Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport
J. K. Koestel
Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
N. J. Jarvis
Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Related subject area
Subject: Vadose Zone Hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesIn situ estimation of soil hydraulic and hydrodispersive properties by inversion of electromagnetic induction measurements and soil hydrological modelingTowards disentangling heterogeneous soil moisture patterns in cosmic-ray neutron sensor footprintsThe International Soil Moisture Network: serving Earth system science for over a decadeTechnical note: Evaporating water is different from bulk soil water in δ2H and δ18O and has implications for evaporation calculationTechnical note: Unresolved aspects of the direct vapor equilibration method for stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ2H) of matrix-bound water: unifying protocols through empirical and mathematical scrutinySpatio-temporal soil moisture retrieval at the catchment scale using a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensorsDeep desiccation of soils observed by long-term high-resolution measurements on a large inclined lysimeterA novel analytical approach for the simultaneous measurement of nitrate and dissolved organic carbon in soil waterExploring the regolith with electrical resistivity tomography in large-scale surveys: electrode spacing-related issues and possibilitySoil dielectric characterization during freeze–thaw transitions using L-band coaxial and soil moisture probesHydrological signals in tilt and gravity residuals at Conrad Observatory (Austria)New measures of deep soil water recharge during the vegetation restoration process in semi-arid regions of northern ChinaEstimation of subsurface soil moisture from surface soil moisture in cold mountainous areasInvestigating unproductive water losses from irrigated agricultural crops in the humid tropics through analyses of stable isotopes of waterPacific climate reflected in Waipuna Cave drip water hydrochemistryField observations of soil hydrological flow path evolution over 10 millenniaA proposed method for estimating interception from near-surface soil moisture responseControls of fluorescent tracer retention by soils and sedimentsReflection tomography of time-lapse GPR data for studying dynamic unsaturated flow phenomenaEffects of preferential flow on snowmelt partitioning and groundwater recharge in frozen soilsSpatio-temporal relevance and controls of preferential flow at the landscape scaleReal-time monitoring of nitrate in soils as a key for optimization of agricultural productivity and prevention of groundwater pollutionA soil non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) flushing laboratory experiment based on measuring the dielectric properties of soil–organic mixtures via time domain reflectometry (TDR)The value of satellite remote sensing soil moisture data and the DISPATCH algorithm in irrigation fieldsEstimating epikarst water storage by time-lapse surface-to-depth gravity measurementsInter-laboratory comparison of cryogenic water extraction systems for stable isotope analysis of soil waterPreferential flow systems amended with biogeochemical components: imaging of a two-dimensional studyImaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoringCalibrating electromagnetic induction conductivities with time-domain reflectometry measurementsMultiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensorsField-scale water balance closure in seasonally frozen conditionsImproving calibration and validation of cosmic-ray neutron sensors in the light of spatial sensitivityIs annual recharge coefficient a valid concept in arid and semi-arid regions?Transport and degradation of perchlorate in deep vadose zone: implications from direct observations during bioremediation treatmentMonitoring soil moisture from middle to high elevation in Switzerland: set-up and first results from the SOMOMOUNT networkExperimental study on retardation of a heavy NAPL vapor in partially saturated porous mediaRepeated electromagnetic induction measurements for mapping soil moisture at the field scale: validation with data from a wireless soil moisture monitoring networkENSO–cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern AustraliaIncorporation of globally available datasets into the roving cosmic-ray neutron probe method for estimating field-scale soil water contentReal-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field – implications for groundwater protectionTechnical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution dataEstimating field-scale root zone soil moisture using the cosmic-ray neutron probeDoes drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?In situ unsaturated zone water stable isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments: a soil water balanceEstimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count dataComparing the ensemble and extended Kalman filters for in situ soil moisture assimilation with contrasting conditionsLong-term and high-frequency non-destructive monitoring of water stable isotope profiles in an evaporating soil columnUse of field and laboratory methods for estimating unsaturated hydraulic properties under different land usesQuantitative high-resolution observations of soil water dynamics in a complicated architecture using time-lapse ground-penetrating radarCoupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near-saturation functions?
Giovanna Dragonetti, Mohammad Farzamian, Angelo Basile, Fernando Monteiro Santos, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5119–5136,Short summary
Soil hydraulic and hydrodispersive properties are necessary for modeling water and solute fluxes in agricultural and environmental systems. Despite the major efforts in developing methods (e.g., lab-based, pedotransfer functions), their characterization at applicative scales remains an imperative requirement. Thus, this paper proposes a noninvasive in situ method integrating electromagnetic induction and hydrological modeling to estimate soil hydraulic and transport properties at the plot scale.
Daniel Rasche, Markus Köhli, Martin Schrön, Theresa Blume, and Andreas Güntner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6547–6566,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing provides areal average soil moisture measurements. We investigated how distinct differences in spatial soil moisture patterns influence the soil moisture estimates and present two approaches to improve the estimate of soil moisture close to the instrument by reducing the influence of soil moisture further afield. Additionally, we show that the heterogeneity of soil moisture can be assessed based on the relationship of different neutron energies.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Hongxiu Wang, Jingjing Jin, Buli Cui, Bingcheng Si, Xiaojun Ma, and Mingyi Wen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5399–5413,Short summary
Evaporation led to progressively more heavy-isotope-enriched bulk soil water (BW) following the precipitation/irrigation of heavy-isotope-depleted new water but causes progressively more heavy-isotope-depleted BW following irrigation of heavy-isotope-enriched new water. The results indicated that δ2H and δ18O in evaporating water (EW) were similar to new water and differed from BW. However, the evaporative water loss calculated from BW did not differ significantly from that of EW.
Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5219–5235,Short summary
We scrutinized the quickest currently available method for stable isotope analysis of matrix-bound water. Simulating common procedures, we demonstrated the limits of certain materials currently used and identified a reliable and cost-efficient alternative. Further, we calculated the optimum proportions of important protocol aspects critical for precise and accurate analyses. Our unifying protocol suggestions increase data quality and comparability as well as the method's general applicability.
Maik Heistermann, Till Francke, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4807–4824,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) is a powerful technique for retrieving representative estimates of soil moisture in footprints extending over hectometres in the horizontal and decimetres in the vertical. This study, however, demonstrates the potential of CRNS to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture beyond isolated footprints. To that end, we analyse data from a unique observational campaign that featured a dense network of more than 20 neutron detectors in an area of just 1 km2.
