM) seeks to increase flood resilience by a range of measures that work with natural processes. The paper develops a modelling approach to assess one type NFM of intervention – distributed additional hillslope storage features – and demonstrates that more strategic placement is required than has hitherto been applied.
Abraham Endalamaw, W. Robert Bolton, Jessica M. Young-Robertson, Don Morton, Larry Hinzman, and Bart Nijssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4663–4680,Short summary
This study applies plot-scale and hill-slope knowledge to a process-based mesoscale model to improve the skill of distributed hydrological models to simulate the spatially and basin-integrated hydrological processes of complex ecosystems in the sub-arctic boreal forest. We developed a sub-grid parameterization method to parameterize the surface heterogeneity of interior Alaskan discontinuous permafrost watersheds.
Antonio Hayas, Tom Vanwalleghem, Ana Laguna, Adolfo Peña, and Juan V. Giráldez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 235–249,Short summary
Gully erosion is one of the most important erosion processes. In this study, we provide new data on gully dynamics over long timescales with an unprecedented temporal resolution. We apply a new Monte Carlo based method for calculating gully volumes based on orthophotos and, especially, for constraining uncertainties of these estimations. Our results show that gully erosion rates are highly variable from year to year and significantly higher than other erosion processes.
Giuseppe Formetta, Giovanna Capparelli, and Pasquale Versace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4585–4603,Short summary
This paper focuses on performance evaluation of simplified, physically based landslide susceptibility models. It presents a new methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify, and compare different models and models performances indicators in order to individuate and select the models whose behavior is more reliable for a certain case study. The procedure was implemented in a package for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated the open-source hydrological model NewAge.
Carlotta Scudeler, Luke Pangle, Damiano Pasetto, Guo-Yue Niu, Till Volkmann, Claudio Paniconi, Mario Putti, and Peter Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4061–4078,Short summary
Very few studies have applied a physically based hydrological model with integrated and distributed multivariate observation data of both flow and transport phenomena. In this study we address this challenge for a hillslope-scale unsaturated zone isotope tracer experiment. The results show how model complexity evolves as the number and detail of simulated responses increases. Possible gaps in process representation for simulating solute transport phenomena in very dry soils are discussed.
Bruno Cheviron and Roger Moussa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3799–3830,Short summary
This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics. Each case study has a signature composed of given contexts (spatiotemporal scales, flow typology, and phenomenology) and chosen concepts (refinement and subscales of the flow model). This review proposes a normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.
W. Shao, T. A. Bogaard, M. Bakker, and R. Greco
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2197–2212,Short summary
The effect of preferential flow on the stability of landslides is studied through numerical simulation of two types of rainfall events on a hypothetical hillslope. A model is developed that consists of two parts. The first part is a model for combined saturated/unsaturated subsurface flow and is used to compute the spatial and temporal water pressure response to rainfall. Preferential flow is simulated with a dual-permeability continuum model consisting of a matrix/preferential flow domain.
O. Fovet, L. Ruiz, M. Hrachowitz, M. Faucheux, and C. Gascuel-Odoux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 105–123,Short summary
We studied the annual hysteretic patterns observed between stream flow and water storage in the saturated and unsaturated zones of a hillslope and a riparian zone. We described these signatures using a hysteresis index and then used this to assess conceptual hydrological models. This led us to identify four hydrological periods and a clearly distinct behaviour between riparian and hillslope groundwaters and to provide new information about the model performances.
D. J. Peres and A. Cancelliere
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4913–4931,Short summary
A Monte Carlo approach, combining rainfall-stochastic models and hydrological and slope stability physically based models, is used to derive rainfall thresholds of landslide triggering. The uncertainty in threshold assessment related to variability of rainfall intensity within events and to past rainfall (antecedent rainfall) is analyzed and measured via ROC-based indexes, with a specific focus dedicated to the widely used power-law rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) thresholds.
D. Windhorst, P. Kraft, E. Timbe, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4113–4127,
G. Capparelli and P. Versace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3225–3237,
D. Penna, M. Borga, G. T. Aronica, G. Brigandì, and P. Tarolli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2127–2139,
G.-Y. Niu, D. Pasetto, C. Scudeler, C. Paniconi, M. Putti, P. A. Troch, S. B. DeLong, K. Dontsova, L. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, T. E. Huxman, J. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, and X. Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1873–1883,
J. Tao and A. P. Barros
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 367–388,
J. Wienhöfer and E. Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 121–138,
A. Richard, S. Galle, M. Descloitres, J.-M. Cohard, J.-P. Vandervaere, L. Séguis, and C. Peugeot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5079–5096,
S. R. Lutz, H. J. van Meerveld, M. J. Waterloo, H. P. Broers, and B. M. van Breukelen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4505–4524,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4453–4470,
M. N. Papa, V. Medina, F. Ciervo, and A. Bateman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4095–4107,
P. Fiener, K. Auerswald, F. Winter, and M. Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4121–4132,
R. Greco, L. Comegna, E. Damiano, A. Guida, L. Olivares, and L. Picarelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4001–4013,
C. Lepore, E. Arnone, L. V. Noto, G. Sivandran, and R. L. Bras
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3371–3387,
J. E. van der Spek, T. A. Bogaard, and M. Bakker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2171–2183,
A. M. Ireson and A. P. Butler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2083–2096,
A. M. J. Coenders-Gerrits, L. Hopp, H. H. G. Savenije, and L. Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1749–1763,
G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, D. Lagomarsino, R. Fanti, and F. Catani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1229–1240,
C. D. Guzman, S. A. Tilahun, A. D. Zegeye, and T. S. Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1067–1077,
D. M. Krzeminska, T. A. Bogaard, J.-P. Malet, and L. P. H. van Beek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 947–959,
A. Peñuela, M. Javaux, and C. L. Bielders
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 87–101,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3075–3082,
G. Y. Gao, B. J. Fu, Y. H. Lü, Y. Liu, S. Wang, and J. Zhou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2347–2364,
C. E. Ballard, N. McIntyre, and H. S. Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2299–2310,
D. M. Krzeminska, T. A. Bogaard, Th. W. J. van Asch, and L. P. H. van Beek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1561–1576,
T. Maurer, A. Schneider, and H. H. Gerke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3617–3638,
J. Klaus and E. Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2127–2144,
M. C. Westhoff, T. A. Bogaard, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1945–1957,
J. Minet, E. Laloy, S. Lambot, and M. Vanclooster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1323–1338,
T. Sabzevari, A. Talebi, R. Ardakanian, and A. Shamsai
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 891–900,
Y. Zhang, S. K. Carey, W. L. Quinton, J. R. Janowicz, J. W. Pomeroy, and G. N. Flerchinger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 729–750,
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We developed a new formulation of USLE, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), that directly incorporates soil moisture information. SM4E is applied here by using modeled data and satellite observations obtained from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). SM4E is found to outperform USLE and USLE-MM models in silty–clay soil in central Italy. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying SM4E for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.
We developed a new formulation of USLE, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), that directly...