Articles | Volume 26, issue 7
06 Apr 2022
Research article | 06 Apr 2022
Storylines of UK drought based on the 2010–2012 event
Wilson C. H. Chan et al.
No articles found.
Philipp Breul, Paulo Ceppi, and Theodore Gordon Shepherd
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WCDShort summary
Accurately predicting the response of the mid-latitude jet stream to climate change is very important, but climate models show a variety of possible scenarios. Previous work has identified a relationship between climatological jet latitude and future jet shift in the southern hemispheric winter. However, we show that the jet latitude is not a well-defined metric in in austral winter, due to zonal asymmetries in the mid-latitude jet. The usefulness of the relationship is therefore questionable.
Philipp Breul, Paulo Ceppi, and Theodore G. Shepherd
Weather Clim. Dynam., 3, 645–658,Short summary
Understanding how the mid-latitude jet stream will respond to a changing climate is highly important. Unfortunately, climate models predict a wide variety of possible responses. Theoretical frameworks can link an internal jet variability timescale to its response. However, we show that stratospheric influence approximately doubles the internal timescale, inflating predicted responses. We demonstrate an approach to account for the stratospheric influence and recover correct response predictions.
Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Alessio Bozzo, Nicholas Byrne, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Michail Diamantakis, Johannes Flemming, Lesley J. Gray, Robin J. Hogan, Luke Jones, Linus Magnusson, Inna Polichtchouk, Theodore G. Shepherd, Nils Wedi, and Antje Weisheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4277–4302,Short summary
The stratosphere is emerging as one of the keys to improve tropospheric weather and climate predictions. This study provides evidence of the role the stratospheric ozone layer plays in improving weather predictions at different timescales. Using a new ozone modelling approach suitable for high-resolution global models that provide operational forecasts from days to seasons, we find significant improvements in stratospheric meteorological fields and stratosphere–troposphere coupling.
Nele Reyniers, Timothy J. Osborn, Nans Addor, and Geoff Darch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
How will climate change impact droughts? This question is important, but also very complicated, in part because droughts are notoriously less straightforward to define than other extreme events such as floods or heatwaves. We show that two popular measures of drought give very different outlooks for how often, how widely, when and for how long droughts may occur in a warmed future. Nevertheless, both agree on increasing droughts in Great Britain, highlighting the need for rapid mitigation.
Adam A. Scaife, Mark P. Baldwin, Amy H. Butler, Andrew J. Charlton-Perez, Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Steven C. Hardiman, Peter Haynes, Alexey Yu Karpechko, Eun-Pa Lim, Shunsuke Noguchi, Judith Perlwitz, Lorenzo Polvani, Jadwiga H. Richter, John Scinocca, Michael Sigmond, Theodore G. Shepherd, Seok-Woo Son, and David W. J. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2601–2623,Short summary
Great progress has been made in computer modelling and simulation of the whole climate system, including the stratosphere. Since the late 20th century we also gained a much clearer understanding of how the stratosphere interacts with the lower atmosphere. The latest generation of numerical prediction systems now explicitly represents the stratosphere and its interaction with surface climate, and here we review its role in long-range predictions and projections from weeks to decades ahead.
Jamie Hannaford, Jonathan Mackay, Matthew Ascott, Victoria Bell, Thomas Chitson, Steven Cole, Christian Counsell, Mason Durant, Christopher R. Jackson, Alison Kay, Rosanna Lane, Majdi Mansour, Robert Moore, Simon Parry, Alison Rudd, Michael Simpson, Katie Facer-Childs, Stephen Turner, John Wallbank, Steven Wells, and Amy Wilcox
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The eFLaG dataset is a nationally consistent set of projections of future climate change impacts on hydrology. eFLaG uses the latest available UK climate projections (UKCP18) run through a series of computer simulation models which enable us to produce future projections of river flows, groundwater levels and groundwater recharge. These simulations are designed for use by water resource planners and managers, but could also be used for a wide range of other purposes.
Linda van Garderen, Frauke Feser, and Theodore G. Shepherd
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 171–186,Short summary
The storyline method is used to quantify the effect of climate change on a particular extreme weather event using a global atmospheric model by simulating the event with and without climate change. We present the method and its successful application for the climate change signals of the European 2003 and the Russian 2010 heatwaves.
Marlene Kretschmer, Giuseppe Zappa, and Theodore G. Shepherd
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 715–730,Short summary
The winds in the polar stratosphere affect the weather in the mid-latitudes, making it important to understand potential changes in response to global warming. However, climate model projections disagree on how this so-called polar vortex will change in the future. Here we show that sea ice loss in the Barents and Kara (BK) seas plays a central role in this. The time when the BK seas become ice-free differs between models, which explains some of the disagreement regarding vortex projections.
Emanuele Bevacqua, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Theodore G. Shepherd, and Mathieu Vrac
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1765–1782,Short summary
Coastal compound flooding (CF), caused by interacting storm surges and high water runoff, is typically studied based on concurring storm surge extremes with either precipitation or river discharge extremes. Globally, these two approaches show similar CF spatial patterns, especially where the CF potential is the highest. Deviations between the two approaches increase with the catchment size. The precipitation-based analysis allows for considering local-rainfall-driven CF and CF in small rivers.
Lucy J. Barker, Jamie Hannaford, Simon Parry, Katie A. Smith, Maliko Tanguy, and Christel Prudhomme
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4583–4602,Short summary
It is important to understand historic droughts in order to plan and prepare for possible future events. In this study we use the standardised streamflow index for 1891–2015 to systematically identify, characterise and rank hydrological drought events for 108 near-natural UK catchments. Results show when and where the most severe events occurred and describe events of the early 20th century, providing catchment-scale detail important for both science and planning applications of the future.
