Articles | Volume 18, issue 5
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
A new stream and nested catchment framework for Australia
J. L. Stein
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
M. F. Hutchinson
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
J. A. Stein
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Related subject area
Subject: Water Resources Management | Techniques and Approaches: Remote Sensing and GISMonitoring the combined effects of drought and salinity stress on crops using remote sensing in the NetherlandsA framework for irrigation performance assessment using WaPOR data: the case of a sugarcane estate in MozambiqueSatellite observations reveal 13 years of reservoir filling strategies, operating rules, and hydrological alterations in the Upper Mekong River basinSatellite soil moisture data assimilation for improved operational continental water balance predictionMapping groundwater abstractions from irrigated agriculture: big data, inverse modeling, and a satellite–model fusion approachMulti-constellation GNSS interferometric reflectometry with mass-market sensors as a solution for soil moisture monitoringCan we trust remote sensing evapotranspiration products over Africa?Influence of multi-decadal land use, irrigation practices and climate on riparian corridors across the Upper Missouri River headwaters basin, MontanaDeveloping GIS-based water poverty and rainwater harvesting suitability maps for domestic use in the Dead Sea region (West Bank, Palestine)Estimating daily evapotranspiration based on a model of evaporative fraction (EF) for mixed pixelsEstimating irrigation water use over the contiguous United States by combining satellite and reanalysis soil moisture dataA conceptual model of organochlorine fate from a combined analysis of spatial and mid- to long-term trends of surface and ground water contamination in tropical areas (FWI)Spatio-temporal assessment of annual water balance models for upper Ganga BasinPopulation growth, land use and land cover transformations, and water quality nexus in the Upper Ganga River basinWetlands inform how climate extremes influence surface water expansion and contractionParticipatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approachMonitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areasPerformance of the METRIC model in estimating evapotranspiration fluxes over an irrigated field in Saudi Arabia using Landsat-8 imagesThe predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data setsA multi-sensor data-driven methodology for all-sky passive microwave inundation retrievalEffect of the revisit interval and temporal upscaling methods on the accuracy of remotely sensed evapotranspiration estimatesDownstream ecosystem responses to middle reach regulation of river discharge in the Heihe River Basin, ChinaCombining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applicationsSupplemental irrigation potential and impact on downstream flow of Karkheh River basin in IranMapping evapotranspiration with high-resolution aircraft imagery over vineyards using one- and two-source modeling schemesSpatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting – Part 1: Review of the accuracy of the remote sensing dataSpatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting – Part 2: Reliability of water acounting results for policy decisions in the Awash BasinCombining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakesUpscaling of evapotranspiration fluxes from instantaneous to daytime scales for thermal remote sensing applicationsGRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storageAn original interpretation of the wet edge of the surface temperature–albedo space to estimate crop evapotranspiration (SEB-1S), and its validation over an irrigated area in northwestern MexicoUsing a thermal-based two source energy balance model with time-differencing to estimate surface energy fluxes with day–night MODIS observationsRegional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, ChinaEstimation of soil parameters over bare agriculture areas from C-band polarimetric SAR data using neural networksAccounting for seasonality in a soil moisture change detection algorithm for ASAR Wide Swath time seriesEvaluation and bias correction of satellite rainfall data for drought monitoring in IndonesiaExtension of the Hapke bidirectional reflectance model to retrieve soil water contentEstimating river discharge from earth observation measurements of river surface hydraulic variablesCombined use of optical and radar satellite data for the monitoring of irrigation and soil moisture of wheat cropsMapping surface soil moisture over the Gourma mesoscale site (Mali) by using ENVISAT ASAR dataSoil surface moisture estimation over a semi-arid region using ENVISAT ASAR radar data for soil evaporation evaluationParticular uncertainties encountered in using a pre-packaged SEBS model to derive evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous study area in South AfricaEffective roughness modelling as a tool for soil moisture retrieval from C- and L-band SARCombined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean regionIdentification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile, Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model
Wen Wen, Joris Timmermans, Qi Chen, and Peter M. van Bodegom
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4537–4552,Short summary
A novel approach for evaluating individual and combined impacts of drought and salinity in real-life settings is proposed using Sentinel-2. We found that crop responses to drought and salinity differ between growth stages. Compared to salinity, crop growth is most strongly affected by drought stress and is, in general, further exacerbated when co-occurring with salinity stress. Our approach facilitates a way to monitor crop health under multiple stresses with potential large-scale applications.
