Articles | Volume 24, issue 11
12 Nov 2020
Research article | 12 Nov 2020
Mapping groundwater abstractions from irrigated agriculture: big data, inverse modeling, and a satellite–model fusion approach
Oliver Miguel López Valencia et al.
Oliver López, Rasmus Houborg, and Matthew Francis McCabe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 323–343,Short summary
The study evaluated the spatial and temporal consistency of satellite-based hydrological products based on the water budget equation, including three global evaporation products. The products were spatially matched using spherical harmonics analysis. The results highlighted the difficulty in obtaining agreement between independent satellite products, even over regions with simple water budgets. However, imposing a time lag on water storage data improved results considerably.
Rui Sun, Alison Cobb, Ana B. Villas Bôas, Sabique Langodan, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Matthew R. Mazloff, Bruce D. Cornuelle, Arthur J. Miller, Raju Pathak, and Ibrahim Hoteit
In this work, we integrated the WaveWatch III model into the regional coupled model SKRIPS. We then performed a case study using the newly implemented model to study the tropical cyclone Mekunu, which occurred in the Arabian Sea. We found that the coupled model better simulates the cyclone than the uncoupled model, but the impact of waves on the cyclone is not significant. However, the waves change the sea surface temperature and mixed layer, especially in the cold wave due to the cyclone.
M. G. Ziliani, M. U. Altaf, B. Aragon, R. Houborg, T. E. Franz, Y. Lu, J. Sheffield, I. Hoteit, and M. F. McCabe
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B3-2022, 1045–1052,
Rui Sun, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, Matthew R. Mazloff, Ibrahim Hoteit, and Bruce D. Cornuelle
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4221–4244,Short summary
A new regional coupled ocean–atmosphere model, SKRIPS, is developed and presented. The oceanic component is the MITgcm and the atmospheric component is the WRF model. The coupler is implemented using ESMF according to NUOPC protocols. SKRIPS is demonstrated by simulating a series of extreme heat events occurring in the Red Sea region. We show that SKRIPS is capable of performing coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations. In addition, the scalability test shows SKRIPS is computationally efficient.
K. Johansen, M. J. L. Morton, Y. Malbeteau, B. Aragon, S. Al-Mashharawi, M. Ziliani, Y. Angel, G. Fiene, S. Negrao, M. A. A. Mousa, M. A. Tester, and M. F. McCabe
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 407–411,
Hugo Cruz-Jiménez, Guotu Li, Paul Martin Mai, Ibrahim Hoteit, and Omar M. Knio
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3071–3088,Short summary
One of the most important challenges seismologists and earthquake engineers face is reliably estimating ground motion in an area prone to large damaging earthquakes. This study aimed at better understanding the relationship between characteristics of geological faults (e.g., hypocenter location, rupture size/location, etc.) and resulting ground motion, via statistical analysis of a rupture simulation model. This study provides important insight on ground-motion responses to geological faults.
Khan Zaib Jadoon, Muhammad Umer Altaf, Matthew Francis McCabe, Ibrahim Hoteit, Nisar Muhammad, Davood Moghadas, and Lutz Weihermüller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5375–5383,Short summary
In this study electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were used to estimate soil salinity in an agriculture field irrigated with a drip irrigation system. Electromagnetic model parameters and uncertainty were estimated using adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Application of the MCMC-based inversion to the synthetic and field measurements demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil.
D. Turner, A. Lucieer, M. McCabe, S. Parkes, and I. Clarke
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W6, 379–384,
Matthew F. McCabe, Matthew Rodell, Douglas E. Alsdorf, Diego G. Miralles, Remko Uijlenhoet, Wolfgang Wagner, Arko Lucieer, Rasmus Houborg, Niko E. C. Verhoest, Trenton E. Franz, Jiancheng Shi, Huilin Gao, and Eric F. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3879–3914,Short summary
We examine the opportunities and challenges that technological advances in Earth observation will present to the hydrological community. From advanced space-based sensors to unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based distributed networks, these emergent systems are set to revolutionize our understanding and interpretation of hydrological and related processes.