Katie A. Smith, Lucy J. Barker, Maliko Tanguy, Simon Parry, Shaun Harrigan, Tim P. Legg, Christel Prudhomme, and Jamie Hannaford
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3247–3268,Short summary
This paper describes the multi-objective calibration approach used to create a consistent dataset of reconstructed daily river flow data for 303 catchments in the UK over 1891–2015. The modelled data perform well when compared to observations, including in the timing and the classification of drought events. This method and data will allow for long-term studies of flow trends and past extreme events that have not been previously possible, enabling water managers to better plan for the future.
Louise J. Slater, Guillaume Thirel, Shaun Harrigan, Olivier Delaigue, Alexander Hurley, Abdou Khouakhi, Ilaria Prosdocimi, Claudia Vitolo, and Katie Smith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2939–2963,Short summary
This paper explores the benefits and advantages of R's usage in hydrology. We provide an overview of a typical hydrological workflow based on reproducible principles and packages for retrieval of hydro-meteorological data, spatial analysis, hydrological modelling, statistics, and the design of static and dynamic visualizations and documents. We discuss some of the challenges that arise when using R in hydrology as well as a roadmap for R’s future within the discipline.
Maliko Tanguy, Christel Prudhomme, Katie Smith, and Jamie Hannaford
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 951–968,Short summary
Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is necessary input data for most hydrological models, used to simulate river flows. To reconstruct PET prior to the 1960s, simplified methods are needed because of lack of climate data required for complex methods. We found that the McGuinness–Bordne PET equation, which only needs temperature as input data, works best for the UK provided it is calibrated for local conditions. This method was used to produce a 5 km gridded PET dataset for the UK for 1891–2015.
Shaun Harrigan, Christel Prudhomme, Simon Parry, Katie Smith, and Maliko Tanguy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2023–2039,Short summary
We benchmarked when and where ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) is skilful in the UK across a diverse set of 314 catchments. We found ESP was skilful in the majority of catchments across all lead times up to a year ahead, but the degree of skill was strongly conditional on lead time, forecast initialization month, and individual catchment location and storage properties. Results have practical implications for current operational use of the ESP method in the UK.
C. McLandress, T. G. Shepherd, A. I. Jonsson, T. von Clarmann, and B. Funke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9271–9284,Short summary
This is the first paper of its kind describing a method for merging the long-term satellite records of global stratospheric temperature from SSU and AMSU to yield a continuous data set from 1979 to present (and beyond). Since global-mean stratospheric temperature is close to radiative equilibrium, our "extended" SSU data set is an important climate record for the detection and attribution of anthropogenic influence.
V. Matthias, T. G. Shepherd, P. Hoffmann, and M. Rapp
Ann. Geophys., 33, 199–206,Short summary
A vertical coupling process in the northern high-latitude middle atmosphere has been identified during the equinox transitions, which we call the “hiccup” and which acts like a “mini sudden stratospheric warming (SSW)”. We study the average characteristics of the hiccup based on a composite analysis using a nudged model. A comparison of the average characteristics of hiccups and SSWs shows both similarities and differences between the two vertical coupling processes.
C. McLandress, D. A. Plummer, and T. G. Shepherd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1547–1555,
J. C. S. Davie, P. D. Falloon, R. Kahana, R. Dankers, R. Betts, F. T. Portmann, D. Wisser, D. B. Clark, A. Ito, Y. Masaki, K. Nishina, B. Fekete, Z. Tessler, Y. Wada, X. Liu, Q. Tang, S. Hagemann, T. Stacke, R. Pavlick, S. Schaphoff, S. N. Gosling, W. Franssen, and N. Arnell
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 359–374,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesHigh-resolution satellite products improve hydrological modeling in northern ItalyAnalysis of high streamflow extremes in climate change studies: how do we calibrate hydrological models?A conceptual-model-based sediment connectivity assessment for patchy agricultural catchmentsThe Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project Phase 4: the Great Lakes (GRIP-GL)Spatial extrapolation of stream thermal peaks using heterogeneous time series at a national scaleRevisiting parameter sensitivities in the variable infiltration capacity model across a hydroclimatic gradientDeep learning rainfall–runoff predictions of extreme eventsDiel streamflow cycles suggest more sensitive snowmelt-driven streamflow to climate change than land surface modeling doesTeaching hydrological modelling: illustrating model structure uncertainty with a ready-to-use computational exerciseEffects of spatial and temporal variability in surface water inputs on streamflow generation and cessation in the rain–snow transition zoneQuantifying multi-year hydrological memory with Catchment Forgetting CurvesOn constraining a lumped hydrological model with both piezometry and streamflow: results of a large sample evaluationInfluences of land use changes on the dynamics of water quantity and quality in the German lowland catchment of the StörImpact of spatial distribution information of rainfall in runoff simulation using deep learning methodTowards effective drought monitoring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: implications from assimilating leaf area index and soil moisture into the Noah-MP land surface model for MoroccoThe effects of spatial and temporal resolution of gridded meteorological forcing on watershed hydrological responsesHydrological response of a peri-urban catchment exploiting conventional and unconventional rainfall observations: the case study of Lambro CatchmentAssessing hydrological sensitivity of grassland basins in the Canadian Prairies to climate using a basin classification-based virtual modelling approachThe value of satellite soil moisture and snow cover data for the transfer of hydrological model parameters to ungauged sitesUncertainty estimation with deep learning for rainfall–runoff modelingApplying non-parametric Bayesian networks to estimate maximum daily river discharge: potential and challengesContrasting changes in hydrological processes of the Volta River basin under global warmingA retrospective on hydrological catchment modelling based on half a century with the