Markus Merk, Nadine Goeppert, and Nico Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3519–3538,Short summary
Soil moisture levels have decreased significantly over the past 2 decades. This decrease is not uniformly distributed over the observation period. The largest changes occur at tipping points during years of extreme drought, after which soil moisture levels reach significantly different alternate stable states. Not only the overall trend in soil moisture is affected, but also the seasonal dynamics.
Elad Yeshno, Ofer Dahan, Shoshana Bernstain, and Shlomi Arnon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2159–2168,Short summary
In this research, we present a novel approach, enabling the measurement of nitrate concentrations in natural soil porewater containing natural soil dissolved organic carbon. This method can be used as the basis onto which an affordable and miniaturized nitrate monitoring sensor for soils can be developed. This sensor can play a significant role in reducing nitrate pollution in water resources, optimizing fertilizers application during agricultural activity and decreasing food production costs.
Laurent Gourdol, Rémi Clément, Jérôme Juilleret, Laurent Pfister, and Christophe Hissler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1785–1812,Short summary
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a remarkable tool for characterizing the regolith, but its use over large areas remains cumbersome due to the requirement of small electrode spacing (ES). In this study we document the issues of using oversized ESs and propose a new approach to overcome this limitation. We demonstrate that our protocol significantly improves the accuracy of ERT profiles using large ES and offers a cost-effective means for carrying out large-scale surveys.
Alex Mavrovic, Renato Pardo Lara, Aaron Berg, François Demontoux, Alain Royer, and Alexandre Roy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1117–1131,Short summary
This paper presents a new probe that measures soil microwave permittivity in the frequency range of satellite L-band sensors. The probe capacities will allow for validation and calibration of the models used to estimate landscape physical properties from raw microwave satellite datasets. Our results show important discrepancies between model estimates and instrument measurements that will need to be addressed.
Bruno Meurers, Gábor Papp, Hannu Ruotsalainen, Judit Benedek, and Roman Leonhardt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 217–236,Short summary
Gravity and tilt time series acquired at Conrad Observatory (Austria) reflect gravity and deformation associated with short- and long-term environmental processes, revealing a complex water transport process after heavy rain and rapid snowmelt. Gravity residuals are sensitive to the Newtonian effect of water mass transport. Tilt residual anomalies capture strain–tilt coupling effects due to surface or subsurface deformation from precipitation or pressure changes in the adjacent fracture system.
Yiben Cheng, Xinle Li, Yunqi Wang, Hongbin Zhan, Wenbin Yang, and Qunou Jiang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5875–5890,Short summary
The Three North Forest Program has produced a vast area of lined forest in semi-arid regions, which consumes a large amount of water resources. This study uses a newly designed lysimeter to measure water distribution without destroying the in situ vegetation soil structure. It addresses the shortcomings of a traditional lysimeter, in terms of changing the in situ soil structure and destroying the vegetation root system, and the shortcomings of high costs and inconvenient installation.
Jie Tian, Zhibo Han, Heye Reemt Bogena, Johan Alexander Huisman, Carsten Montzka, Baoqing Zhang, and Chansheng He
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4659–4674,Short summary
Large-scale profile soil moisture (SM) is important for water resource management, but its estimation is a challenge. Thus, based on in situ SM observations in a cold mountain, a strong relationship between the surface SM and subsurface SM is found. Both the subsurface SM of 10–30 cm and the profile SM of 0–70 cm can be estimated from the surface SM of 0–10 cm accurately. By combing with the satellite product, we improve the large-scale profile SM estimation in the cold mountains finally.
Amani Mahindawansha, Christoph Külls, Philipp Kraft, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3627–3642,Short summary
Stable isotopes of soil water are an effective tool to reveal soil hydrological processes in irrigated agricultural fields. Flow mechanisms and isotopic patterns of soil water in the soil matrix differ, depending on the crop and irrigation practices. Isotope data supported the fact that unproductive water losses via evaporation can be reduced by introducing dry seasonal crops to the crop rotation system.
Cinthya Nava-Fernandez, Adam Hartland, Fernando Gázquez, Ola Kwiecien, Norbert Marwan, Bethany Fox, John Hellstrom, Andrew Pearson, Brittany Ward, Amanda French, David A. Hodell, Adrian Immenhauser, and Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3361–3380,Short summary
Speleothems are powerful archives of past climate for understanding modern local hydrology and its relation to regional circulation patterns. We use a 3-year monitoring dataset to test the sensitivity of Waipuna Cave to seasonal changes and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics. Drip water data suggest a fast response to rainfall events; its elemental composition reflects a seasonal cycle and ENSO variability. Waipuna Cave speleothems have a high potential for past ENSO reconstructions.
Anne Hartmann, Ekaterina Semenova, Markus Weiler, and Theresa Blume
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3271–3288,Short summary
Our field observation-based examination of flow path evolution, soil formation, and vegetation succession across 10 millennia shows how water flow paths and subsurface water storage are linked to the organization of evolving landscapes. The increase found in water storage and preferential flow paths with increasing soil age shows the effect of the complex interaction of vegetation and soil development on flow paths, water balance, and runoff formation during landscape evolution.
Subodh Acharya, Daniel McLaughlin, David Kaplan, and Matthew J. Cohen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1859–1870,Short summary
Interception is the storage and subsequent evaporation of rain by vegetation and surface litter. Quantifying interception is critical for understanding the water balance, but it can be difficult and costly to measure. We developed an approach to estimate interception using automated soil moisture measurements during rainfall events. Results suggest that interception can be estimated using soil moisture data, leading to potential cost savings and logistical advantages over conventional methods.
Marcus Bork, Jens Lange, Markus Graf-Rosenfellner, and Friederike Lang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 977–989,Short summary
Fluorescent tracers such as uranine and sulforhodamine B are useful tools to gain knowledge about water and solute fluxes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we systematically investigated the influence of important soil properties (pH, organic carbon content and texture) on tracer adsorption in soils and sediments. These properties also determine whether the tracers in the respective soil behave conservatively or non-conservatively.