Abebe D. Chukalla, Marloes L. Mul, Pieter van der Zaag, Gerardo van Halsema, Evaristo Mubaya, Esperança Muchanga, Nadja den Besten, and Poolad Karimi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2759–2778,Short summary
New techniques to monitor the performance of irrigation schemes are vital to improve land and water productivity. We developed a framework and applied the remotely sensed FAO WaPOR dataset to assess uniformity, equity, adequacy, and land and water productivity at the Xinavane sugarcane estate, segmented by three irrigation methods. The developed performance assessment framework and the Python script in Jupyter Notebooks can aid in such irrigation performance analysis in other regions.
Dung Trung Vu, Thanh Duc Dang, Stefano Galelli, and Faisal Hossain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2345–2364,Short summary
The lack of data on how big dams are operated in the Upper Mekong, or Lancang, largely contributes to the ongoing controversy between China and the other Mekong countries. Here, we rely on satellite observations to reconstruct monthly storage time series for the 10 largest reservoirs in the Lancang. Our analysis shows how quickly reservoirs were filled in, what decisions were made during recent droughts, and how these decisions impacted downstream discharge.
Siyuan Tian, Luigi J. Renzullo, Robert C. Pipunic, Julien Lerat, Wendy Sharples, and Chantal Donnelly
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4567–4584,Short summary
Accurate daily continental water balance predictions are valuable in monitoring and forecasting water availability and land surface conditions. A simple and robust method was developed for an operational water balance model to constrain model predictions temporally and spatially with satellite soil moisture observations. The improved soil water storage prediction can provide constraints in model forecasts that persist for several weeks.
Oliver Miguel López Valencia, Kasper Johansen, Bruno José Luis Aragón Solorio, Ting Li, Rasmus Houborg, Yoann Malbeteau, Samer AlMashharawi, Muhammad Umer Altaf, Essam Mohammed Fallatah, Hari Prasad Dasari, Ibrahim Hoteit, and Matthew Francis McCabe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5251–5277,Short summary
The agricultural sector in Saudi Arabia has expanded rapidly over the last few decades, supported by non-renewable groundwater abstraction. This study describes a novel data–model fusion approach to compile national-scale groundwater abstractions and demonstrates its use over 5000 individual center-pivot fields. This method will allow both farmers and water management agencies to make informed water accounting decisions across multiple spatial and temporal scales.
Angel Martín, Sara Ibáñez, Carlos Baixauli, Sara Blanc, and Ana Belén Anquela
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3573–3582,Short summary
In the case study presented in this paper, the GNSS-IR technique was used to monitor soil moisture during 66 d, from 3 December 2018 to 6 February 2019, in the installations of the Cajamar Centre of Experiences, Paiporta, Valencia, Spain. Two main objectives were pursued. The first was the extension of the technique to a multi-constellation solution using GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO satellites, and the second was to test whether mass-market sensors could be used for this technique.
Imeshi Weerasinghe, Wim Bastiaanssen, Marloes Mul, Li Jia, and Ann van Griensven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1565–1586,Short summary
Water resource allocation to various sectors requires an understanding of the hydrological cycle, where evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component. Satellite-derived products estimate ET but are hard to evaluate at large scales. This work presents an alternate evaluation methodology to point-scale observations in Africa. The paper enables users to select an ET product based on their performance regarding selected criteria using a ranking system. The highest ranked products are WaPOR and CMRSET.
Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Jay R. Christensen, and Laurie C. Alexander
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4269–4292,Short summary
We evaluated trends (1984–2016) in riparian wetness across the Upper Missouri River headwaters basin during peak irrigation months (June, July and August). We found that 8 of the 19 riparian reaches across the basin showed a significant drying trend from 1984 to 2016. The temporal drying trends persisted after removing variability attributable to climate. Instead, the drying trends co-occurred with a shift towards center-pivot irrigation across the basin.