HBV modelEcosystem adaptation to climate change: the sensitivity of hydrological predictions to time-dynamic model parametersRainfall–runoff relationships at event scale in western Mediterranean ephemeral streamsPrecipitation fate and transport in a Mediterranean catchment through models calibrated on plant and stream water isotope dataCombined impacts of uncertainty in precipitation and air temperature on simulated mountain system recharge from an integrated hydrologic modelSimultaneous assimilation of water levels from river gauges and satellite flood maps for near-real-time flood mappingRemote sensing-aided rainfall–runoff modeling in the tropics of Costa RicaAssessing the influence of water sampling strategy on the performance of tracer-aided hydrological modeling in a mountainous basin on the Tibetan PlateauDrivers of drought-induced shifts in the water balance through a Budyko approachRegionalization of hydrological model parameters using gradient boosting machineAquifer recharge in the Piedmont Alpine zone: historical trends and future scenariosImproved representation of agricultural land use and crop management for large-scale hydrological impact simulation in Africa using SWAT+How well are we able to close the water budget at the global scale?Bending of the concentration discharge relationship can inform about in-stream nitrate removalQuantifying the impacts of land cover change on hydrological responses in the Mahanadi river basin in IndiaIdentification of the contributing area to river discharge during low-flow periodsSimulating sediment discharge at water treatment plants under different land use scenarios using cascade modelling with an expert-based erosion-runoff model and a deep neural networkIn-stream Escherichia coli modeling using high-temporal-resolution data with deep learning and process-based modelsCan we use precipitation isotope outputs of isotopic general circulation models to improve hydrological modeling in large mountainous catchments on the Tibetan Plateau?Large-sample assessment of spatial scaling effects of the distributed wflow_sbm hydrological model shows that finer spatial resolution does not necessarily lead to better streamflow estimatesSmall-scale topography explains patterns and dynamics of dissolved organic carbon exports from the riparian zone of a temperate, forested catchmentFlood forecasting with machine learning models in an operational frameworkEffects of spatial resolution of terrain models on modelled discharge and soil loss in Oaxaca, MexicoBenchmarking data-driven rainfall–runoff models in Great Britain: a comparison of long short-term memory (LSTM)-based models with four lumped conceptual modelsNumerical daemons of hydrological models are summoned by extreme precipitationHow is Baseflow Index (BFI) impacted by water resource management practices?Technical note: RAT – a robustness assessment test for calibrated and uncalibrated hydrological modelsReduction of vegetation-accessible water storage capacity after deforestation affects catchment travel time distributions and increases young water fractions in a headwater catchment
Lorenzo Alfieri, Francesco Avanzi, Fabio Delogu, Simone Gabellani, Giulia Bruno, Lorenzo Campo, Andrea Libertino, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Dominik Rains, Diego G. Miralles, Raphael Quast, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Huan Wu, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3921–3939,Short summary
This work shows advances in high-resolution satellite data for hydrology. We performed hydrological simulations for the Po River basin using various satellite products, including precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and snow depth. Evaporation and snow depth improved a simulation based on high-quality ground observations. Interestingly, a model calibration relying on satellite data skillfully reproduces observed discharges, paving the way to satellite-driven hydrological applications.
Bruno Majone, Diego Avesani, Patrick Zulian, Aldo Fiori, and Alberto Bellin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3863–3883,Short summary
In this work, we introduce a methodology for devising reliable future high streamflow scenarios from climate change simulations. The calibration of a hydrological model is carried out to maximize the probability that the modeled and observed high flow extremes belong to the same statistical population. Application to the Adige River catchment (southeastern Alps, Italy) showed that this procedure produces reliable quantiles of the annual maximum streamflow for use in assessment studies.
Pedro V. G. Batista, Peter Fiener, Simon Scheper, and Christine Alewell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3753–3770,Short summary
Patchy agricultural landscapes have a large number of small fields, which are separated by linear features such as roads and field borders. When eroded sediments are transported out of the agricultural fields by surface runoff, these features can influence sediment connectivity. By use of measured data and a simulation model, we demonstrate how a dense road network (and its drainage system) facilitates sediment transport from fields to water courses in a patchy Swiss agricultural catchment.
Juliane Mai, Hongren Shen, Bryan A. Tolson, Étienne Gaborit, Richard Arsenault, James R. Craig, Vincent Fortin, Lauren M. Fry, Martin Gauch, Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Nicole O'Brien, Daniel G. Princz, Sinan Rasiya Koya, Tirthankar Roy, Frank Seglenieks, Narayan K. Shrestha, André G. T. Temgoua, Vincent Vionnet, and Jonathan W. Waddell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3537–3572,Short summary
Model intercomparison studies are carried out to test various models and compare the quality of their outputs over the same domain. In this study, 13 diverse model setups using the same input data are evaluated over the Great Lakes region. Various model outputs – such as streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture, and amount of snow on the ground – are compared using standardized methods and metrics. The basin-wise model outputs and observations are made available through an interactive website.
Aurélien Beaufort, Jacob S. Diamond, Eric Sauquet, and Florentina Moatar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3477–3495,Short summary
We developed one of the largest stream temperature databases to calculate a simple, ecologically relevant metric – the thermal peak – that captures the magnitude of summer thermal extremes. Using statistical models, we extrapolated the thermal peak to nearly every stream in France, finding the hottest thermal peaks along large rivers without forested riparian zones and groundwater inputs. Air temperature was a poor proxy for the thermal peak, highlighting the need to grow monitoring networks.