Adam R. Mangel, Stephen M. J. Moysey, and John Bradford
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 159–167,Short summary
Water flows through soils in an incredibly complex network of pathways. Understanding these pathways is critical to sustainable use of water resources. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can image water in near-surface soils the same way an X-ray is used to image the human body. Utilizing innovative ways of collecting and processing the GPR data, we can image complex water flow in space and through time, which allows for the continued development of our ideas and models of subsurface water flow.
Aaron A. Mohammed, Igor Pavlovskii, Edwin E. Cey, and Masaki Hayashi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5017–5031,Short summary
In cold regions, the permeability of the frozen ground is an important factor influencing a watershed's response to snowmelt. This study highlights the effects of preferential flow in frozen soils on snowmelt redistribution and groundwater recharge in seasonally frozen landscapes.
Dominic Demand, Theresa Blume, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4869–4889,Short summary
This study presents an analysis of 135 soil moisture profiles for identification of the spatial and temporal preferential flow occurrence in a complex landscape. Especially dry conditions and high rainfall intensities were found to increase preferential flow occurrence in soils. This results in a seasonal pattern of preferential flow with a higher occurrence in summer. During this time grasslands showed increased flow velocities, whereas forest sites exhibited a higher amount of bypass flow.
Elad Yeshno, Shlomi Arnon, and Ofer Dahan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3997–4010,Short summary
Lack of adequate instrumentation for monitoring nutrient availability in agricultural soils leads in most cases to over-application of fertilizers, often resulting in groundwater pollution. This research presents a novel approach for real-time, in situ monitoring of nitrate in soils using absorption spectroscopy techniques while preventing interference from dissolved organic carbon. Column experiments with this system resulted in accurate nitrate measurements in three different soil types.
Alessandro Comegna, Antonio Coppola, Giovanna Dragonetti, and Angelo Sommella
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3593–3602,Short summary
We carried out a series of laboratory-controlled experiments in order to simulate different scenarios of practical interest aiming to analyze, from a dielectric point of view, the influence of different washing solutions on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, we validated a dielectric mixing model for predicting the volumetric amounts of NAPL (θNAPL) within the contaminated soil as the decontamination process progressed.
Mireia Fontanet, Daniel Fernàndez-Garcia, and Francesc Ferrer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5889–5900,Short summary
One of the main objectives of remote sensing methodology is to downscale soil moisture to improve irrigation management. The DISPATCH algorithm is able to measure soil moisture at 1 km resolution using SMOS and MODIS data. In this work DISPATCH has been evaluated with soil moisture sensors, under heterogeneous conditions where local irrigation is applied. Results show that DISPATCH is not sensitive when local irrigation is applied even at low resolution.
Cédric Champollion, Sabrina Deville, Jean Chéry, Erik Doerflinger, Nicolas Le Moigne, Roger Bayer, Philippe Vernant, and Naomi Mazzilli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3825–3839,Short summary
Gravity monitoring at the surface and in situ (in caves) has been conducted in a karst hydro-system in the south of France (Larzac plateau). Subsurface water storage is evidenced with a spatial variability probably associated with lithology differences and confirmed by MRS measurements. Gravity allows transient water storage to be estimated on the seasonal scale.
Natalie Orlowski, Lutz Breuer, Nicolas Angeli, Pascal Boeckx, Christophe Brumbt, Craig S. Cook, Maren Dubbert, Jens Dyckmans, Barbora Gallagher, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Christophe Hissler, Paul Koeniger, Arnaud Legout, Chandelle Joan Macdonald, Carlos Oyarzún, Regine Redelstein, Christof Seidler, Rolf Siegwolf, Christine Stumpp, Simon Thomsen, Markus Weiler, Christiane Werner, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3619–3637,Short summary
To extract water from soils for isotopic analysis, cryogenic water extraction is the most widely used removal technique. This work presents results from a worldwide laboratory intercomparison test of cryogenic extraction systems. Our results showed large differences in retrieved isotopic signatures among participating laboratories linked to interactions between soil type and properties, system setup, extraction efficiency, extraction system leaks, and each lab’s internal accuracy.
Ashley R. Pales, Biting Li, Heather M. Clifford, Shyla Kupis, Nimisha Edayilam, Dawn Montgomery, Wei-zhen Liang, Mine Dogan, Nishanth Tharayil, Nicole Martinez, Stephen Moysey, Brian Powell, and Christophe J. G. Darnault
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2487–2509,
Arnaud Watlet, Olivier Kaufmann, Antoine Triantafyllou, Amaël Poulain, Jonathan E. Chambers, Philip I. Meldrum, Paul B. Wilkinson, Vincent Hallet, Yves Quinif, Michel Van Ruymbeke, and Michel Van Camp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1563–1592,Short summary
Understanding water infiltration in karst regions is crucial as the aquifers they host provide drinkable water for a quarter of the world's population. We present a non-invasive tool to image hydrological processes in karst systems. At our field site, the injection of electrical current in the ground, repeated daily over a 3-year period, allowed imaging changes in the groundwater content. We show that specific geological layers control seasonal to rainfall-triggered water infiltration dynamics.
Giovanna Dragonetti, Alessandro Comegna, Ali Ajeel, Gian Piero Deidda, Nicola Lamaddalena, Giuseppe Rodriguez, Giulio Vignoli, and Antonio Coppola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1509–1523,Short summary
The paper aims to infer the bulk electrical conductivity distribution in the root zone from EMI readings. TDR measurements were used as ground-truth data to evaluate the goodness of the estimations by EMI inversion. The approach is based on the mean and standard deviation of the EMI and TDR series. It looks for the physical reasons for the differences between EMI- and TDR-based electrical conductivity and provides a correction of the bias based on the statistical sources of the discrepancies.
David McJannet, Aaron Hawdon, Brett Baker, Luigi Renzullo, and Ross Searle
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6049–6067,Short summary
Satellite and broad-scale model estimates of soil moisture have improved in resolution. However, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. We use a mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the
rover, to derive soil moisture at 9 km and 1 km resolution. We describe methods to calculate soil moisture and present results from multiple surveys. The products produced are well suited to validation studies.
Xicai Pan, Warren Helgason, Andrew Ireson, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5401–5413,Short summary
In this paper we present a case study from a heterogeneous pasture site in the Canadian prairies, where we have quantified the various components of the water balance on the field scale, and critically examine some of the simplifying assumptions which are often invoked when applying water budget approaches in applied hydrology. We highlight challenges caused by lateral fluxes of blowing snow and ambiguous partitioning of snow melt water into runoff and infiltration.
Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Lena Scheiffele, Joost Iwema, Heye R. Bogena, Ling Lv, Edoardo Martini, Gabriele Baroni, Rafael Rosolem, Jannis Weimar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Corinna Rebmann, Sascha E. Oswald, Peter Dietrich, Ulrich Schmidt, and Steffen Zacharias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5009–5030,Short summary
A field-scale average of near-surface water content can be sensed by cosmic-ray neutron detectors. To interpret, calibrate, and validate the integral signal, it is important to account for its sensitivity to heterogeneous patterns like dry or wet spots. We show how point samples contribute to the neutron signal based on their depth and distance from the detector. This approach robustly improves the sensor performance and data consistency, and even reveals otherwise hidden hydrological features.
Yiben Cheng, Hongbin Zhan, Wenbin Yang, Hongzhong Dang, and Wei Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5031–5042,Short summary
This study uses a newly designed lysimeter to study three consecutive years (2013–2015) of deep soil recharge (DSR) underneath bare sand land on the eastern margin of Mu Us Sandy Land in the Ordos Basin of China. The objective is to identify the characteristics of the DSR distribution and the factors affecting the DSR distribution. Specifically, we would like to examine if the commonly used recharge coefficient concept can be applied for arid and semi-arid regions.
Ofer Dahan, Idan Katz, Lior Avishai, and Zeev Ronen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4011–4020,Short summary
In situ bioremediation of a perchlorate-contaminated vadose zone was conducted through infiltration of electron-donor-enriched water. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) provided real-time tracking of the hydraulic and chemical conditions across the unsaturated zone. Variations in concentration profiles of perchlorate, chloride, DOC and bromide in the vadose zone pore water showed limited migration capacity of biologically consumable carbon and significant mobilization of perchlorate.
Cécile Pellet and Christian Hauck
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3199–3220,Short summary
This paper presents a detailed description of the new Swiss soil moisture monitoring network SOMOMOUNT, which comprises six stations distributed along an elevation gradient ranging from 1205 to 3410 m. The liquid soil moisture (LSM) data collected during the first 3 years are discussed with regard to their soil type and climate dependency as well as their altitudinal distribution. The elevation dependency of the LSM was found to be non-linear with distinct dynamics at high and low elevation.
Simon Matthias Kleinknecht, Holger Class, and Jürgen Braun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1381–1396,Short summary
Retardation of migrating contaminant vapors in the subsurface may mitigate groundwater contamination or vapor intrusion into buildings. An experimental investigation was conducted to quantify the retardation of carbon disulfide (CS2) vapor in moist porous media based on the analysis of concentration breakthrough curves. Findings linked retardation to types of porous media and water saturation. Moreover, the first evidence of biodegradation of the CS2 vapor was found in the column experiments.
Edoardo Martini, Ulrike Werban, Steffen Zacharias, Marco Pohle, Peter Dietrich, and Ute Wollschläger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 495–513,Short summary
With a process-based interpretation of electromagnetic induction measurements, we discussed the potential and limitations of such a method for soil moisture mapping. Results will help clarify the complex and time-varying effect of stable soil properties and dynamic state variables on the physical parameters measured, with implications for future studies. We highlighted the importance of time-series data and the need for a multidisciplinary approach for proper interpretation.
Carol V. Tadros, Pauline C. Treble, Andy Baker, Ian Fairchild, Stuart Hankin, Regina Roach, Monika Markowska, and Janece McDonald
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4625–4640,Short summary
We investigated the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. Using 7 years of cave monitoring data, we constrained the hydrological processes impacting the drip-water composition and identified a robust ENSO–drip water hydrochemical relationship. These findings are fundamental for reconstructing past ENSO variability from speleothems (cave deposits) regionally and globally.
William Alexander Avery, Catherine Finkenbiner, Trenton E. Franz, Tiejun Wang, Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Andrew Suyker, Timothy Arkebauer, and Francisco Muñoz-Arriola
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3859–3872,Short summary
Here we present a strategy to use globally available datasets in the calibration function used to convert observed moderated neutron counts into volumetric soil water content. While local sampling protocols are well documented for fixed probes, the use of roving probes presents new calibration challenges. With over 200 fixed probes and 10 roving probes in use globally, we anticipate this paper will serve as a keystone for the growing cosmic-ray neutron probe and hydrologic community.
Tuvia Turkeltaub, Daniel Kurtzman, and Ofer Dahan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3099–3108,Short summary
Efficient groundwater protection from pollution originating in agriculture requires effective monitoring means capable of tacking pollution processes in the vadose zone, long before groundwater pollution turns into an unavoidable fact. In this study, a vadose zone monitoring system that was installed under a crop field fertilized by dairy slurry enabled real-time tracking of nitrate plum migration down the vadose zone from the land surface to the water table at 18m depth.
Andre Peters, Thomas Nehls, and Gerd Wessolek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2309–2315,Short summary
The AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter routine for high-resolution lysimeter data is improved. The threshold scheme with original step interpolation yields unrealistic fluxes for high temporal resolution. Improvement applies linear and spline interpolation schemes so that fluxes in high temporal resolution are automatically calculated. The spline scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound.
Amber M. Peterson, Warren D. Helgason, and Andrew M. Ireson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1373–1385,Short summary
Remote sensing techniques can provide useful large-scale estimates of soil moisture. However, these methods often only sense near-surface soil moisture, whereas many applications require estimates of the entire root zone. In this study we propose and test methods to "depth-scale" the shallow soil moisture measurements obtained using the cosmic-ray neutron probe to represent the entire root zone, thereby improving the applicability of this measurement approach.
Katharina F. Gimbel, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1301–1317,Short summary
It is usually assumed that soil properties are not affected by drought events. We used dye tracer experiments to test this assumption on six forest soils, which were forced into drought conditions. The results of this study show clear evidence for changes in infiltration pathways. In addition, most soils developed soil water repellency. Overall, the results suggest that the past climatic conditions are more important than the actual soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration.
Marcel Gaj, Matthias Beyer, Paul Koeniger, Heike Wanke, Josefina Hamutoko, and Thomas Himmelsbach
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 715–731,
K. Mahmud, G. Mariethoz, A. Baker, P. C. Treble, M. Markowska, and E. McGuire
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 359–373,Short summary
Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. In this study, we develop a method that combines automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques to quantify the infiltration processes within a cave.