Sameer M. Shadeed, Tariq G. Judeh, and Mohammad N. Almasri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1581–1592,Short summary
The paper aimed to develop DWP and DRWHS maps in the West Bank (Palestine) using an integrated GIS-based MCDA approach. The obtained maps will assist the decision makers to formulate proper strategies including the development of efficient and comprehensive water resource management strategies in trying to bridge the increasing water supply–demand gap for domestic purposes in the West Bank as a recognized area in the Dead Sea region which is facing a series water resource shortage challenges.
Fugen Li, Xiaozhou Xin, Zhiqing Peng, and Qinhuo Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 949–969,Short summary
This study proposes a simple but efficient model for estimating daily evapotranspiration considering heterogeneity of mixed pixels. In order to do so, an equation to calculate evapotranspiration fraction (EF) of mixed pixels was derived based on two key hypotheses. The model is easy to apply and is independent and easy to be embedded in the traditional remote sensing algorithms of heat fluxes to get daily ET.
Felix Zaussinger, Wouter Dorigo, Alexander Gruber, Angelica Tarpanelli, Paolo Filippucci, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 897–923,Short summary
About 70 % of global freshwater is consumed by irrigation. Yet, policy-relevant estimates of irrigation water use (IWU) are virtually lacking at regional to global scales. To bridge this gap, we develop a method for quantifying IWU from a combination of state-of-the-art remotely sensed and modeled soil moisture products and apply it over the United States for the period 2013–2016. Overall, our estimates agree well with reference data on irrigated area and irrigation water withdrawals.
Philippe Cattan, Jean-Baptiste Charlier, Florence Clostre, Philippe Letourmy, Luc Arnaud, Julie Gresser, and Magalie Jannoyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 691–709,Short summary
We investigated the management of long-term environmental pollution by organochlorine pesticides. We selected the case of chlordecone on the island of Martinique. We propose a conceptual model of organochlorine fate accounting for physical conditions relative to soils and geology. This model explains pollution variability in water but also the dynamics of pollution trends. It helps to identify risky areas where pollution will last for a long time and where more attention is needed.
Anoop Kumar Shukla, Shray Pathak, Lalit Pal, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Ana Mijic, and Rahul Dev Garg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5357–5371,Short summary
In this study, we carried out a comparative evaluation of water yield using two approaches, the Lumped Zhang model and the pixel-based approach. Even in pixel-level computations, experiments are made with existing models of some of the involved parameters. The study indicates not only the suitability of pixel-based computations but also clarifies the suitable model of some of the parameters to be used with pixel-based computations to obtain better results.
Anoop Kumar Shukla, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Ana Mijic, Wouter Buytaert, Shray Pathak, Rahul Dev Garg, and Satyavati Shukla
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4745–4770,Short summary
Geospatial technologies and OIP are promising tools to study the effect of demographic changes and LULC transformations on the spatiotemporal variations in the water quality (WQ) across a large river basin. Therefore, this study could help to assess and solve local and regional WQ-related problems over a river basin. It may help the policy makers and planners to understand the status of water pollution so that suitable strategies could be planned for sustainable development in a river basin.
Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Charles R. Lane, Michael G. McManus, Laurie C. Alexander, and Jay R. Christensen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1851–1873,Short summary
Effective monitoring and prediction of flood and drought events requires an improved understanding of surface water dynamics. We examined how the relationship between surface water extent, as mapped using Landsat imagery, and climate, is a function of landscape characteristics, using the Prairie Pothole Region and adjacent Northern Prairie in the United States as our study area. We found that at a landscape scale wetlands play a key role in informing how climate extremes influence surface water.
Mariana Madruga de Brito, Mariele Evers, and Adrian Delos Santos Almoradie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 373–390,Short summary
This paper sheds light on the integration of interdisciplinary knowledge in the assessment of flood vulnerability in Taquari-Antas river basin, Brazil. It shows how stakeholder participation is crucial for increasing not only the acceptance of model results but also its quality.
