Articles | Volume 20, issue 3
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Linking biogeochemistry to hydro-geometrical variability in tidal estuaries: a generic modeling approach
Department of Geoscience, Environment & Society, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Goulven Gildas Laruelle
Department of Geoscience, Environment & Society, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Department of Geoscience, Environment & Society, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
C. Volta, S. Arndt, H. H. G. Savenije, G. G. Laruelle, and P. Regnier
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1271–1295,
Alizée Roobaert, Pierre Regnier, Peter Landschützer, and Goulven G. Laruelle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Advancements in understanding the coastal air-sea CO2 exchange (FCO2) have been made, but long-term temporal trends remain unclear. Based on observations and a machine learning approach, we reconstructs the longest global time series of coastal FCO2 (1982 to 2020). Results show the coastal ocean acts as a CO2 sink, with increasing intensity over time. This new coastal FCO2 product allows establishing regional carbon budgets and provides new constraints for closing the global carbon cycle.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Xi Wei, Josette Garnier, Vincent Thieu, Paul Passy, Romain Le Gendre, Gilles Billen, Maia Akopian, and Goulven Gildas Laruelle
Biogeosciences, 19, 931–955,Short summary
Estuaries are key reactive ecosystems along the land–ocean aquatic continuum and are often strongly impacted by anthropogenic activities. We calculated nutrient in and out fluxes by using a 1-D transient model for seven estuaries along the French Atlantic coast. Among these, large estuaries with high residence times showed higher retention rates than medium and small ones. All reveal coastal eutrophication due to the excess of diffused nitrogen from intensive agricultural river basins.
Alizée Roobaert, Laure Resplandy, Goulven G. Laruelle, Enhui Liao, and Pierre Regnier
Ocean Sci., 18, 67–88,Short summary
This study uses a global oceanic model to investigate the seasonal dynamics of the sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the global coastal ocean. Our method quantifies the respective effects of thermal changes, biological activity, ocean circulation and freshwater fluxes on the temporal pCO2 variations. The performance of our model is also evaluated against a data product derived from observations to identify coastal regions where our approach is most robust.
Amanda R. Fay, Luke Gregor, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Nicolas Gruber, Marion Gehlen, Yosuke Iida, Goulven G. Laruelle, Christian Rödenbeck, Alizée Roobaert, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4693–4710,Short summary
The movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean is estimated using surface ocean carbon (pCO2) measurements and an equation including variables such as temperature and wind speed; the choices of these variables lead to uncertainties. We introduce the SeaFlux ensemble which provides carbon flux maps calculated in a consistent manner, thus reducing uncertainty by using common choices for wind speed and a set definition of "global" coverage.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Francesco N. Tubiello, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Pongratz, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, Matthias Kuhnert, Juraj Balkovič, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Efisio Solazzo, Chunjing Qiu, Roberto Pilli, Igor B. Konovalov, Richard A. Houghton, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Monica Crippa, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Pete Smith, Saqr Munassar, Rona L. Thompson, Giulia Conchedda, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2363–2406,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CO2 fossil emissions and CO2 land fluxes in the EU27+UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with ecosystem data, land carbon models and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling CO2 estimates with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Adam Hastie, Ronny Lauerwald, Philippe Ciais, Fabrice Papa, and Pierre Regnier
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 37–62,Short summary
We used a model of the Congo Basin to investigate the transfer of carbon (C) from land (vegetation and soils) to inland waters. We estimate that leaching of C to inland waters, emissions of CO2 from the water surface, and the export of C to the coast have all increased over the last century, driven by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels and climate change. We predict that these trends may continue through the 21st century and call for long-term monitoring of these fluxes.
Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Alizee Roobaert, and Pierre Regnier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2537–2553,Short summary
In recent years, multiple estimates of the global air–sea CO2 flux emerged from upscaling shipboard pCO2 measurements. They are however limited to the open-ocean domain and do not consider the coastal ocean, i.e. a significant marine sink for CO2. We build towards an integrated pCO2 product that combines both the open-ocean and coastal-ocean domain and focus on the evaluation of the common overlap area of these products and how well the aquatic continuum is represented in the new climatology.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Matteo Puglini, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Regnier, and Sandra Arndt
Biogeosciences, 17, 3247–3275,Short summary
A reaction-transport model to assess the potential non-turbulent methane flux from the East Siberian Arctic sediments to water columns is applied here. We show that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an efficient filter except for high values of sedimentation rate and advective flow, which enable considerable non-turbulent steady-state methane fluxes. Significant transient methane fluxes can also occur during the building-up phase of the AOM-performing biomass microbial community.