Stephen D. Parkes, Matthew F. McCabe, Alan D. Griffiths, Lixin Wang, Scott Chambers, Ali Ershadi, Alastair G. Williams, Josiah Strauss, and Adrian Element
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 533–548,Short summary
Determining atmospheric moisture sources is required for understanding the water cycle. The role of land surface fluxes is a particular source of uncertainty for moisture budgets. Water vapour isotopes have the potential to improve constraints on moisture sources. In this work relationships between water vapour isotopes and land–atmosphere exchange are studied. Results show that land surface evaporative fluxes play a minor role in the daytime water and isotope budgets in semi-arid environments.
Jason P. Evans, Xianhong Meng, and Matthew F. McCabe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 409–422,Short summary
This work demonstrates that changes in surface albedo and vegetation, caused by the millennium drought in south-east Australia, affected the atmosphere in a way that decreased precipitation further. This land–surface feedback increased the severity of the drought by 10 %. This suggests that climate models need to simulate changes in surface characteristics (other than soil moisture) in response to a developing drought if they are to capture this kind of multi-year drought.
Oliver López, Rasmus Houborg, and Matthew Francis McCabe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 323–343,Short summary
The study evaluated the spatial and temporal consistency of satellite-based hydrological products based on the water budget equation, including three global evaporation products. The products were spatially matched using spherical harmonics analysis. The results highlighted the difficulty in obtaining agreement between independent satellite products, even over regions with simple water budgets. However, imposing a time lag on water storage data improved results considerably.
Mohamad E. Gharamti, Johan Valstar, Gijs Janssen, Annemieke Marsman, and Ibrahim Hoteit
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4561–4583,Short summary
The paper addresses the issue of sampling errors when using the ensemble Kalman filter, in particular its hybrid and second-order formulations. The presented work is aimed at estimating concentration and biodegradation rates of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Overall, we found that accounting for both forecast and observation sampling errors in the joint data assimilation system helps recover more accurate state and parameter estimates.
Raghavendra B. Jana, Ali Ershadi, and Matthew F. McCabe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3987–4004,Short summary
Interactions between soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation affect responses between land surface and the atmosphere across scales. We present an analysis of the link between soil moisture and evaporation estimates from three distinct models. The relationships were examined over nearly 2 years of observation data. Results show that while direct correlations of raw data were mostly not useful, the root-zone soil moisture and the modelled evaporation estimates reflect similar distributions.
Boujemaa Ait-El-Fquih, Mohamad El Gharamti, and Ibrahim Hoteit
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3289–3307,Short summary
We derive a new dual ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for state-parameter estimation. The derivation is based on the one-step-ahead smoothing formulation, and unlike the standard dual EnKF, it is consistent with the Bayesian formulation of the state-parameter estimation problem and uses the observations in both state smoothing and forecast. This is shown to enhance the performance and robustness of the dual EnKF in experiments conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic groundwater aquifer model.
D. G. Miralles, C. Jiménez, M. Jung, D. Michel, A. Ershadi, M. F. McCabe, M. Hirschi, B. Martens, A. J. Dolman, J. B. Fisher, Q. Mu, S. I. Seneviratne, E. F. Wood, and D. Fernández-Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 823–842,Short summary
The WACMOS-ET project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Evaluation of current evaporation data sets on the global scale showed that they manifest large dissimilarities during conditions of water stress and drought and deficiencies in the way evaporation is partitioned into several components. Different models perform better under different conditions, highlighting the potential for considering biome- or climate-specific model ensembles.
D. Michel, C. Jiménez, D. G. Miralles, M. Jung, M. Hirschi, A. Ershadi, B. Martens, M. F. McCabe, J. B. Fisher, Q. Mu, S. I. Seneviratne, E. F. Wood, and D. Fernández-Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 803–822,Short summary
In this study a common reference input data set from satellite and in situ data is used to run four established evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms using sub-daily and daily input on a tower scale as a testbed for a global ET product. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for satellite and in situ forcing as well as for the different temporal resolutions. PM-MOD and SEBS perform less well: the PM-MOD model generally underestimates, while SEBS generally overestimates ET.