Nicolas Avisse, Amaury Tilmant, Marc François Müller, and Hua Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6445–6459,Short summary
Information on small reservoir storage is crucial for water management in a river basin. However, it is most of the time not freely available in remote, ungauged, or conflict-torn areas. We propose a novel approach using satellite imagery information only to quantitatively estimate storage variations in such inaccessible areas. We apply the method to southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war, and validate it against in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordan.
Rangaswamy Madugundu, Khalid A. Al-Gaadi, ElKamil Tola, Abdalhaleem A. Hassaballa, and Virupakshagouda C. Patil
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6135–6151,Short summary
In view of the pressing need to assess the productivity of agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia, this study was undertaken in an attempt to apply the METRIC model with Landsat-8 imagery for the determination of spatial and temporal variability in ET aiming at optimizing the quantification of crop water requirement and the formulation of efficient irrigation schedules. This paper will be of great interest to readers in the areas of agriculture (in general), water management and remote sensing.
Clara Linés, Micha Werner, and Wim Bastiaanssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4747–4765,Short summary
This paper aims at identifying Earth observation data sets that can help river basin managers detect drought conditions that may lead to impacts early enough to take mitigation actions. Six remote sensing products were assessed using two types of impact data as a benchmark: media records from a regional newspaper and crop yields. Precipitation, vegetation condition and evapotranspiration products showed the best results, offering early signs of impacts up to 6 months before the reported damages.
Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2685–2700,Short summary
We present a multi-sensor retrieval algorithm for flood extent mapping at high spatial and temporal resolution. While visible bands provide flood mapping at fine spatial resolution, their capability is very limited in a cloudy sky. Passive microwaves can penetrate through clouds but cannot detect small-scale flooded surfaces due to their coarse resolution. The proposed method takes advantage of these two observations to retrieve sub-pixel flooded surfaces in all-sky conditions.
Joseph G. Alfieri, Martha C. Anderson, William P. Kustas, and Carmelo Cammalleri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 83–98,
Yan Zhao, Yongping Wei, Shoubo Li, and Bingfang Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4469–4481,Short summary
The paper finds that combined inflow from both current and previous years' discharge determines water availability in downstream regions. Temperature determines broad vegetation distribution while hydrological variables show significant effects only in near-river-channel regions. Agricultural development curtailed further vegetation recovery in the studied area. Enhancing current water allocation schemes and regulating regional agricultural activities are required for future restoration.
Markus Enenkel, Christoph Reimer, Wouter Dorigo, Wolfgang Wagner, Isabella Pfeil, Robert Parinussa, and Richard De Jeu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4191–4208,Short summary
Soil moisture is a crucial variable for a variety of applications, ranging from weather forecasting and agricultural production to the monitoring of floods and droughts. Satellite observations are particularly important in regions where no in situ measurements are available. Our study presents a method to integrate global near-real-time satellite observations from different sensors into one harmonized, daily data set. A first validation shows good results on a global scale.
Behzad Hessari, Adriana Bruggeman, Ali Mohammad Akhoond-Ali, Theib Oweis, and Fariborz Abbasi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1903–1910,Short summary
Yields of rainfed winter crops such as wheat can be substantially improved with limited supplemental irrigation. The upper Karkheh River basin in Iran has 15 840 km2 of rainfed crops. A GIS method was designed to identify suitable areas for irrigation and a routine was developed to allocate water uses and route the flows downstream. A maximum of 13 % of the rainfed cropland could be irrigated under normal flow, 9 % if environmental flow requirements are considered and 6 % under drought conditions.
Ting Xia, William P. Kustas, Martha C. Anderson, Joseph G. Alfieri, Feng Gao, Lynn McKee, John H. Prueger, Hatim M. E. Geli, Christopher M. U. Neale, Luis Sanchez, Maria Mar Alsina, and Zhongjing Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1523–1545,Short summary
This paper describes a model inter-comparison and validation study conducted using sub-meter resolution thermal data from an aircraft. The model inter-comparison is between a physically based model and a very simple empirical model. The strengths and weaknesses of both modeling approaches for high-resolution mapping of water use in vineyards is described. The findings provide significant insight into the utility of complex versus simple models for precise water resources management.