Ulises M. Sepúlveda, Pablo A. Mendoza, Naoki Mizukami, and Andrew J. Newman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3419–3445,Short summary
This paper characterizes parameter sensitivities across more than 5500 grid cells for a commonly used macroscale hydrological model, including a suite of eight performance metrics and 43 soil, vegetation and snow parameters. The results show that the model is highly overparameterized and, more importantly, help to provide guidance on the most relevant parameters for specific target processes across diverse climatic types.
Jonathan M. Frame, Frederik Kratzert, Daniel Klotz, Martin Gauch, Guy Shelev, Oren Gilon, Logan M. Qualls, Hoshin V. Gupta, and Grey S. Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3377–3392,Short summary
The most accurate rainfall–runoff predictions are currently based on deep learning. There is a concern among hydrologists that deep learning models may not be reliable in extrapolation or for predicting extreme events. This study tests that hypothesis. The deep learning models remained relatively accurate in predicting extreme events compared with traditional models, even when extreme events were not included in the training set.
Sebastian A. Krogh, Lucia Scaff, James W. Kirchner, Beatrice Gordon, Gary Sterle, and Adrian Harpold
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3393–3417,Short summary
We present a new way to detect snowmelt using daily cycles in streamflow driven by solar radiation. Results show that warmer sites have earlier and more intermittent snowmelt than colder sites, and the timing of early snowmelt events is strongly correlated with the timing of streamflow volume. A space-for-time substitution shows greater sensitivity of streamflow timing to climate change in colder rather than in warmer places, which is then contrasted with land surface simulations.
Wouter J. M. Knoben and Diana Spieler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3299–3314,Short summary
This paper introduces educational materials that can be used to teach students about model structure uncertainty in hydrological modelling. There are many different hydrological models and differences between these models impact their usefulness in different places. Such models are often used to support decision making about water resources and to perform hydrological science, and it is thus important for students to understand that model choice matters.
Leonie Kiewiet, Ernesto Trujillo, Andrew Hedrick, Scott Havens, Katherine Hale, Mark Seyfried, Stephanie Kampf, and Sarah E. Godsey
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2779–2796,Short summary
Climate change affects precipitation phase, which can propagate into changes in streamflow timing and magnitude. This study examines how variations in rainfall and snowmelt affect discharge. We found that annual discharge and stream cessation depended on the magnitude and timing of rainfall and snowmelt and on the snowpack melt-out date. This highlights the importance of precipitation timing and emphasizes the need for spatiotemporally distributed simulations of snowpack and rainfall dynamics.
Alban de Lavenne, Vazken Andréassian, Louise Crochemore, Göran Lindström, and Berit Arheimer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2715–2732,Short summary
A watershed remembers the past to some extent, and this memory influences its behavior. This memory is defined by the ability to store past rainfall for several years. By releasing this water into the river or the atmosphere, it tends to forget. We describe how this memory fades over time in France and Sweden. A few watersheds show a multi-year memory. It increases with the influence of groundwater or dry conditions. After 3 or 4 years, they behave independently of the past.
Antoine Pelletier and Vazken Andréassian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2733–2758,Short summary
A large part of the water cycle takes place underground. In many places, the soil stores water during the wet periods and can release it all year long, which is particularly visible when the river level is low. Modelling tools that are used to simulate and forecast the behaviour of the river struggle to represent this. We improved an existing model to take underground water into account using measurements of the soil water content. Results allow us make recommendations for model users.
Chaogui Lei, Paul D. Wagner, and Nicola Fohrer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2561–2582,Short summary
We presented an integrated approach to hydrologic modeling and partial least squares regression quantifying land use change impacts on water and nutrient balance over 3 decades. Results highlight that most variations (70 %–80 %) in water quantity and quality variables are explained by changes in land use class-specific areas and landscape metrics. Arable land influences water quantity and quality the most. The study provides insights on water resources management in rural lowland catchments.
Yang Wang and Hassan A. Karimi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2387–2403,Short summary
We found that rainfall data with spatial information can improve the model's performance, especially when simulating the future multi-day discharges. We did not observe that regional LSTM as a regional model achieved better results than LSTM as individual model. This conclusion applies to both one-day and multi-day simulations. However, we found that using spatially distributed rainfall data can reduce the difference between individual LSTM and regional LSTM.
Wanshu Nie, Sujay V. Kumar, Kristi R. Arsenault, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Iliana E. Mladenova, Karim Bergaoui, Abheera Hazra, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Sarith P. Mahanama, Rachael McDonnell, David M. Mocko, and Mahdi Navari
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2365–2386,Short summary
The MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region faces significant food and water insecurity and hydrological hazards. Here we investigate the value of assimilating remote sensing data sets into an Earth system model to help build an effective drought monitoring system and support risk mitigation and management by countries in the region. We highlight incorporating satellite-informed vegetation conditions into the model as being one of the key processes for a successful application for the region.
Pin Shuai, Xingyuan Chen, Utkarsh Mital, Ethan T. Coon, and Dipankar Dwivedi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2245–2276,Short summary
Using an integrated watershed model, we compared simulated watershed hydrologic variables driven by three publicly available gridded meteorological forcings (GMFs) at various spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results demonstrated that spatially distributed variables are sensitive to the spatial resolution of the GMF. The temporal resolution of the GMF impacts the dynamics of watershed responses. The choice of GMF depends on the quantity of interest and its spatial and temporal scales.