M. F. McCabe, A. Ershadi, C. Jimenez, D. G. Miralles, D. Michel, and E. F. Wood
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 283–305,Short summary
In an effort to develop a global terrestrial evaporation product, four models were forced using both a tower and grid-based data set. Comparisons against flux-tower observations from different biome and land cover types show considerable inter-model variability and sensitivity to forcing type. Results suggest that no single model is able to capture expected flux patterns and response. It is suggested that a multi-model ensemble is likely to provide a more stable long-term flux estimate.
Related subject area
Subject: Water Resources Management | Techniques and Approaches: Remote Sensing and GISMonitoring the combined effects of drought and salinity stress on crops using remote sensing in the NetherlandsA framework for irrigation performance assessment using WaPOR data: the case of a sugarcane estate in MozambiqueSatellite observations reveal 13 years of reservoir filling strategies, operating rules, and hydrological alterations in the Upper Mekong River basinSatellite soil moisture data assimilation for improved operational continental water balance predictionMulti-constellation GNSS interferometric reflectometry with mass-market sensors as a solution for soil moisture monitoringCan we trust remote sensing evapotranspiration products over Africa?Influence of multi-decadal land use, irrigation practices and climate on riparian corridors across the Upper Missouri River headwaters basin, MontanaDeveloping GIS-based water poverty and rainwater harvesting suitability maps for domestic use in the Dead Sea region (West Bank, Palestine)Estimating daily evapotranspiration based on a model of evaporative fraction (EF) for mixed pixelsEstimating irrigation water use over the contiguous United States by combining satellite and reanalysis soil moisture dataA conceptual model of organochlorine fate from a combined analysis of spatial and mid- to long-term trends of surface and ground water contamination in tropical areas (FWI)Spatio-temporal assessment of annual water balance models for upper Ganga BasinPopulation growth, land use and land cover transformations, and water quality nexus in the Upper Ganga River basinWetlands inform how climate extremes influence surface water expansion and contractionParticipatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approachMonitoring small reservoirs' storage with satellite remote sensing in inaccessible areasPerformance of the METRIC model in estimating evapotranspiration fluxes over an irrigated field in Saudi Arabia using Landsat-8 imagesThe predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data setsA multi-sensor data-driven methodology for all-sky passive microwave inundation retrievalEffect of the revisit interval and temporal upscaling methods on the accuracy of remotely sensed evapotranspiration estimatesDownstream ecosystem responses to middle reach regulation of river discharge in the Heihe River Basin, ChinaCombining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applicationsSupplemental irrigation potential and impact on downstream flow of Karkheh River basin in IranMapping evapotranspiration with high-resolution aircraft imagery over vineyards using one- and two-source modeling schemesSpatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting – Part 1: Review of the accuracy of the remote sensing dataSpatial evapotranspiration, rainfall and land use data in water accounting – Part 2: Reliability of water acounting results for policy decisions in the Awash BasinCombining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakesUpscaling of evapotranspiration fluxes from instantaneous to daytime scales for thermal remote sensing applicationsA new stream and nested catchment framework for AustraliaGRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storageAn original interpretation of the wet edge of the surface temperature–albedo space to estimate crop evapotranspiration (SEB-1S), and its validation over an irrigated area in northwestern MexicoUsing a thermal-based two source energy balance model with time-differencing to estimate surface energy fluxes with day–night MODIS observationsRegional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, ChinaEstimation of soil parameters over bare agriculture areas from C-band polarimetric SAR data using neural networksAccounting for seasonality in a soil moisture change detection algorithm for ASAR Wide Swath time seriesEvaluation and bias correction of satellite rainfall data for drought monitoring in IndonesiaExtension of the Hapke bidirectional reflectance model to retrieve soil water contentEstimating river discharge from earth observation measurements of river surface hydraulic variablesCombined use of optical and radar satellite data for the monitoring of irrigation and soil moisture of wheat cropsMapping surface soil moisture over the Gourma mesoscale site (Mali) by using ENVISAT ASAR dataSoil surface moisture estimation over a semi-arid region using ENVISAT ASAR radar data for soil evaporation evaluationParticular uncertainties encountered in using a pre-packaged SEBS model to derive evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous study area in South AfricaEffective roughness modelling as a tool for soil moisture retrieval from C- and L-band SARCombined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean regionIdentification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile, Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model
Wen Wen, Joris Timmermans, Qi Chen, and Peter M. van Bodegom
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4537–4552,Short summary
A novel approach for evaluating individual and combined impacts of drought and salinity in real-life settings is proposed using Sentinel-2. We found that crop responses to drought and salinity differ between growth stages. Compared to salinity, crop growth is most strongly affected by drought stress and is, in general, further exacerbated when co-occurring with salinity stress. Our approach facilitates a way to monitor crop health under multiple stresses with potential large-scale applications.