D. Fairbairn, A. L. Barbu, J.-F. Mahfouf, J.-C. Calvet, and E. Gelati
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4811–4830,Short summary
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF) root-zone soil moisture analyses are compared when assimilating in situ surface observations. In the synthetic experiments, the EnKF performs best because it can stochastically capture the errors in the precipitation. The two methods perform similarly in the real experiments. During the summer period, both methods perform poorly as a result of nonlinearities in the land surface model.
Y. Rothfuss, S. Merz, J. Vanderborght, N. Hermes, A. Weuthen, A. Pohlmeier, H. Vereecken, and N. Brüggemann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4067–4080,Short summary
Profiles of soil water stable isotopes were followed non-destructively and with high precision for a period of 290 days in the laboratory Rewatering at the end of the experiment led to instantaneous resetting of the isotope profiles, which could be closely followed with the new method The evaporation depth dynamics was determined from isotope gradients calculation Uncertainty associated with the determination of isotope kinetic fractionation where highlighted from inverse modeling.
S. Siltecho, C. Hammecker, V. Sriboonlue, C. Clermont-Dauphin, V. Trelo-ges, A. C. D. Antonino, and R. Angulo-Jaramillo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1193–1207,Short summary
Several methods for measuring unsaturated soil characteristics have been tested on sandy soil in northeastern Thailand, with different land uses. Each method shows significantly different parameters, regardless of land use. Nevertheless, when used for annual water balance modeling with HYDRUS1D, no noticeable differences for the various sets of parameters appeared. Any of these measurement method could be employed. Therefore, we recommended using the cheapest and easiest (i.e., Beerkan) method.
P. Klenk, S. Jaumann, and K. Roth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1125–1139,Short summary
In this study, we analyze a set of high-resolution, surface-based, 2-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) observations of artificially induced subsurface water dynamics. In particular, we place close scrutiny on the evolution of the capillary fringe in a highly dynamic regime with surface-based time-lapse GPR. We thoroughly explain all observed phenomena based on theoretical soil physical considerations and numerical simulations of both subsurface water flow and the expected GPR response.
E. Beckers, E. Plougonven, N. Gigot, A. Léonard, C. Roisin, Y. Brostaux, and A. Degré
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1805–1817,
Akhtar, M. S., Richards, B. K., Medrano, P. A., deGroot, M., and Steenhuis, T. S.: Dissolved phosphorus from undisturbed soil cores: Related to adsorption strength, flow rate, or soil structure? Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 67, 458–470, 2003.
Anamosa, P. R., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Blue, W. G., and Sartain, J. B.: Water-movement through an aggregated, gravelly oxisol from Cameroon, Geoderma, 46, 263–281, 1990.
Bedmar, F., Costa, J. L., and Gimenez, D.: Column tracer studies in surface and subsurface horizons of two typic argiudolls, Soil Sci., 173, 237–247, 2008.
Beven, K. J., Henderson, D. E., and Reeves, A. D.: Dispersion parameters for undisturbed partially saturated soil, J. Hydrol., 143, 19–43, 1993.
Bromly, M. and Hinz, C.: Non-Fickian transport in homogeneous unsaturated repacked sand, Water Resour. Res., 40, W07402, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002579, 2004.
Bromly, M., Hinz, C., and Aylmore, L. A. G.: Relation of dispersivity to properties of homogeneous saturated repacked soil columns, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 58, 293–301, 2007.
Candela, L., Álvarez-Benedí, J., Condesso de Melo, M. T., and Rao, P. S. C.: Laboratory studies on glyphosate transport in soils of the Maresme area near Barcelona, Spain: Transport model parameter estimation, Geoderma, 140, 8–16, 2007.
Cassel, D. K., Krueger, T. H., Schroer, F. W., and Norum, E. B.: Solute movement through disturbed and undisturbed soil cores, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 38, 36–40, 1974.
Coats, K. H. and Smith, B. D.: Dead-end pore volume and dispersion in porous media, Soc. Petrol. Eng. J., 4, 73–84, 1964.
Comegna, V., Coppola, A., and Sommella, A: Nonreactive solute transport in variously structured soil materials as determined by laboratory-based time domain reflectometry (TDR), Geoderma, 92, 167–184, 1999.
Comegna, V., Coppola, A., and Sommella, A.: Effectiveness of equilibrium and physical non-equilibrium approaches for interpreting solute transport through undisturbed soil columns, J. Contam. Hydrol., 50, 121–138, 2001.
de Smedt, F. and Wierenga, P. J.: Solute transfer through columns of glass beads, Water Resour. Res., 20, 225–232, 1984.
Danckwerts, P. V.: Continuous flow systems – distribution of residence times, Chem. Eng. Sci., 2, 1–13, 1953.
Debacker, L. W.: Measurement of entrapped gas in study of unsaturated flow phenomena, Water Resour. Res., 3, 245–249, 1967.
Dousset, S., Chauvin, C., Durlet, P., and Thevenot, M.: Transfer of hexazinone and glyphosate through undisturbed soil columns in soils under Christmas tree cultivation, Chemosphere, 57, 265–272, 2004.
Dufey, J. E., Sheta, T. H., Gobran, G. R., and Laudelout, H.: Dispersion of chloride, sodium, and calcium-ions in soils as affected by exchangeable sodium, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 46, 47–50, 1982.
Dyson, J. S. and White, R. E.: A comparison of the convection-dispersion equation and transfer function model for predicting chloride leaching through an undisturbed, structured clay soil, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 38, 157–172, 1987.
Dyson, J. S. and White, R. E.: The effect of irrigation rate on solute transport in soil during steady state water-flow, J. Hydrol., 107, 19–29, 1989.
Elrick, D. E. and French, L. K.: Miscible displacement patterns of disturbed and undisturbed soil cores, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Pro., 30, 153–156, 1966.
Ersahin, S., Papendick, R. I., Smith, J. L., Keller, C. K., and Manoranjan, V. S.: Macropore transport of bromide as influenced by soil structure differences, Geoderma, 108, 207–223, 2002.
