Articles | Volume 25, issue 11
Research article 11 Nov 2021
Research article | 11 Nov 2021
Changes in glacial lakes in the Poiqu River basin in the central Himalayas
Pengcheng Su et al.
No articles found.
Xia Fei Tian, Yong Li, and Quan Yan Tian
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Publication in NHESS not foreseenShort summary
81 tributaries and 908 landslides are taken, this paper firstly reveals the spatial distribution of landslides. The relationship between hypsometric curve integral and landslides shows that the landslides number increases exponentially with hypsometric curve integral and the landslides area is concentrated in hypsometric curve integral between 0.5 and 0.6, it means that sufficient material for debris flows can be provided, which explains the reason that JJG has the debris flow of high frequency.
Xia Fei Tian, Yong Li, Quan Yan Tian, and Feng Huan Su
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
The relationship between geomorphic evolution and landslides distribution can reveal the landslides distribution characteristics of tributaries, 81 tributaries and 908 landslides are taken, it is found that the LD increases exponentially with EI and the LAp is concentrated in EI between 0.5 and 0.6, it means that sufficient material for debris flows can be provided, which explains the reason that JJG has the debris flow of high frequency.
J.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Cheng, and Y. Li
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 3065–3075,
Related subject area
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Concetta Di Mauro, Renaud Hostache, Patrick Matgen, Ramona Pelich, Marco Chini, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Nancy K. Nichols, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4081–4097,Short summary
This study evaluates how the sequential assimilation of flood extent derived from synthetic aperture radar data can help improve flood forecasting. In particular, we carried out twin experiments based on a synthetically generated dataset with controlled uncertainty. Our empirical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed data assimilation framework, as forecasting errors are substantially reduced as a result of the assimilation.
Connor Mullen, Gopal Penny, and Marc F. Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2373–2386,Short summary
The level of lake water is rapidly changing globally, and long-term, consistent observations of lake water extents are essential for ascertaining and attributing these changes. These data are rarely collected and challenging to obtain from satellite imagery. The proposed method addresses these challenges without any local data, and it was successfully validated against lakes with and without ground data. The algorithm is a valuable tool for the reliable historical water extent of changing lakes.
Song Shu, Hongxing Liu, Richard A. Beck, Frédéric Frappart, Johanna Korhonen, Minxuan Lan, Min Xu, Bo Yang, and Yan Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1643–1670,Short summary
This study comprehensively evaluated 11 satellite radar altimetry missions (including their official retrackers) for lake water level retrieval and developed a strategy for constructing consistent long-term water level records for inland lakes. It is a two-step bias correction and normalization procedure. First, we use Jason-2 as the initial reference to form a consistent TOPEX/Poseidon–Jason series. Then, we use this as the reference to remove the biases with other radar altimetry missions.
Cecile M. M. Kittel, Liguang Jiang, Christian Tøttrup, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 333–357,Short summary
In poorly instrumented catchments, satellite altimetry offers a unique possibility to obtain water level observations. Improvements in instrument design have increased the capabilities of altimeters to observe inland water bodies, including rivers. In this study, we demonstrate how a dense Sentinel-3 water surface elevation monitoring network can be established at catchment scale using publicly accessible processing platforms. The network can serve as a useful supplement to ground observations.
Jean Bergeron, Gabriela Siles, Robert Leconte, Mélanie Trudel, Damien Desroches, and Daniel L. Peters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5985–6000,Short summary
We want to assess how well the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to provide information on lake surface water elevation and how much of an impact wind conditions (speed and direction) can have on these retrievals.
Charlotte Marie Emery, Sylvain Biancamaria, Aaron Boone, Sophie Ricci, Mélanie C. Rochoux, Vanessa Pedinotti, and Cédric H. David
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2207–2233,Short summary
The flow of freshwater in rivers is commonly studied with computer programs known as hydrological models. An important component of those programs lies in the description of the river environment, such as the channel resistance to the flow, that is critical to accurately predict the river flow but is still not well known. Satellite data can be combined with models to enrich our knowledge of these features. Here, we show that the coming SWOT mission can help better know this channel resistance.
Anette Eltner, Hannes Sardemann, and Jens Grundmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1429–1445,Short summary
An automatic workflow is introduced to measure surface flow velocities in rivers. The provided tool enables the measurement of spatially distributed surface flow velocities independently of the image acquisition perspective. Furthermore, the study illustrates how river discharge in previously ungauged and unmeasured regions can be retrieved, considering the image-based flow velocities and digital elevation models of the studied river reach reconstructed with UAV photogrammetry.
Andreas Kääb, Bas Altena, and Joseph Mascaro
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4233–4247,Short summary
Knowledge of water surface velocities in rivers is useful for understanding a wide range of processes and systems, but is difficult to measure over large reaches. Here, we present a novel method to exploit near-simultaneous imagery produced by the Planet cubesat constellation to track river ice floes and estimate water surface velocities. We demonstrate the method for a 60 km long reach of the Amur River and a 200 km long reach of the Yukon River.