Abebe D. Chukalla, Marloes L. Mul, Pieter van der Zaag, Gerardo van Halsema, Evaristo Mubaya, Esperança Muchanga, Nadja den Besten, and Poolad Karimi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2759–2778,Short summary
New techniques to monitor the performance of irrigation schemes are vital to improve land and water productivity. We developed a framework and applied the remotely sensed FAO WaPOR dataset to assess uniformity, equity, adequacy, and land and water productivity at the Xinavane sugarcane estate, segmented by three irrigation methods. The developed performance assessment framework and the Python script in Jupyter Notebooks can aid in such irrigation performance analysis in other regions.
Dung Trung Vu, Thanh Duc Dang, Stefano Galelli, and Faisal Hossain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2345–2364,Short summary
The lack of data on how big dams are operated in the Upper Mekong, or Lancang, largely contributes to the ongoing controversy between China and the other Mekong countries. Here, we rely on satellite observations to reconstruct monthly storage time series for the 10 largest reservoirs in the Lancang. Our analysis shows how quickly reservoirs were filled in, what decisions were made during recent droughts, and how these decisions impacted downstream discharge.
Siyuan Tian, Luigi J. Renzullo, Robert C. Pipunic, Julien Lerat, Wendy Sharples, and Chantal Donnelly
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4567–4584,Short summary
Accurate daily continental water balance predictions are valuable in monitoring and forecasting water availability and land surface conditions. A simple and robust method was developed for an operational water balance model to constrain model predictions temporally and spatially with satellite soil moisture observations. The improved soil water storage prediction can provide constraints in model forecasts that persist for several weeks.
Angel Martín, Sara Ibáñez, Carlos Baixauli, Sara Blanc, and Ana Belén Anquela
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3573–3582,Short summary
In the case study presented in this paper, the GNSS-IR technique was used to monitor soil moisture during 66 d, from 3 December 2018 to 6 February 2019, in the installations of the Cajamar Centre of Experiences, Paiporta, Valencia, Spain. Two main objectives were pursued. The first was the extension of the technique to a multi-constellation solution using GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO satellites, and the second was to test whether mass-market sensors could be used for this technique.
Imeshi Weerasinghe, Wim Bastiaanssen, Marloes Mul, Li Jia, and Ann van Griensven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1565–1586,Short summary
Water resource allocation to various sectors requires an understanding of the hydrological cycle, where evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component. Satellite-derived products estimate ET but are hard to evaluate at large scales. This work presents an alternate evaluation methodology to point-scale observations in Africa. The paper enables users to select an ET product based on their performance regarding selected criteria using a ranking system. The highest ranked products are WaPOR and CMRSET.
Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Jay R. Christensen, and Laurie C. Alexander
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4269–4292,Short summary
We evaluated trends (1984–2016) in riparian wetness across the Upper Missouri River headwaters basin during peak irrigation months (June, July and August). We found that 8 of the 19 riparian reaches across the basin showed a significant drying trend from 1984 to 2016. The temporal drying trends persisted after removing variability attributable to climate. Instead, the drying trends co-occurred with a shift towards center-pivot irrigation across the basin.
Sameer M. Shadeed, Tariq G. Judeh, and Mohammad N. Almasri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1581–1592,Short summary
The paper aimed to develop DWP and DRWHS maps in the West Bank (Palestine) using an integrated GIS-based MCDA approach. The obtained maps will assist the decision makers to formulate proper strategies including the development of efficient and comprehensive water resource management strategies in trying to bridge the increasing water supply–demand gap for domestic purposes in the West Bank as a recognized area in the Dead Sea region which is facing a series water resource shortage challenges.