Flühler, H., Durner, W., and Flury, M.: Lateral solute mixing processes – A key for understanding field-scale transport of water and solutes, Geoderma, 70, 165–183, 1996.
Gaber, H. M., Inskeep, W. P., Comfort, S. D., and Wraith, J. M.: Nonequilibrium transport of atrazine through large intact soil cores, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 59, 60–67, 1995.
Garré, S., Koestel, J., Günther, T., Javaux, M., Vanderborght, J., and Vereecken, H.: Comparison of heterogeneous transport processes observed with electrical resistivity tomography in two toils, Vadose Zone J., 9, 336–349, 2010.
Gaston, L. A. and Locke, M. A.: Bentazon mobility through intact, unsaturated columns of conventional and no-till Dundee soil, J. Environ. Qual., 25, 1350–1356, 1996.
Gaston, L. A. and Locke, M. A.: Acifluorfen sorption, degradation, and mobility in a Mississippi delta soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 112–121, 2000.
Gaston, L. A., Locke, M., McDonald, J., Dodla, S., Liao, L., Putnam, L., and Udeigwe, T.: Effects of tillage on norflurazon sorption, degradation and mobility in a mississippi delta soil, Soil Sci., 172, 534–545, 2007.
Gelhar, L. W., Welty, C., and Rehfeldt, K. R.: A critical-review of data on field-scale dispersion in aquifers, Water Resour. Res., 28, 1955–1974, 1992.
Goncalves, M. C., Leij, F. J., and Schaap, M. G.: Pedotransfer functions for solute transport parameters of Portuguese soils, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 52, 563–574, 2001.
Green, J. D., Horton, R., and Baker, J. L.: Crop residue effects on leaching of surface-applied chemicals, J. Environ. Qual., 24, 343–351, 1995.
Griffioen, J. W., Barry, D. A., and Parlange, J. Y.: Interpretation of two-region model parameters, Water Resour. Res., 34, 373–384, 1998.
Gwo, J. P., Jardine, P. M., Wilson, G. V., and Yeh, G. T.: A multiple-pore-region concept to modeling mass-transfer in subsurface media, J. Hydrol., 164, 217–237, 1995.
Haws, N. W., Das, B. S., and Rao, P. S. C.: Dual-domain solute transfer and transport processes: evaluation in batch and transport experiments, J. Contam. Hydrol., 75, 257–280, 2004.
Hendrickx, J. M. H., Dekker, L. W., and Boersma, O. H.: Unstable wetting fronts in water-repellent field soils, J. Environ. Qual., 22, 109–118, 1993.
Hendrickx, J. M. H. and Flury, M.: Uniform and preferential flow mechanisms in the vadose zone, in: Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 149–187, 2001.
Helmke, M. F., Simpkins, W. W., and Horton, R.: Fracture-controlled nitrate and atrazine transport in four Iowa till units, J. Environ. Qual., 34, 227–236, 2005.
Horn, R., Taubner, H., Wuttke, M., and Baumgartl, T.: Soil physical properties related to soil structure, Soil Tillage Res., 30, 187–216, 1994.
Hunt, A. G. and Skinner, T. E.: Predicting Dispersion in Porous Media, Complexity, 16, 43–55, 2010.
Jacobsen, O. H., Leij, F. J., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Parameter determination for chloride and tritium transport in undisturbed lysimeters during steady state flow, Nord. Hydrol., 23, 89–104, 1992.
Javaux, M. and Vanclooster, M.: Scale- and rate-dependent solute transport within an unsaturated sandy monolith, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 67, 1334–1343, 2003.
Jensen, K. H., Destouni, G., and Sassner, M.: Advection-dispersion analysis of solute transport in undisturbed soil monoliths, Ground Water, 34, 1090–1097, 1996.
Jensen, M. B., Hansen, H. C. B., Hansen, S., Jorgensen, P. R., Magid, J., and Nielsen, N. E.: Phosphate and tritium transport through undisturbed subsoil as affected by ionic strength, J. Environ. Qual., 27, 139–145, 1998.
Jorgensen, P. R., Helstrup, T., Urup, J., and Seifert, D.: Modeling of non-reactive solute transport in fractured clayey till during variable flow rate and time, J. Contam. Hydrol., 68, 193–216, 2004.
Jury, W. A. and Flühler, H.: Transport of chemicals through soil – mechanisms, models, and field applications, Adv. Agron., 47, 141–201, 1992.
Jury, W. A. and Roth, K.: Transfer functions and solute movement through soil: theory and applications, Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel Switzerland, 226 pp., 1990.
Kamra, S. K., Lennartz, B., van Genuchten, M. T., and Widmoser, P.: Evaluating non-equilibrium solute transport in small soil columns, J. Contam. Hydrol., 48, 189–212, 2001.
Kasteel, R., Vogel, H. J., and Roth, K.: From local hydraulic properties to effective transport in soil, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 51, 81–91, 2000.
Kim, S. B., On, H. S., Kim, D. J., Jury, W. A., and Wang, Z.: Determination of bromacil transport as a function of water and carbon content in soils, J. Environ. Sci. Heal. B, 42, 529–537, 2007.
Kjaergaard, C., Poulsen, T. G., Moldrup, P., and de Jonge, L. W.: Colloid mobilization and transport in undisturbed soil columns: 1. Pore structure characterization and tritium transport, Vadose Zone J., 3, 413–423, 2004.
Knudby, C. and Carrera, J.: On the relationship between indicators of geostatistical, flow and transport connectivity, Adv. Water Resour., 28, 405–421, 2005.
Koestel, J. K., Vanderborght, J., Javaux, M., Kemna, A., Binley, A., and Vereecken, H.: Noninvasive 3-D transport characterization in a sandy soil using ERT: 1. Investigating the validity of ERT-derived transport parameters, Vadose Zone J., 8, 711–722, 2009a.
Koestel, J. K., Vanderborght, J., Javaux, M., Kemna, A., Binley, A., and Vereecken, H.: Noninvasive 3-D transport characterization in a sandy soil using ERT: 2. Transport process inference, Vadose Zone J., 8, 723–734, 2009b.
Koestel, J. K., Moeys, J., and Jarvis, N. J.: Evaluation of non-parametric shape-measures for solute breakthrough curves, Vadose Zone J., 10, 1261–1275, 2011.