Greta Cazzaniga, Carlo De Michele, Michele D'Amico, Cristina Deidda, Antonio Ghezzi, and Roberto Nebuloni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2093–2111,Short summary
Rainfall estimates are usually obtained from rain gauges, weather radars, or satellites. An alternative is the measurement of the signal loss induced by rainfall on commercial microwave links (CMLs). In this work, we assess the hydrologic response of Lambro Basin when CML-retrieved rainfall is used as model input. CML estimates agree with rain gauge data. CML-driven discharge simulations show performance comparable to that from rain gauges if a CML-based calibration of the model is undertaken.
Christopher Spence, Zhihua He, Kevin R. Shook, Balew A. Mekonnen, John W. Pomeroy, Colin J. Whitfield, and Jared D. Wolfe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1801–1819,Short summary
We determined how snow and flow in small creeks change with temperature and precipitation in the Canadian Prairie, a region where water resources are often under stress. We tried something new. Every watershed in the region was placed in one of seven groups based on their landscape traits. We selected one of these groups and used its traits to build a model of snow and streamflow. It worked well, and by the 2040s there may be 20 %–40 % less snow and 30 % less streamflow than the 1980s.
Rui Tong, Juraj Parajka, Borbála Széles, Isabella Greimeister-Pfeil, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jürgen Komma, Peter Valent, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1779–1799,Short summary
The role and impact of using additional data (other than runoff) for the prediction of daily hydrographs in ungauged basins are not well understood. In this study, we assessed the model performance in terms of runoff, soil moisture, and snow cover predictions with the existing regionalization approaches. Results show that the best transfer methods are the similarity and the kriging approaches. The performance of the transfer methods differs between lowland and alpine catchments.
Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Martin Gauch, Alden Keefe Sampson, Johannes Brandstetter, Günter Klambauer, Sepp Hochreiter, and Grey Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1673–1693,Short summary
This contribution evaluates distributional runoff predictions from deep-learning-based approaches. We propose a benchmarking setup and establish four strong baselines. The results show that accurate, precise, and reliable uncertainty estimation can be achieved with deep learning.
Elisa Ragno, Markus Hrachowitz, and Oswaldo Morales-Nápoles
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1695–1711,Short summary
We explore the ability of non-parametric Bayesian networks to reproduce maximum daily discharge in a given month in a catchment when the remaining hydro-meteorological and catchment attributes are known. We show that a saturated network evaluated in an individual catchment can reproduce statistical characteristics of discharge in about ~ 40 % of the cases, while challenges remain when a saturated network considering all the catchments together is evaluated.
Moctar Dembélé, Mathieu Vrac, Natalie Ceperley, Sander J. Zwart, Josh Larsen, Simon J. Dadson, Grégoire Mariéthoz, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1481–1506,Short summary
Climate change impacts on water resources in the Volta River basin are investigated under various global warming scenarios. Results reveal contrasting changes in future hydrological processes and water availability, depending on greenhouse gas emission scenarios, with implications for floods and drought occurrence over the 21st century. These findings provide insights for the elaboration of regional adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change.
Jan Seibert and Sten Bergström
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1371–1388,Short summary
Hydrological catchment models are commonly used as the basis for water resource management planning. The HBV model, which is a typical example of such a model, was first applied about 50 years ago in Sweden. We describe and reflect on the model development and applications. The aim is to provide an understanding of the background of model development and a basis for addressing the balance between model complexity and data availability that will continue to face hydrologists in the future.
Laurène J. E. Bouaziz, Emma E. Aalbers, Albrecht H. Weerts, Mark Hegnauer, Hendrik Buiteveld, Rita Lammersen, Jasper Stam, Eric Sprokkereef, Hubert H. G. Savenije, and Markus Hrachowitz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1295–1318,Short summary
Assuming stationarity of hydrological systems is no longer appropriate when considering land use and climate change. We tested the sensitivity of hydrological predictions to changes in model parameters that reflect ecosystem adaptation to climate and potential land use change. We estimated a 34 % increase in the root zone storage parameter under +2 K global warming, resulting in up to 15 % less streamflow in autumn, due to 14 % higher summer evaporation, compared to a stationary system.
Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Alberto Martínez-Salvador, Rafael García-Lorenzo, David Espín-Sánchez, and Carmelo Conesa-García
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1243–1260,Short summary
Ephemeral streams in the western Mediterranean area are driven by the duration, magnitude, and intensity of rainfall events (REs). A detailed statistical analysis showed that the average RE (1.2 d and 1.5 mm) is not enough to generate new flow, which is only guaranteed by events occurring in return periods from 2 to > 50 years. REs explain near to 75 % of new flow, meaning that terrain and lithological characteristics play a fundamental role.
Matthias Sprenger, Pilar Llorens, Francesc Gallart, Paolo Benettin, Scott T. Allen, and Jérôme Latron
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Our catchment scale transit time modeling study shows that including stable isotope data on evapotranspiration in addition to the commonly used stream water isotopes helps constraining the model parametrization and reveals that the water taken up by plants has resided longer in the catchment storage than the water leaving the catchment as stream discharge. This finding is important for our understanding how water is stored and released, which impacts the water availability for plants and humans.
Adam P. Schreiner-McGraw and Hoori Ajami
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1145–1164,Short summary
We assess the impact of uncertainty in measurements of precipitation and air temperature on simulated groundwater processes in a mountainous watershed. We illustrate the role of topography in controlling how uncertainty in the input datasets propagates through the soil and into the groundwater. While the focus of previous investigations has been on the impact of precipitation uncertainty, we show that air temperature uncertainty is equally important in controlling the groundwater recharge.