Simon P. K. Bowring, Ronny Lauerwald, Bertrand Guenet, Dan Zhu, Matthieu Guimberteau, Pierre Regnier, Ardalan Tootchi, Agnès Ducharne, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 507–520,Short summary
In this second part of the study, we performed simulations of the carbon and water budget of the Lena catchment with the land surface model ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK, enabled to simulate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production in soils and its transport and fate in high-latitude inland waters. We compare simulations using this model to existing data sources to show that it is capable of reproducing dissolved carbon fluxes of potentially great importance for the future of the global permafrost.
Dominik Hülse, Sandra Arndt, Stuart Daines, Pierre Regnier, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2649–2689,Short summary
We present a 1-D analytical diagenetic model resolving organic matter (OM) cycling and the associated biogeochemical dynamics in marine sediments designed to be coupled to Earth system models (ESMs). The reaction network accounts for the most important reactions associated with OM dynamics. The coupling is described and the OM degradation rate constant is tuned. Various observations, such as pore water profiles, sediment water interface fluxes and OM content, are reproduced with good accuracy.
Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Sandra Arndt, Anita L. Ganesan, Guillermo Murray-Tortarolo, and Edward R. C. Hornibrook
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2009–2032,Short summary
Soil bacteria known as methanotrophs are the only biological sink for atmospheric methane (CH4). Their activity depends on climatic and edaphic conditions, thus varies spatially and temporarily. Based on this, we developed a model (MeMo v1.0) to assess the global CH4 consumption by soils. The global CH4 uptake was 33.5 Tg CH4 yr-1 for 1990–2009, with an increasing trend of 0.1 Tg CH4 yr-2. The regional analysis proved that warm and semiarid regions represent the most efficient CH4 sink.
Alizée Roobaert, Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 15, 1701–1720,
Ronny Lauerwald, Pierre Regnier, Marta Camino-Serrano, Bertrand Guenet, Matthieu Guimberteau, Agnès Ducharne, Jan Polcher, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3821–3859,Short summary
ORCHILEAK is a new branch of the terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE that represents dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production from canopy and soils, DOC and CO2 leaching from soils to streams, DOC decomposition, and CO2 evasion to the atmosphere during its lateral transport in rivers, as well as exchange with the soil carbon and litter stocks on floodplains and in swamps. We parameterized and validated ORCHILEAK for the Amazon basin.
Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, Nicolas Gruber, Jean-Louis Tison, Bruno Delille, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 14, 4545–4561,
Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Valerio Avitabile, Leonardo Calle, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Fabian Gans, Nicolas Gruber, Jens Hartmann, Martin Herold, Kazuhito Ichii, Martin Jung, Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Ronny Lauerwald, Dario Papale, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, Deepak Ray, Pierre Regnier, Christian Rödenbeck, Rosa M. Roman-Cuesta, Christopher Schwalm, Gianluca Tramontana, Alexandra Tyukavina, Riccardo Valentini, Guido van der Werf, Tristram O. West, Julie E. Wolf, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 14, 3685–3703,Short summary
Here we synthesize a wide range of global spatiotemporal observational data on carbon exchanges between the Earth surface and the atmosphere. A key challenge was to consistently combining observational products of terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. Our primary goal is to identify today’s key uncertainties and observational shortcomings that would need to be addressed in future measurement campaigns or expansions of in situ observatories.
Goulven Gildas Laruelle, Nicolas Goossens, Sandra Arndt, Wei-Jun Cai, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 14, 2441–2468,Short summary
The C-GEM generic reactive-transport model is applied to each tidal estuary of the US East Coast. Seasonal simulations are performed, which allows the understanding and quantification of the effect of the estuarine filter on the lateral fluxes of carbon coming from rivers.
James A. Bradley, Sandra Arndt, Marie Šabacká, Liane G. Benning, Gary L. Barker, Joshua J. Blacker, Marian L. Yallop, Katherine E. Wright, Christopher M. Bellas, Jonathan Telling, Martyn Tranter, and Alexandre M. Anesio
Biogeosciences, 13, 5677–5696,Short summary
Soil development following glacier retreat was characterized using a novel integrated field, laboratory and modelling approach in Svalbard. We found community shifts in bacteria, which were responsible for driving cycles in carbon and nutrients. Allochthonous inputs were also important in sustaining bacterial production. This study shows how an integrated model–data approach can improve understanding and obtain a more holistic picture of soil development in an increasingly ice-free future world.