Fugen Li, Xiaozhou Xin, Zhiqing Peng, and Qinhuo Liu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 949–969,Short summary
This study proposes a simple but efficient model for estimating daily evapotranspiration considering heterogeneity of mixed pixels. In order to do so, an equation to calculate evapotranspiration fraction (EF) of mixed pixels was derived based on two key hypotheses. The model is easy to apply and is independent and easy to be embedded in the traditional remote sensing algorithms of heat fluxes to get daily ET.
Felix Zaussinger, Wouter Dorigo, Alexander Gruber, Angelica Tarpanelli, Paolo Filippucci, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 897–923,Short summary
About 70 % of global freshwater is consumed by irrigation. Yet, policy-relevant estimates of irrigation water use (IWU) are virtually lacking at regional to global scales. To bridge this gap, we develop a method for quantifying IWU from a combination of state-of-the-art remotely sensed and modeled soil moisture products and apply it over the United States for the period 2013–2016. Overall, our estimates agree well with reference data on irrigated area and irrigation water withdrawals.
Philippe Cattan, Jean-Baptiste Charlier, Florence Clostre, Philippe Letourmy, Luc Arnaud, Julie Gresser, and Magalie Jannoyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 691–709,Short summary
We investigated the management of long-term environmental pollution by organochlorine pesticides. We selected the case of chlordecone on the island of Martinique. We propose a conceptual model of organochlorine fate accounting for physical conditions relative to soils and geology. This model explains pollution variability in water but also the dynamics of pollution trends. It helps to identify risky areas where pollution will last for a long time and where more attention is needed.
Anoop Kumar Shukla, Shray Pathak, Lalit Pal, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Ana Mijic, and Rahul Dev Garg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5357–5371,Short summary
In this study, we carried out a comparative evaluation of water yield using two approaches, the Lumped Zhang model and the pixel-based approach. Even in pixel-level computations, experiments are made with existing models of some of the involved parameters. The study indicates not only the suitability of pixel-based computations but also clarifies the suitable model of some of the parameters to be used with pixel-based computations to obtain better results.
Anoop Kumar Shukla, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Ana Mijic, Wouter Buytaert, Shray Pathak, Rahul Dev Garg, and Satyavati Shukla
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4745–4770,Short summary
Geospatial technologies and OIP are promising tools to study the effect of demographic changes and LULC transformations on the spatiotemporal variations in the water quality (WQ) across a large river basin. Therefore, this study could help to assess and solve local and regional WQ-related problems over a river basin. It may help the policy makers and planners to understand the status of water pollution so that suitable strategies could be planned for sustainable development in a river basin.
Melanie K. Vanderhoof, Charles R. Lane, Michael G. McManus, Laurie C. Alexander, and Jay R. Christensen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1851–1873,Short summary
Effective monitoring and prediction of flood and drought events requires an improved understanding of surface water dynamics. We examined how the relationship between surface water extent, as mapped using Landsat imagery, and climate, is a function of landscape characteristics, using the Prairie Pothole Region and adjacent Northern Prairie in the United States as our study area. We found that at a landscape scale wetlands play a key role in informing how climate extremes influence surface water.
Mariana Madruga de Brito, Mariele Evers, and Adrian Delos Santos Almoradie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 373–390,Short summary
This paper sheds light on the integration of interdisciplinary knowledge in the assessment of flood vulnerability in Taquari-Antas river basin, Brazil. It shows how stakeholder participation is crucial for increasing not only the acceptance of model results but also its quality.
Nicolas Avisse, Amaury Tilmant, Marc François Müller, and Hua Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6445–6459,Short summary
Information on small reservoir storage is crucial for water management in a river basin. However, it is most of the time not freely available in remote, ungauged, or conflict-torn areas. We propose a novel approach using satellite imagery information only to quantitatively estimate storage variations in such inaccessible areas. We apply the method to southern Syria, where ground monitoring is impeded by the ongoing civil war, and validate it against in situ measurements in neighbouring Jordan.