Antonio Annis, Fernando Nardi, and Fabio Castelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1019–1041,Short summary
In this work, we proposed a multi-source data assimilation framework for near-real-time flood mapping. We used a quasi-2D hydraulic model to update model states by injecting both stage gauge observations and satellite-derived flood extents. Results showed improvements in terms of water level prediction and reduction of flood extent uncertainty when assimilating both stage gauges and satellite images with respect to the disjoint assimilation of both observations.
Saúl Arciniega-Esparza, Christian Birkel, Andrés Chavarría-Palma, Berit Arheimer, and José Agustín Breña-Naranjo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 975–999,Short summary
In the humid tropics, a notoriously data-scarce region, we need to find alternatives in order to reasonably apply hydrological models. Here, we tested remotely sensed rainfall data in order to drive a model for Costa Rica, and we evaluated the simulations against evapotranspiration satellite products. We found that our model was able to reasonably simulate the water balance and streamflow dynamics of over 600 catchments where the satellite data helped to reduce the model uncertainties.
Yi Nan, Zhihua He, Fuqiang Tian, Zhongwang Wei, and Lide Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Tracer-aided hydrological model is useful tool to reduce uncertainty of hydrological modeling in cold basins, but there is little guidance on the sampling strategy for isotope analysis, which is important for large mountainous basins. This study evaluated the reliance of the tracer-aided modeling performance on the availability of isotope data in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin and provide implications for collecting water isotope data for running tracer-aided hydrological models.
Tessa Maurer, Francesco Avanzi, Steven D. Glaser, and Roger C. Bales
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 589–607,Short summary
Predicting how much water will end up in rivers is more difficult during droughts because the relationship between precipitation and streamflow can change in unexpected ways. We differentiate between changes that are predictable based on the weather patterns and those harder to predict because they depend on the land and vegetation of a particular region. This work helps clarify why models are less accurate during droughts and helps predict how much water will be available for human use.
Zhihong Song, Jun Xia, Gangsheng Wang, Dunxian She, Chen Hu, and Si Hong
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 505–524,Short summary
We performed a machine learning approach to regionalize the parameters of a China-wide hydrological model by linking six model parameters with 10 physical attributes (terrain and soil properties). The results show the superiority of machine-learning-based regionalization approach compared with the traditional linear regression method in ungauged regions. We also obtained the relative importance of attributes against model parameters.
Elisa Brussolo, Elisa Palazzi, Jost von Hardenberg, Giulio Masetti, Gianna Vivaldo, Maurizio Previati, Davide Canone, Davide Gisolo, Ivan Bevilacqua, Antonello Provenzale, and Stefano Ferraris
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 407–427,Short summary
In this study, we evaluate the past, present and future quantity of groundwater potentially available for drinking purposes in the metropolitan area of Turin, north-western Italy. In order to effectively manage water resources, a knowledge of the water cycle components is necessary, including precipitation, evapotranspiration and subsurface reservoirs. All these components have been carefully evaluated in this paper, using observational datasets and modelling approaches.
Albert Nkwasa, Celray James Chawanda, Jonas Jägermeyr, and Ann van Griensven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 71–89,Short summary
We present an approach on how to incorporate crop phenology in a regional hydrological model using decision tables and global datasets of rainfed and irrigated cropland with the associated cropping calendar and management practices. Results indicate improved temporal patterns of leaf area index (LAI) and evapotranspiration (ET) simulations in comparison with remote sensing data. In addition, the improvement of the cropping season also helps to improve soil erosion estimates in cultivated areas.
Fanny Lehmann, Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma, and Jonathan Bamber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 35–54,Short summary
Many data sources are available to evaluate components of the water cycle (precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and terrestrial water storage). Despite this variety, it remains unclear how different combinations of datasets satisfy the conservation of mass. We conducted the most comprehensive analysis of water budget closure on a global scale to date. Our results can serve as a basis to select appropriate datasets for regional hydrological studies.
Joni Dehaspe, Fanny Sarrazin, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6437–6463,Short summary
Increased nitrate concentrations in surface waters can compromise river ecosystem health. As riverine nitrate uptake is hard to measure, we explore how low-frequency nitrate concentration and discharge observations (that are widely available) can help to identify (in)efficient uptake in river networks. We find that channel geometry and water velocity rather than the biological uptake capacity dominate the nitrate-discharge pattern at the outlet. The former can be used to predict uptake.
Shaini Naha, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, and Rafael Rosolem
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6339–6357,Short summary
Rapid growth in population in developing countries leads to an increase in food demand, and as a consequence, percentages of land are being converted to cropland which alters river flow processes. This study describes how the hydrology of a flood-prone river basin in India would respond to the current and future changes in land cover. Our findings indicate that the recurrent flood events occurring in the basin might be influenced by these changes in land cover at the catchment scale.
Maxime Gillet, Corinne Le Gal La Salle, Pierre Alain Ayral, Somar Khaska, Philippe Martin, and Patrick Verdoux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6261–6281,Short summary
This paper aims at identifying the key reservoirs sustaining river low flow during dry summer. The reservoirs are discriminated based on the geological nature of the formations and the geochemical signature of groundwater. Results show the increasing importance to low-flow support of a specific reservoir, showing only a limited outcrop area and becoming preponderant in the heart of the dry season. This finding will contribute to improving the protective measures for preserving low flows.