J. A. Bradley, A. M. Anesio, J. S. Singarayer, M. R. Heath, and S. Arndt
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3441–3470,Short summary
Recent climate warming causing ice retreat exposes new terrestrial ecosystems that have potentially significant yet largely unexplored roles on large-scale biogeochemical cycling and climate. SHIMMER (Soil biogeocHemIcal Model for Microbial Ecosystem Response) is a new numerical model designed to simulate microbial community establishment and elemental cycling (C, N and P) during initial soil formation in exposed glacier forefields. It is also transferable to other extreme ecosystem types.
G. G. Laruelle, R. Lauerwald, J. Rotschi, P. A. Raymond, J. Hartmann, and P. Regnier
Biogeosciences, 12, 1447–1458,Short summary
This study quantifies the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the land-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC) of the northeast North American coast, which consists of rivers, estuaries, and the coastal ocean. Our analysis reveals significant variations of the flux intensity both in time and space across the study area. Ice cover, snowmelt, and the intensity of the estuarine filter are identified as important control factors of the CO2 exchange along the LOAC.
C. Volta, S. Arndt, H. H. G. Savenije, G. G. Laruelle, and P. Regnier
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1271–1295,
G. G. Laruelle, H. H. Dürr, R. Lauerwald, J. Hartmann, C. P. Slomp, N. Goossens, and P. A. G. Regnier
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2029–2051,
V. Krumins, M. Gehlen, S. Arndt, P. Van Cappellen, and P. Regnier
Biogeosciences, 10, 371–398,
Related subject area
Subject: Coasts and Estuaries | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesForecasting estuarine salt intrusion in the Rhine–Meuse delta using an LSTM modelCoastal topography and hydrogeology control critical groundwater gradients and potential beach surface instability during storm surgesEffect of tides on river water behavior over the eastern shelf seas of ChinaExtreme precipitation events induce high fluxes of groundwater and associated nutrients to coastal oceanTemporally resolved coastal hypoxia forecasting and uncertainty assessment via Bayesian mechanistic modelingAssessing the dependence structure between oceanographic, fluvial, and pluvial flooding drivers along the United States coastlineStatistical modelling and climate variability of compound surge and precipitation events in a managed water system: a case study in the NetherlandsEstimating the probability of compound floods in estuarine regionsAccretion, retreat and transgression of coastal wetlands experiencing sea-level riseClimate change overtakes coastal engineering as the dominant driver of hydrological change in a large shallow lagoonDynamic mechanism of an extremely severe saltwater intrusion in the Changjiang estuary in February 2014A novel approach for the assessment of morphological evolution based on observed water levels in tide-dominated estuariesSeasonal behaviour of tidal damping and residual water level slope in the Yangtze River estuary: identifying the critical position and river discharge for maximum tidal dampingSediment budget analysis of the Guayas River using a process-based modelMultivariate statistical modelling of compound events via pair-copula constructions: analysis of floods in Ravenna (Italy)Analytical and numerical study of the salinity intrusion in the Sebou river estuary (Morocco) – effect of the “Super Blood Moon” (total lunar eclipse) of 2015Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuaryA 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modelingRevised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuariesImpact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and deltaLarge-scale suspended sediment transport and sediment deposition in the Mekong DeltaHydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, AustraliaAssessing hydrological effects of human interventions on coastal systems: numerical applications to the Venice LagoonEnvironmental flow assessments in estuaries based on an integrated multi-objective methodModelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurementsAn analytical solution for tidal propagation in the Yangtze Estuary, ChinaUnderstanding and managing the Westerschelde – synchronizing the physical system and the management system of a complex estuary
Bas J. M. Wullems, Claudia C. Brauer, Fedor Baart, and Albrecht H. Weerts
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3823–3850,Short summary
In deltas, saltwater sometimes intrudes far inland and causes problems with freshwater availability. We created a model to forecast salt concentrations at a critical location in the Rhine–Meuse delta in the Netherlands. It requires a rather small number of data to make a prediction and runs fast. It predicts the occurrence of salt concentration peaks well but underestimates the highest peaks. Its speed gives water managers more time to reduce the problems caused by salt intrusion.
Anner Paldor, Nina Stark, Matthew Florence, Britt Raubenheimer, Steve Elgar, Rachel Housego, Ryan S. Frederiks, and Holly A. Michael
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5987–6002,Short summary
Ocean surges can impact the stability of beaches by changing the hydraulic regime. These surge-induced changes in the hydraulic regime have important implications for coastal engineering and for beach morphology. This work uses 3D computer simulations to study how these alterations vary in space and time. We find that certain areas along and across the beach are potentially more vulnerable than others and that previous assumptions regarding the most dangerous places may need to be revised.