P. Karimi and W. G. M. Bastiaanssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 507–532,
P. Karimi, W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, A. Sood, J. Hoogeveen, L. Peiser, E. Bastidas-Obando, and R. J. Dost
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 533–550,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2007–2020,
C. Cammalleri, M. C. Anderson, and W. P. Kustas
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1885–1894,
L. Longuevergne, C. R. Wilson, B. R. Scanlon, and J. F. Crétaux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4817–4830,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3623–3637,
R. Guzinski, M. C. Anderson, W. P. Kustas, H. Nieto, and I. Sandholt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2809–2825,
X. M. Feng, G. Sun, B. J. Fu, C. H. Su, Y. Liu, and H. Lamparski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2617–2628,
N. Baghdadi, R. Cresson, M. El Hajj, R. Ludwig, and I. La Jeunesse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1607–1621,
J. Van doninck, J. Peters, H. Lievens, B. De Baets, and N. E. C. Verhoest
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 773–786,
R. R. E. Vernimmen, A. Hooijer, Mamenun, E. Aldrian, and A. I. J. M. van Dijk
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 133–146,
G.-J. Yang, C.-J. Zhao, W.-J. Huang, and J.-H. Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2317–2326,
J. Negrel, P. Kosuth, and N. Bercher
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2049–2058,
R. Fieuzal, B. Duchemin, L. Jarlan, M. Zribi, F. Baup, O. Merlin, O. Hagolle, and J. Garatuza-Payan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1117–1129,
F. Baup, E. Mougin, P. de Rosnay, P. Hiernaux, F. Frappart, P. L. Frison, M. Zribi, and J. Viarre
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 603–616,
M. Zribi, A. Chahbi, M. Shabou, Z. Lili-Chabaane, B. Duchemin, N. Baghdadi, R. Amri, and A. Chehbouni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 345–358,
L. A. Gibson, Z. Münch, and J. Engelbrecht
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 151–162,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1731–1744,
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Hutchinson, M. F., Stein, J. L., and Stein, J. A.: Nested Catchments and Sub-Catchments for the Australian Continent [Digital Dataset], available at: http://adl.brs.gov.au/anrdl/metadata_files/pa_ancs_r9gm__00211a01.xml (last access: 9 December 2013), 2000.
Hutchinson, M. F., Nix, H. A., and McTaggart, C.: GROWEST Version 2.0. Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Australia, available at: http://fennerschool.anu.edu.au/research/products (last access: 9 December 2013), 2004.
Hutchinson, M. F., Stein, J. A., Stein, J. L., Anderson, H., and Tickle, P.: GEODATA 9 Second DEM and D8. Digital Elevation Model Version 3 and Flow Direction Grid User Guide: available at: https://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/GA11644.pdf (last access: 10 December 2013), 2008.
Jansen, J. D. and Nanson, G. C.: Anabranching and maximum flow efficiency in Magela Creek, northern Australia, Water Resour. Res., 40, W04503, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003wr002408, 2004.
Jensen, M. E., Christensen, N. L. J., and Bourgeron, P. S.: An overview of ecological assessment principles and applications, in: A Guidebook for Integrated Ecological Assessments, edited by: Jensen, M. E. and Bourgeron, P. S., Springer-Verlag, New York, 13–28, 2001.
Jenson, S. K.: Applications of hydrologic information automatically extracted from digital elevation models, Hydrol. Process., 5, 31–44, 1991.
Jerie, K., Household, I., and Peters, D.: Tasmania's river geomorphology: stream character and regional analysis, Volume 1, Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Nature Conservation Report 03/5, 126 pp., Hobart, 2003.
Kennard, M. J. (Ed.).: Identifying high conservation value aquatic ecosystems in northern Australia. Final Report for the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts and the National Water Commission, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/policy-programs/nawfa-hcvae-trial-report.html (last access: 9 December 2013), 2010.
Kesteven, J., Landsberg, J., and URS Australia: Developing a national forest productivity model, Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, National Carbon Accounting System Technical Report, 104 pp., 2004.
Kingsford, R. T., Boulton, A. J., and Puckridge, J. T.: Challenges in managing dryland rivers crossing political boundaries: lessons from Cooper Creek and the Paroo River, central Australia, Aquatic Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 8, 361–378, 1998.