Edouard Patault, Valentin Landemaine, Jérôme Ledun, Arnaud Soulignac, Matthieu Fournier, Jean-François Ouvry, Olivier Cerdan, and Benoit Laignel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6223–6238,Short summary
The goal of this study was to assess the sediment discharge variability at a water treatment plant (Normandy, France) according to multiple realistic land use scenarios. We developed a new cascade modelling approach and simulations suggested that coupling eco-engineering and best farming practices can significantly reduce the sediment discharge (up to 80 %).
Ather Abbas, Sangsoo Baek, Norbert Silvera, Bounsamay Soulileuth, Yakov Pachepsky, Olivier Ribolzi, Laurie Boithias, and Kyung Hwa Cho
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6185–6202,Short summary
Correct estimation of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters is critical for public health. Process-driven models and recently data-driven models have been applied for water quality modeling; however, a systematic comparison for simulation of E. coli is missing in the literature. We compared performance of process-driven (HSPF) and data-driven (LSTM) models for E. coli simulation. We show that LSTM can be an alternative to process-driven models for estimation of E. coli in surface waters.
Yi Nan, Zhihua He, Fuqiang Tian, Zhongwang Wei, and Lide Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6151–6172,Short summary
Hydrological modeling has large problems of uncertainty in cold regions. Tracer-aided hydrological models are increasingly used to reduce uncertainty and refine the parameterizations of hydrological processes, with limited application in large basins due to the unavailability of spatially distributed precipitation isotopes. This study explored the utility of isotopic general circulation models in driving a tracer-aided hydrological model in a large basin on the Tibetan Plateau.
Jerom P.M. Aerts, Rolf W. Hut, Nick C. van de Giesen, Niels Drost, Willem J. van Verseveld, Albrecht H. Weerts, and Pieter Hazenberg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Gridded hydrological modelling moves into the realm of hyper-resolution modelling. In this study we investigate the effect of varying grid cell sizes for wflow_sbm hydrological model. We used a large-sample of basins from CAMELS data set to test the effect that varying grid cell sizes has on the simulation of streamflow at the basin outlet. Results show that there is no single best grid cell size for modelling streamflow for the whole domain.
Benedikt J. Werner, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Andreas Musolff, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Jie Yang, Ralf Gründling, Ulrike Werban, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6067–6086,Short summary
Export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from riparian zones (RZs) is an important yet poorly understood component of the catchment carbon budget. This study chemically and spatially classifies DOC source zones within a RZ of a small catchment to assess DOC export patterns. Results highlight that DOC export from only a small fraction of the RZ with distinct DOC composition dominates overall DOC export. The application of a spatial, topographic proxy can be used to improve DOC export models.
Sella Nevo, Efrat Morin, Adi Gerzi Rosenthal, Asher Metzger, Chen Barshai, Dana Weitzner, Dafi Voloshin, Frederik Kratzert, Gal Elidan, Gideon Dror, Gregory Begelman, Grey Nearing, Guy Shalev, Hila Noga, Ira Shavitt, Liora Yuklea, Moriah Royz, Niv Giladi, Nofar Peled Levi, Ofir Reich, Oren Gilon, Ronnie Maor, Shahar Timnat, Tal Shechter, Vladimir Anisimov, Yotam Gigi, Yuval Levin, Zach Moshe, Zvika Ben-Haim, Avinatan Hassidim, and Yossi Matias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Early flood warnings are one of the most effective tools to save lives and goods. Machine learning models can improve flood prediction accuracy but their use in operational frameworks is limited. The paper presents a flood warning system, operational in India and Bangladesh, that uses machine learning models for forecasting river stage and flood inundation maps, and discusses the models’ performances. In 2021 more than 100M flood alerts were sent to people near rivers over an area of 287,000 km2.
Sergio Naranjo, Francelino A. Rodrigues Jr., Georg Cadisch, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Mariela Fuentes Ponce, and Carsten Marohn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5561–5588,Short summary
We integrate a spatially explicit soil erosion model with plot- and watershed-scale characterization and high-resolution drone imagery to assess the effect of spatial resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) on discharge and soil loss. Results showed reduction in slope due to resampling down of DTM. Higher resolution translates to higher slope, denser fluvial system, and extremer values of soil loss, reducing concentration time and increasing soil loss at the outlet. The best resolution was 4 m.
Thomas Lees, Marcus Buechel, Bailey Anderson, Louise Slater, Steven Reece, Gemma Coxon, and Simon J. Dadson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5517–5534,Short summary
We used deep learning (DL) models to simulate the amount of water moving through a river channel (discharge) based on the rainfall, temperature and potential evaporation in the previous days. We tested the DL models on catchments across Great Britain finding that the model can accurately simulate hydrological systems across a variety of catchment conditions. Ultimately, the model struggled most in areas where there is chalky bedrock and where human influence on the catchment is large.
Peter T. La Follette, Adriaan J. Teuling, Nans Addor, Martyn Clark, Koen Jansen, and Lieke A. Melsen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5425–5446,Short summary
Hydrological models are useful tools that allow us to predict distributions and movement of water. A variety of numerical methods are used by these models. We demonstrate which numerical methods yield large errors when subject to extreme precipitation. As the climate is changing such that extreme precipitation is more common, we find that some numerical methods are better suited for use in hydrological models. Also, we find that many current hydrological models use relatively inaccurate methods.
John P. Bloomfield, Mengyi Gong, Benjamin P. Marchant, Gemma Coxon, and Nans Addor
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5355–5379,Short summary
Groundwater provides flow, known as baseflow, to surface streams and rivers. It is important as it sustains the flow of many rivers at times of water stress. However, it may be affected by water management practices. Statistical models have been used to show that abstraction of groundwater may influence baseflow. Consequently, it is recommended that information on groundwater abstraction is included in future assessments and predictions of baseflow.