Lei Lin, Hao Liu, Xiaomeng Huang, Qingjun Fu, and Xinyu Guo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5207–5225,Short summary
Earth system (climate) model is an important instrument for projecting the global water cycle and climate change, in which tides are commonly excluded due to the much small timescales compared to the climate. However, we found that tides significantly impact the river water transport pathways, transport timescales, and concentrations in shelf seas. Thus, the tidal effect should be carefully considered in earth system models to accurately project the global water and biogeochemical cycle.
Marc Diego-Feliu, Valentí Rodellas, Aaron Alorda-Kleinglass, Maarten Saaltink, Albert Folch, and Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4619–4635,Short summary
Rainwater infiltrates aquifers and travels a long subsurface journey towards the ocean where it eventually enters below sea level. In its path towards the sea, water becomes enriched in many compounds that are naturally or artificially present within soils and sediments. We demonstrate that extreme rainfall events may significantly increase the inflow of water to the ocean, thereby increasing the supply of these compounds that are fundamental for the sustainability of coastal ecosystems.
Alexey Katin, Dario Del Giudice, and Daniel R. Obenour
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1131–1143,Short summary
Low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) occur almost every summer in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Here, we present a new approach for forecasting hypoxia from June through September, leveraging a process-based model and an advanced statistical framework. We also show how using spring hydrometeorological information can improve forecast accuracy while reducing uncertainties. The proposed forecasting system shows the potential to support the management of threatened coastal ecosystems and fisheries.
Ahmed A. Nasr, Thomas Wahl, Md Mamunur Rashid, Paula Camus, and Ivan D. Haigh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6203–6222,Short summary
We analyse dependences between different flooding drivers around the USA coastline, where the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern and southwestern coasts are regions of high dependence between flooding drivers. Dependence is higher during the tropical season in the Gulf and at some locations on the East Coast but higher during the extratropical season on the West Coast. The analysis gives new insights on locations, driver combinations, and the time of the year when compound flooding is likely.
Víctor M. Santos, Mercè Casas-Prat, Benjamin Poschlod, Elisa Ragno, Bart van den Hurk, Zengchao Hao, Tímea Kalmár, Lianhua Zhu, and Husain Najafi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3595–3615,Short summary
We present an application of multivariate statistical models to assess compound flooding events in a managed reservoir. Data (from a previous study) were obtained from a physical-based hydrological model driven by a regional climate model large ensemble, providing a time series expanding up to 800 years in length that ensures stable statistics. The length of the data set allows for a sensitivity assessment of the proposed statistical framework to natural climate variability.
Wenyan Wu, Seth Westra, and Michael Leonard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2821–2841,Short summary
Flood probability estimation is important for applications such as land use planning, reservoir operation, infrastructure design and safety assessments. However, it is a challenging task, especially in estuarine areas where floods are caused by both intense rainfall and storm surge. This study provides a review of approaches to flood probability estimation in these areas. Based on analysis of a real-world river system, guidance on method selection is provided.
Angelo Breda, Patricia M. Saco, Steven G. Sandi, Neil Saintilan, Gerardo Riccardi, and José F. Rodríguez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 769–786,Short summary
We study accretion, retreat and transgression of mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands affected by sea-level rise (SLR) using simulations on typical configurations with different levels of tidal obstruction. Interactions and feedbacks between flow, sediment deposition, vegetation migration and soil accretion result in wetlands not surviving the predicted high-emission scenario SLR, despite dramatic increases in sediment supply. Previous simplified models overpredict wetland resilience to SLR.
Peisheng Huang, Karl Hennig, Jatin Kala, Julia Andrys, and Matthew R. Hipsey
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5673–5697,Short summary
Our results conclude that the climate change in the past decades has a remarkable effect on the hydrology of a large shallow lagoon with the same magnitude as that caused by the opening of an artificial channel, and it also highlighted the complexity of their interactions. We suggested that the consideration of the projected drying trend is essential in designing management plans associated with planning for environmental water provision and setting water quality loading targets.