Kingsford, R. T., Thomas, R. F., and Curtin, A. L.: Conservation of wetlands in the Paroo and Warrego catchments in arid Australia, Pacific Conserv. Biol., 7, 21–33, 2001.
Kingsford, R. T., Dunn, H., Love, D., Nevill, J., Stein, J. L., and Tait, J. T.: Protecting Australia's rivers, wetlands and estuaries of high conservation value, Department of Environment and Heritage Australia, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/environmental/prote cting-rivers.html (last access: 9 December 2013), 2005.
Klein, C., Wilson, K., Watts, M., Stein, J., Berry, S., Carwardine, J., Stafford Smith, M., Mackey, B., and Possingham, H.: Incorporating ecological and evolutionary processes into large-scale conservation planning, Ecol. Appl., 19, 206–217, 2009a.
Klein, C. J., Wilson, K. A., Watts, M., Stein, J., Carwardine, J., Mackey, B., and Possingham, H. P.: Spatial conservation prioritization inclusive of wilderness quality: a case study of Australia's biodiversity, Biol. Conserv., 142, 1282–1290, 2009b.
Lehner, B., and Grill, G.: Global river hydrography and network routing: baseline data and new approaches to study the world's large river systems, Hydrol. Process., 27, 2171–2186, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9740, 2013.
Lehner, B., Verdin, K., and Jarvis, A.: New global hydrography derived from spaceborne elevation data, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 89, 93–94, 2008.
Linke, S., Turak, E., and Nel, J.: Freshwater conservation planning: the case for systematic approaches, Freshw. Biol., 56, 6–20, 2011.
Linke, S., Kennard, M. J., Hermoso, V., Olden, J. D., Stein, J., and Pusey, B. J.: Merging connectivity rules and large-scale condition assessment improves conservation adequacy in river systems, J. Appl. Ecol., 49, 1036–1045, 2012.
Liu, S. F., Raymond, O. L., Stewart, A. J., Sweet, I. P., Duggan, M., Charlick, C., Phillips, D., and Retter, A. J.: Surface geology of Australia 1 : 1 000 000 scale, Northern Territory [Digital Dataset], The Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 2006.
McKay, L., Bondelid, T., Dewald, T., Rea, A., Johnston, C., and Moore, R.: NHDPlus Version 2: User Guide (Data Model Version 2.1), United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013.
McMahon, T. A., Vogel, R. M., Peel, M. C., and Pegram, G. G. S.: Global streamflows – Part 1: Characteristics of annual streamflows, J. Hydrol., 347, 243–259, 2007.
Montgomery, D. R. and Foufoula-Georgiou, E.: Channel network source representation using digital elevation models, Water Resour. Res., 29, 3925–3934, 1993.
National Land and Water Resources Audit: Rainfall erosivity (R factor) [Digital Dataset], available at: http://data.daff.gov.au/anrdl/metadata_files/pa_rer__r9cl__00511a00.xml (last access: 10 December 2013), 2000.
Ormerod, S. J.: Three challenges for the science of river conservation, Aquatic Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 9, 551–558, 1999.
Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., Stein, J. L., Olden, J. D., Mackay, S. J., Hutchinson, M. F., and Sheldon, F.: Ecohydrological Regionalisation of Australia: a tool for management and science. Innovations Project GRU36, Final Report to Land and Water Australia, Land and Water Australia, Canberra, available at: http://lwa.gov.au/products/pn22591 (last access: 10 December 2013), 2009.
Raupach, M. R., Kirby, J. M., Barrett, D. J., and Briggs, P. R.: Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Australian Landscapes: (1) Project Description and Results, CSIRO Land and Water, Technical Report 40/01, Canberra, 2001.
Raupach, M. R., Briggs, P. R., Haverd, V., King, E. A., Paget, M., and Trudinger, C. M.: Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP): CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Component: Final Report for Phase 3, CAWCR Technical Report No. 013. 67 pp., 2009
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Raymond, O. L., Liu, S. F., Kilgour, P., Retter, A. J., and Connolly, D. P.: Surface geology of Australia 1:1 000 000 scale, Victoria, 3rd Edn. [Digital Dataset], The Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 2007b.