Pierre Nicolle, Vazken Andréassian, Paul Royer-Gaspard, Charles Perrin, Guillaume Thirel, Laurent Coron, and Léonard Santos
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5013–5027,Short summary
In this note, a new method (RAT) is proposed to assess the robustness of hydrological models. The RAT method is particularly interesting because it does not require multiple calibrations (it is therefore applicable to uncalibrated models), and it can be used to determine whether a hydrological model may be safely used for climate change impact studies. Success at the robustness assessment test is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition of model robustness.
Markus Hrachowitz, Michael Stockinger, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Ruud van der Ent, Heye Bogena, Andreas Lücke, and Christine Stumpp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4887–4915,Short summary
Deforestation affects how catchments store and release water. Here we found that deforestation in the study catchment led to a 20 % increase in mean runoff, while reducing the vegetation-accessible water storage from about 258 to 101 mm. As a consequence, fractions of young water in the stream increased by up to 25 % during wet periods. This implies that water and solutes are more rapidly routed to the stream, which can, after contamination, lead to increased contaminant peak concentrations.
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Arnell, N. W.: Relative effects of multi-decadal climatic variability and changes in the mean and variability of climate due to global warming: future streamflows in Britain, J. Hydrol., 270, 195–213, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00288-3, 2003.
Arnell, N. W.: Uncertainty in the relationship between climate forcing and hydrological response in UK catchments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 897–912, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-897-2011, 2011.
Arnell, N. W., Kay, A. L., Freeman, A., Rudd, A. C., and Lowe, J. A.: Changing climate risk in the UK: a multi-sectoral analysis using policy-relevant indicators, Climate Risk Management, 31, 100265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2020.100265, 2021.
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Barker, L. J., Hannaford, J., Chiverton, A., and Svensson, C.: From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2483–2505, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-2483-2016, 2016.
Barker, L. J., Hannaford, J., Parry, S., Smith, K. A., Tanguy, M., and Prudhomme, C.: Historic hydrological droughts 1891–2015: systematic characterisation for a diverse set of catchments across the UK, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4583–4602, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-4583-2019, 2019.
Bastos, A., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Sitch, S., Pongratz, J., Fan, L., Wigneron, J. P., Weber, U., Reichstein, M., Fu, Z., Anthoni, P., Arneth, A., Haverd, V., Jain, A. K., Joetzjer, E., Knauer, J., Lienert, S., Loughran, T., McGuire, P. C., Tian, H., Viovy, N., and Zaehle, S.: Direct and seasonal legacy effects of the 2018 heat wave and drought on European ecosystem productivity, Science Advances, 6, eaba2724, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba2724, 2020.
Blenkinsop, S. and Fowler, H. J.: Changes in drought frequency, severity and duration for the British Isles projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models, J. Hydrol., 342, 50–71, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.05.003, 2007.
Brown, C., Ghile, Y., Laverty, M., and Li, K.: Decision scaling: Linking bottom-up vulnerability analysis with climate projections in the water sector, Water Resour. Res., 48, W09537, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011212, 2012.
Brunner, M. I. and Slater, L. J.: Extreme floods in Europe: going beyond observations using reforecast ensemble pooling, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 469–482, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-26-469-2022, 2022.
Brunner, M. I. and Tallaksen, L. M.: Proneness of European Catchments to Multiyear Streamflow Droughts, Water Resour. Res., 55, 8881–8894, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019WR025903, 2019.
Burke, E. J., Perry, R. H. J., and Brown, S. J.: An extreme value analysis of UK drought and projections of change in the future, J. Hydrol., 388, 131–143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.04.035, 2010.
Cattiaux, J., Vautard, R., Cassou, C., Yiou, P., Masson-Delmotte, V., and Codron, F.: Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20704, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044613, 2010.
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Chan, W. C. H., Shepherd, T. G., Facer-Childs, K., Darch, G., and Arnell, N.: Tracking the methodological development of climate change projections for UK river flows, Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, https://doi.org/10.1177/03091333221079201, online first, 2022.
Chun, K. P., Wheater, H., and Onof, C.: Prediction of the impact of climate change on drought: an evaluation of six UK catchments using two stochastic approaches, Hydrol. Process., 27, 1600–1614, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9259, 2013a.
Chun, K. P., Wheater, H. S., and Onof, C.: Comparison of drought projections using two UK weather generators, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 58, 295–309, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2012.754544, 2013b.
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Hannaford, J., Lloyd-Hughes, B., Keef, C., Parry, S., and Prudhomme, C.: Examining the large-scale spatial coherence of European drought using regional indicators of precipitation and streamflow deficit, Hydrol. Process., 25, 1146–1162, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7725, 2011.
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Hellwig, J., Stoelzle, M., and Stahl, K.: Groundwater and baseflow drought responses to synthetic recharge stress tests, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1053–1068, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-1053-2021, 2021.
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Parry, S., Hannaford, J., Lloyd-Hughes, B., and Prudhomme, C.: Multi-year droughts in Europe: analysis of development and causes, Hydrol. Res., 43, 689–706, https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2012.024, 2012.
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We select the 2010–2012 UK drought and investigate an alternative unfolding of the drought from changes to its attributes. We created storylines of drier preconditions, alternative seasonal contributions, a third dry winter, and climate change. Storylines of the 2010–2012 drought show alternative situations that could have resulted in worse conditions than observed. Event-based storylines exploring plausible situations are used that may lead to high impacts and help stress test existing systems.
We select the 2010–2012 UK drought and investigate an alternative unfolding of the drought from...