Krupp, H. K. and Elrick, D. E.: Miscible displacement in an unsaturated glass bead medium, Water Resour. Res., 4, 809–815, 1968.
Langner, H. W., Gaber, H. M., Wraith, J. M., Huwe, B., and Inskeep, W. P.: Preferential flow through intact soil cores: Effects of matric head, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63, 1591–1598, 1999.
Lee, J., Horton, R., and Jaynes, D. B.: A time domain reflectometry method to measure immobile water content and mass exchange coefficient, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 1911–1917, 2000.
Lee, J., Horton, R., Noborio, K., and Jaynes, D. B.: Characterization of preferential flow in undisturbed, structured soil columns using a vertical TDR probe, J. Contam. Hydrol., 51, 131–144, 2001.
Lennartz, B., Haria, A. H., and Johnson, A. C.: Flow regime effects on reactive and non-reactive solute transport, Soil Sediment Contam., 17, 29–40, 2008.
Luo, L., Lin, H., and Schmidt, J.: Quantitative relationships between soil macropore characteristics and preferential flow and transport, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 74, 1929–1937, 2010.
Maraqa, M. A., Wallace, R. B., and Voice, T. C.: Effects of degree of water saturation on dispersivity and immobile water in sandy soil columns, J. Contam. Hydrol., 25, 199–218, 1997.
Mayes, M. A., Jardine, P. M., Mehlhorn, T. L., Bjornstad, B. N., Ladd, T., and Zachara, J. M.: Transport of multiple tracers in variably saturated humid region structured soils and semi-arid region laminated sediments, J. Hydrol., 275, 141–161, 2003.
McIntosh, J., McDonnell, J. J., and Peters, N. E.: Tracer and hydrometric study of preferential flow in large undisturbed soil cores from the Georgia Piedmont, USA, Hydrol. Process., 13, 139–155, 1999.
McMahon, M. A. and Thomas, G. W.: Chloride and tritiated water flow in disturbed and undisturbed soil cores, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 38, 727–732, 1974.
Montoya, J. C., Costa, J. L., Liedl, R., Bedmar, F., and Daniel, P.: Effects of soil type and tillage practice on atrazine transport through intact soil cores, Geoderma, 137, 161–173, 2006.
Mooney, S. J. and Morris, C.: A morphological approach to understanding preferential flow using image analysis with dye tracers and X-ray Computed Tomography, Catena, 73, 204–211, 2008.
Nemes, A., Wösten, J. H. M., Lilly, A., and Voshaar, J. H. O.: Evaluation of different procedures to interpolate particle-size distributions to achieve compatibility within soil databases, Geoderma, 90, 187–202, 1999.
Neuman, S. P.: Universal scaling of hydraulic conductivities and dispersivities in geologic media, Water Resour. Res., 26, 1749–1758, 1990.
Nkedi-Kizza, P., Biggar, J. W., van Genuchten, M. T., Wierenga, P. J., Selim, H. M., Davidson, J. M., and Nielsen, D. R.: Modeling tritium and chloride-36 transport through an aggregated oxisol, Water Resour. Res., 19, 691–700, 1983.
Öhrström, P., Persson, M., Albergel, J., Zante, P., Nasri, S., Berndtsson, R., and Olsson, J.: Field-scale variation of preferential flow as indicated from dye coverage, J. Hydrol., 257, 164–173, 2002.
Oliver, Y. M. and Smettem, K. R. J.: Parameterisation of physically based solute transport models in sandy soils, Aust. J. Soil Res., 41, 771–788, 2003.
Pang, L., McLeod, M., Aislabie, J., Simunek, J., Close, M., and Hector, R.: Modeling transport of microbes in ten undisturbed soils under effluent irrigation, Vadose Zone J., 7, 97–111, 2008.
Perfect, E., Sukop, M. C., and Haszler, G. R.: Prediction of dispersivity for undisturbed soil columns from water retention parameters, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 66, 696–701, 2002.
Pot, V., Simunek, J., Benoit, P., Coquet, Y., Yra, A., and Martinez-Cordon, M. J.: Impact of rainfall intensity on the transport of two herbicides in undisturbed grassed filter strip soil cores, J. Contam. Hydrol., 81, 63–88, 2005.
Poulsen, T. G., Moldrup, P., de Jonge, L. W., and Komatsu, T.: Colloid and bromide transport in undisturbed soil columns: Application of two-region model, Vadose Zone J., 5, 649–656, 2006.
Prado, B., Duwig, C., Escudey, M., and Esteves, M.: Nitrate sorption in a mexican allophanic andisol using intact and packed columns, Commun. Soil Sci. Plan., 37, 2911–2925, 2006.
Prado, B., Duwig, C., Marquez, J., Delmas, P., Morales, P., James, J., and Etchevers, J.: Image processing-based study of soil porosity and its effect on water movement through andosol intact columns, Agric. Water Manage., 96, 1377–1386, 2009.
Quisenberry, V. L., Smith, B. R., Phillips, R. E., Scott, H. D., and Nortcliff, S.: A soil classification-system for describing water and chemical transport, Soil Sci., 156, 306–315, 1993
Raats, P. A. C.: Unstable wetting fronts in uniform and nonuniform soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 37, 681–685, 1973.
Raturi, S., Hill, R. L., and Carroll, M. J.: Modeling dicamba sorption and transport through zoysiagrass thatch and soil, Soil Sediment Contam., 10, 227–247, 2001.
Ren, G. L., Izadi, B., King, B., and Dowding, E.: Preferential transport of bromide in undisturbed cores under different irrigation methods, Soil Sci., 161, 214–225, 1996.
Reungsang, A., Moorman, T. B., and Kanwar, R. S.: Transport and fate of atrazine in midwestern riparian buffer strips, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 37, 1681–1692, 2001.
Ritsema, C. J. and Dekker, L. W.: Water repellency and its role in forming preferred flow paths in soils, Aust. J. Soil Res., 34, 475–487, 1996.
Rose, D. A.: Some aspects of hydrodynamic dispersion of solutes in porous materials, J. Soil Sci., 24, 285–295, 1973.
Rose, D. A.: Hydrodynamic dispersion in porous materials, Soil Sci., 123, 277–283, 1977.
Rose, D. A., Abbas, F., and Adey, M. A.: The effect of surface-solute interactions on the transport of solutes through porous materials, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 60, 398–411, 2009.