Rangaswamy Madugundu, Khalid A. Al-Gaadi, ElKamil Tola, Abdalhaleem A. Hassaballa, and Virupakshagouda C. Patil
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6135–6151,Short summary
In view of the pressing need to assess the productivity of agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia, this study was undertaken in an attempt to apply the METRIC model with Landsat-8 imagery for the determination of spatial and temporal variability in ET aiming at optimizing the quantification of crop water requirement and the formulation of efficient irrigation schedules. This paper will be of great interest to readers in the areas of agriculture (in general), water management and remote sensing.
Clara Linés, Micha Werner, and Wim Bastiaanssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4747–4765,Short summary
This paper aims at identifying Earth observation data sets that can help river basin managers detect drought conditions that may lead to impacts early enough to take mitigation actions. Six remote sensing products were assessed using two types of impact data as a benchmark: media records from a regional newspaper and crop yields. Precipitation, vegetation condition and evapotranspiration products showed the best results, offering early signs of impacts up to 6 months before the reported damages.
Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2685–2700,Short summary
We present a multi-sensor retrieval algorithm for flood extent mapping at high spatial and temporal resolution. While visible bands provide flood mapping at fine spatial resolution, their capability is very limited in a cloudy sky. Passive microwaves can penetrate through clouds but cannot detect small-scale flooded surfaces due to their coarse resolution. The proposed method takes advantage of these two observations to retrieve sub-pixel flooded surfaces in all-sky conditions.
Joseph G. Alfieri, Martha C. Anderson, William P. Kustas, and Carmelo Cammalleri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 83–98,
Yan Zhao, Yongping Wei, Shoubo Li, and Bingfang Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4469–4481,Short summary
The paper finds that combined inflow from both current and previous years' discharge determines water availability in downstream regions. Temperature determines broad vegetation distribution while hydrological variables show significant effects only in near-river-channel regions. Agricultural development curtailed further vegetation recovery in the studied area. Enhancing current water allocation schemes and regulating regional agricultural activities are required for future restoration.
Markus Enenkel, Christoph Reimer, Wouter Dorigo, Wolfgang Wagner, Isabella Pfeil, Robert Parinussa, and Richard De Jeu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4191–4208,Short summary
Soil moisture is a crucial variable for a variety of applications, ranging from weather forecasting and agricultural production to the monitoring of floods and droughts. Satellite observations are particularly important in regions where no in situ measurements are available. Our study presents a method to integrate global near-real-time satellite observations from different sensors into one harmonized, daily data set. A first validation shows good results on a global scale.
Behzad Hessari, Adriana Bruggeman, Ali Mohammad Akhoond-Ali, Theib Oweis, and Fariborz Abbasi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1903–1910,Short summary
Yields of rainfed winter crops such as wheat can be substantially improved with limited supplemental irrigation. The upper Karkheh River basin in Iran has 15 840 km2 of rainfed crops. A GIS method was designed to identify suitable areas for irrigation and a routine was developed to allocate water uses and route the flows downstream. A maximum of 13 % of the rainfed cropland could be irrigated under normal flow, 9 % if environmental flow requirements are considered and 6 % under drought conditions.
Ting Xia, William P. Kustas, Martha C. Anderson, Joseph G. Alfieri, Feng Gao, Lynn McKee, John H. Prueger, Hatim M. E. Geli, Christopher M. U. Neale, Luis Sanchez, Maria Mar Alsina, and Zhongjing Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1523–1545,Short summary
This paper describes a model inter-comparison and validation study conducted using sub-meter resolution thermal data from an aircraft. The model inter-comparison is between a physically based model and a very simple empirical model. The strengths and weaknesses of both modeling approaches for high-resolution mapping of water use in vineyards is described. The findings provide significant insight into the utility of complex versus simple models for precise water resources management.
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The agricultural sector in Saudi Arabia has expanded rapidly over the last few decades, supported by non-renewable groundwater abstraction. This study describes a novel data–model fusion approach to compile national-scale groundwater abstractions and demonstrates its use over 5000 individual center-pivot fields. This method will allow both farmers and water management agencies to make informed water accounting decisions across multiple spatial and temporal scales.
The agricultural sector in Saudi Arabia has expanded rapidly over the last few decades,...