Najib Abou Karaki, Simone Fiaschi, Killian Paenen, Mohammad Al-Awabdeh, and Damien Closson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2111–2127,Short summary
The Dead Sea shore is a unique salt karst system. Development began in the 1960s, when the water resources that used to feed the Dead Sea were diverted. The water level is falling at more than 1 m yr−1, causing a hydrostatic disequilibrium between the underground fresh water and the base level. Despite these conditions, tourism development projects have flourished. Here, we show that a 10 km long strip of coast that encompasses several resorts is exposed to subsidence, sinkholes and landslides.
Tim Busker, Ad de Roo, Emiliano Gelati, Christian Schwatke, Marko Adamovic, Berny Bisselink, Jean-Francois Pekel, and Andrew Cottam
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 669–690,Short summary
This paper estimates lake and reservoir volume variations over all continents from 1984 to 2015 using remote sensing alone. This study improves on previous methodologies by using the Global Surface Water dataset developed by the Joint Research Centre, which allowed for volume calculations on a global scale, a high resolution (30 m) and back to 1984 using very detailed lake area dynamics. Using 18 in situ volume time series as validation, our volume estimates showed a high accuracy.
Andrew Ogilvie, Gilles Belaud, Sylvain Massuel, Mark Mulligan, Patrick Le Goulven, and Roger Calvez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4349–4380,Short summary
Accurate monitoring of surface water extent is essential for hydrological investigation of small lakes (1–10 ha), which supports millions of smallholder farmers. Landsat monitoring of long-term surface water dynamics is shown to be suited to lakes over 3 ha based on extensive hydrometric data from seven field sites over 15 years. MNDWI water classification optimized here for the specificities of small water bodies reduced mean surface area errors by 57 % compared to published global datasets.
Filippo Bandini, Daniel Olesen, Jakob Jakobsen, Cecile Marie Margaretha Kittel, Sheng Wang, Monica Garcia, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4165–4181,Short summary
Water depth observations are essential data to forecast flood hazard, predict sediment transport, or monitor in-stream habitats. We retrieved bathymetry with a sonar wired to a drone. This system can improve the speed and spatial scale at which water depth observations are retrieved. Observations can be retrieved also in unnavigable or inaccessible rivers. Water depth observations showed an accuracy of ca. 2.1 % of actual depth, without being affected by water turbidity or bed material.
Kiana Zolfaghari, Claude R. Duguay, and Homa Kheyrollah Pour
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 377–391,Short summary
A remotely-sensed water clarity value (Kd) was applied to improve FLake model simulations of Lake Erie thermal structure using a time-invariant (constant) annual value as well as monthly values of Kd. The sensitivity of FLake model to Kd values was studied. It was shown that the model is very sensitive to variations in Kd when the value is less than 0.5 m-1.
Tomasz Niedzielski, Matylda Witek, and Waldemar Spallek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3193–3205,Short summary
We study detectability of changes in water surface areas on orthophotomaps. We use unmanned aerial vehicles to acquire visible light photographs. We offer a new method for detecting changes in water surface areas and river stages. The approach is based on the application of the Student's t test, in asymptotic and bootstrapped versions. We test our approach on aerial photos taken during 3-year observational campaign. We detect transitions between all characteristic river stages using drone data.
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4479–4492,Short summary
This work shows that satellite thermal infrared images (LANDSAT) can be used to locate and quantify groundwater discharge into a large river (Loire River, France - 100 to 300 m wide). Groundwater discharge rate is found to be highly variable with time and space and maximum during flow recession periods and in winter. The main identified groundwater discharge area into the Loire River corresponds to a known discharge area of the Beauce aquifer.
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1943–1959,Short summary
We use a virtual mission analysis on a ca. 260km reach of the central Amazon River to assess the hydraulic implications of potential measurement errors in swath-altimetry imagery from the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. We estimated water surface slope from imagery of water heights and then derived channel discharge. Errors in estimated discharge were lowest when using longer reach lengths and channel cross-sectional averaging to estimate water slopes.
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 341–359,Short summary
This paper investigates the possibility of monitoring small water bodies through Envisat altimetry observation. A novel approach is introduced to identify qualified and non-qualified altimetry measurements by assessing the waveform shapes for each returned radar signal. This research indicates that small lakes (extent < 100 km2) and medium-sized rivers (e.g., 200--800 m in width) can be successfully monitored by satellite altimetry.
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4883–4895,Short summary
Many previous studies have used stream gauge data to estimate patterns of river width and depth based on variations in river discharge. However, these relationships may not capture all of the actual variability in width and depth. We have instead mapped the widths of all of the rivers wider than 100 m (and many narrower) in the Mississippi Basin and then used them to also improve estimates of depth as well. Our results show width and depth variations not captured by power-law relationships.
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We identified ± 150 glacial lakes in the Poiqu River basin (central Himalayas), and we explore the changes in five lakes over the last few decades based on remote sensing images, field surveys, and satellite photos. We reconstruct the lake basin topography, calculate the water capacity, and propose a water balance equation (WBE) to explain glacial lake evolution in response to local weather conditions. The WBE also provides a framework for the water balance in rivers from glacierized sources.
We identified ± 150 glacial lakes in the Poiqu River basin (central Himalayas), and we explore...