Scheidegger, A. E.: Growth of instabilities on displacement fronts in porous media, Phys. Fluids, 3, 94–104, 1960.
Scherr, F.: Sorption, degradation and transport of estrogens and estrogen sulphates in agricultural soils, Ph. D. thesis, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand, 2009.
Schoen, R., Gaudet, J. P., and Elrick, D. E.: Modelling of solute transport in a large undisturbed lysimeter, during steady-state water flux, J. Hydrol., 215, 82–93, 1999.
Schulin, R., Wierenga, P. J., Flühler, H., and Leuenberger, J.: Solute transport through a stony soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51, 36–42, 1987.
Segal, E., Shouse, P., and Bradford, S. A.: Deterministic analysis and upscaling of bromide transport in a heterogeneous vadose zone, Vadose Zone J., 8, 601–610, 2009.
Selim, H. M. and Amacher, M. C.: A 2nd-order kinetic approach for modeling solute retention and transport in soils, Water Resour. Res., 24, 2061–2075, 1988.
Seo, Y. and Lee, J.: Characterizing preferential flow of nitrate and phosphate in soil using time domain reflectometry, Soil Sci., 170, 47–54, 2005.
Seuntjens, P., Tirez, K., Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., Cornelis, C., and Geuzens, P.: Aging effects on cadmium transport in undisturbed contaminated sandy soil columns, J. Environ. Qual., 30, 1040–1050, 2001.
Seyfried, M. S. and Rao, P. S. C.: Solute transport in undisturbed columns of an aggregated tropical soil – preferential flow effects, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51, 1434–1444, 1987.
Shaw, J. N., West, L. T., Radcliffe, D. E., and Bosch, D. D.: Preferential flow and pedotransfer functions for transport properties in sandy kandiudults, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 670–678, 2000.
Shirazi, M. A., Boersma, L., and Johnson, C. B.: Particle-size distributions: Comparing texture systems, adding rock, and predicting soil properties, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 300–310, 2001.
Singh, P. and Kanwar, R. S.: Preferential solute transport through macropores in large undisturbed saturated soil columns, J. Environ. Qual., 20, 295–300, 1991.
Skaggs, T. H., Kabala, Z. J., and Jury, W. A.: Deconvolution of a nonparametric transfer function for solute transport in soils, J. Hydrol., 207, 170–178, 1998.
Smettem, K. R. J.: Soil-water residence time and solute uptake. 3: Mass-transfer under simulated winter rainfall conditions in undisturbed soil cores, J. Hydrol., 67, 235–248, 1984.
Smettem, K. R. J., Trudgill, S. T., and Pickles, A. M.: Nitrate loss in soil drainage waters in relation to by-passing flow and discharge on an arable site, J. Soil Sci., 34, 499–509, 1983.
Sněhota, M., Sobotkova, M., and Císlerová, M.: Impact of the entrapped air on water flow and solute transport in heterogeneous soil: Experimental setup, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 56, 247–256, 2008.
Stagnitti, F., Allinson, G., Morita, M., Nishikawa, M., Ii, H., and Hirata, T.: Temporal moments analysis of preferential solute transport in soils, Environ. Model. Assess., 5, 229–236, 2000.
Thomas, G. W. and Swoboda, A. R.: Anion exclusion effects on chloride movement in soils, Soil Sci., 110, 163–166, 1970.
Thomas, G. W., Blevins, R. L., Phillips, R. E., and McMahon, M. A.: Effect of a killed sod mulch on nitrate movement and corn yield, Agron. J., 65, 736–739, 1973.
Toride, N., Leij, F. J., and van Genuchten, M. T.: The CXTFit code for estimating transport parameters from laboratory or field tracer experiments. Version 2.1. USDA Research Report. Riverside, CA, US Salinity Laboratory, USDA, 137, 1999.
Tyler, D. D. and Thomas, G. W.: Chloride movement in undisturbed soil columns, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 45, 459–461, 1981.
Unold, M., Simunek, J., Kasteel, R., Groeneweg, J., and Vereecken, H.: Transport of manure-based applied sulfadiazine and its main transformation products in soil columns, Vadose Zone J., 8, 677–689, 2009.
Valocchi, A. J.: Validity of the local equlibrium assumption for modeling sorbing solute transport through homogeneous soils, Water Resour. Res., 21, 808–820, 1985.
Vanderborght, J. and Vereecken, H.: Review of dispersivities for transport modeling in soils, Vadose Zone J., 6, 29–52, 2007.
Vanderborght, J., Vanclooster, M., Timmerman, A., Seuntjens, P., Mallants, D., Kim, D.-J., Jacques, D., Hubrechts, L., Gonzalez, C., Feyen, J., Diles, J., and Deckers, J.: Overview of inert tracer experiments in key Belgian soil types: relation between transport and soil morphological and hydraulic properties, Water Resour. Res., 37, 2873–2888, 2001.
Vanderborght, J., Gähwiller, P., and Flühler, H.: Identification of transport processes in soil cores using fluorescent tracers, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 66, 774–787, 2002.
Vervoort, R. W., Radcliffe, D. E., and West, L. T.: Soil structure development and preferential solute flow, Water Resour. Res., 35, 913–928, 1999.
Vincent, A., Benoit, P., Pot, V., Madrigal, I., Delgado-Moreno, L., and Labat, C.: Impact of different land uses on the migration of two herbicides in a silt loam soil: unsaturated soil column displacement studies, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 58, 320–328, 2007.
Vogeler, I., Horn, R., Wetzel, H., and Krümmelbein, J.: Tillage effects on soil strength and solute transport, Soil Till. Res., 88, 193–204, 2006.
Wilson, G. V., Yunsheng, L., Selim, H. M., Essington, M. E., and Tyler, D. D.: Tillage and cover crop effects on saturated and unsaturated transport of fluometuron, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 62, 46–55, 1998.
Wösten, J. H. M., Pachepsky, Y. A., and Rawls, W. J.: Pedotransfer functions: bridging the gap between available basic soil data and missing soil hydraulic characteristics, J. Hydrol., 251, 123–150, 2001.
Zurmühl, T.: Capability of convection-dispersion transport models to predict transient water and solute movement in undisturbed soil columns, J. Contam. Hydrol., 30, 101–128, 1998.