Raymond, O. L., Liu, S. F., Kilgour, P. L., Retter, A. J., Stewart, A. J., and Stewart, G.: Surface geology of Australia 1:1 000 000 scale, New South Wales, 2nd Edn. [Digital Dataset], The Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 2007c.
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Stein, J. L. and Hutchinson, M. F.: A review of nested catchment reference systems for Version 1.0 of the National Catchments and Reporting Units, Report to the Bureau of Meteorology, Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, 25 pp., 2008.
Stein, J. L., Stein, J. A., and Nix, H. A.: The Identification of Wild Rivers, Methodology and Database Development, Environment Australia, Canberra, 73 pp., available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/publications/anlr/wild- river-identification.html (last access: 10 December 2013), 1998.
Stein, J. L., Stein, J. A., and Nix, H. A.: Spatial analysis of anthropogenic river disturbance at regional and continental scales: identifying the wild rivers of Australia, Landsc. Urban Plan., 60, 1–25, 2002.
Stein, J. L., Hutchinson, M. F., and Stein, J. A.: Appendix 7. Development of a continent-wide spatial framework, in: Ecohydrological regionalisation of Australia: a tool for management and science. Innovations Project GRU36, Final Report to Land and Water Australia, edited by: Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., Stein, J. L., Olden, J. D., Mackay, S. J., Hutchinson, M. F., and Sheldon, F., Land and Water Australia, Canberra, 1–13, available at: http://lwa.gov.au/ products/pn22591 (last access: 10 December 2013), 2009a.
Stein, J. L., Hutchinson, M. F., Pusey, B. J., and Kennard, M. J.: Appendix 8. Ecohydrological classification based on landscape and climate data, in: Ecohydrological Regionalisation of Australia: a Tool for Management and Science. Innovations Project GRU36, Final Report to Land and Water Australia, edited by: Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., Stein, J. L., Olden, J. D., Mackay, S. J., Hutchinson, M. F., and Sheldon, F., Land and Water Australia, Canberra, 1–48, available at: http://lwa.gov.au/products/pn22591 (last access: 10 December 2013), 2009b.
Stewart, A. J., Sweet, I. P., Needham, R. S., Raymond, O. L., Whitaker, A. J., Liu, S. F., Phillips, D., Retter, A. J., Connolly, D. P., and Stewart, G.: Surface geology of Australia 1:1 000 000 scale, Western Australia [Digital Dataset], The Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 2008.
Turak, E. and Blakey, R.: Using compositional turnover for observing changes in freshwater biodiversity at broad-spatial scales (abstract), ASL & NZFSS 2011 Congress, "Variability and the future of aquatic ecosystems in Australia and New Zealand", Brisbane, Queensland, 2011.
Turak, E., Ferrier, S., Barrett, T., Mesley, E., Drielsma, M., Manion, G., Doyle, G., Stein, J., and Gordon, G.: Planning for the persistence of river biodiversity: exploring alternative futures using process-based models, Freshw. Biol., 56, 39–56, 2011.
US Geological Survey: HYDRO1K Elevation Derivative Database, available at: https://lta.cr.usgs.gov/HYDRO1K (last access: 18 October 2013), 2001.
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Vogt, J., Soille, P., de Jager, A., Rimaviciute, E., Mehl, W., Foisneau, S., Bódis, K., Dusart, J., Paracchini, M. L., Haastrup, P., and Bamps, C.: A pan-European River and Catchment Database, European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy, JRC 40291, 124 pp., 2007.
Walsh, C., Stewardson, M., Stein, J., and Wealands, S.: Sustainable Rivers Audit Filters Project Stage 2. Report to Murray Darling Basin Commission, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 54 pp., 2007.
Wang, L., Infante, D., Esselman, P., Cooper, A., Wu, D., Taylor, W., Beard, D., Whelan, G., and Ostroff, A.: A hierarchical spatial framework and database for the national river fish habitat condition assessment, Fisheries, 36, 436–449, 2011.
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Whitaker, A. J., Glanville, D. H., English, P. M., Stewart, A. J., Retter, A. J., Connolly, D. P., Stewart, G. A., and Fisher, C. L.: Surface geology of Australia 1:1 000 000 scale, South Australia [Digital Dataset], The Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 2008.
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