Jianrong Zhu, Xinyue Cheng, Linjiang Li, Hui Wu, Jinghua Gu, and Hanghang Lyu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5043–5056,Short summary
An extremely severe saltwater intrusion event occurred in February 2014 in the Changjiang estuary and seriously influenced the water intake of the reservoir. For the event cause and for freshwater safety, the dynamic mechanism was studied with observed data and a numerical model. The results indicated that this event was caused by a persistent and strong northerly wind, which formed a horizontal estuarine circulation, surpassed seaward runoff and drove highly saline water into the estuary.
Huayang Cai, Ping Zhang, Erwan Garel, Pascal Matte, Shuai Hu, Feng Liu, and Qingshu Yang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1871–1889,Short summary
Understanding the morphological changes in estuaries due to natural processes and human interventions is especially important with regard to sustainable water management and ecological impacts on the estuarine environment. In this contribution, we explore the morphological evolution in tide-dominated estuaries by means of a novel analytical approach using the observed water levels along the channel. The method could serve as a useful tool to understand the evolution of estuarine morphology.
Huayang Cai, Hubert H. G. Savenije, Erwan Garel, Xianyi Zhang, Leicheng Guo, Min Zhang, Feng Liu, and Qingshu Yang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2779–2794,Short summary
Tide–river dynamics play an essential role in large-scale river deltas as they exert a tremendous impact on delta morphodynamics, salt intrusion and deltaic ecosystems. For the first time, we illustrate that there is a critical river discharge, beyond which tidal damping is reduced with increasing river discharge, and we explore the underlying mechanism using an analytical model. The results are useful for guiding sustainable water management and sediment transport in tidal rivers.
Pedro D. Barrera Crespo, Erik Mosselman, Alessio Giardino, Anke Becker, Willem Ottevanger, Mohamed Nabi, and Mijail Arias-Hidalgo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2763–2778,Short summary
Guayaquil, the commercial capital of Ecuador, is located along the Guayas River. The city is among the most vulnerable cities to future flooding ascribed to climate change. Fluvial sedimentation is seen as one of the factors contributing to flooding. This paper describes the dominant processes in the river and the effects of past interventions in the overall sediment budget. This is essential to plan and design effective mitigation measures to face the latent risk that threatens Guayaquil.
Emanuele Bevacqua, Douglas Maraun, Ingrid Hobæk Haff, Martin Widmann, and Mathieu Vrac
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2701–2723,Short summary
We develop a conceptual model to quantify the risk of compound events (CEs), i.e. extreme impacts to society which are driven by statistically dependent climatic variables. Based on this model we study compound floods, i.e. joint storm surge and high river level, in Ravenna (Italy). The model includes meteorological predictors which (1) provide insight into the physical processes underlying CEs, as well as into the temporal variability, and (2) allow us to statistically downscale CEs.
Soufiane Haddout, Mohammed Igouzal, and Abdellatif Maslouhi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3923–3945,
M. Webber, M. T. Li, J. Chen, B. Finlayson, D. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, M. Wang, and J. Barnett
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4411–4425,Short summary
This paper demonstrates a method for calculating the probability of long-duration salt intrusions in the Yangtze Estuary and examines the impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South-North Water Transfer Project and local abstractions on that probability. The relationship between river discharge and the intensity and duration of saline intrusions is shown to be probabilistic and continuous. That probability has more than doubled under the normal operating rules for those projects.
F. M. Achete, M. van der Wegen, D. Roelvink, and B. Jaffe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2837–2857,Short summary
Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) levels are important indicator for the ecology of estuaries. Observations of SSC are difficult to make, therefore we revert to coupled 2-D hydrodynamic-sediment process-based transport models to make predictions in time (seasonal and yearly) and space (meters to kilometers). This paper presents calibration/validation of SSC for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and translates SSC to turbidity in order to couple with ecology models.
J. I. A. Gisen, H. H. G. Savenije, and R. C. Nijzink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2791–2803,Short summary
We revised the predictive equations for two calibrated parameters in salt intrusion model (the Van der Burgh coefficient K and dispersion coefficient D) using an extended database of 89 salinity profiles including 8 newly conducted salinity measurements. The revised predictive equations consist of easily measured parameters such as the geometry of estuary, tide, friction and the Richardson number. These equations are useful in obtaining the first estimate of salinity distribution in an estuary.
V. D. Vinh, S. Ouillon, T. D. Thanh, and L. V. Chu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3987–4005,
N. V. Manh, N. V. Dung, N. N. Hung, B. Merz, and H. Apel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3033–3053,
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A generic estuarine model is applied to three idealized tidal estuaries representing the main hydro-geometrical estuarine classes. The study provides insight into the estuarine biogeochemical dynamics, in particular the air-water CO2/sub> flux, as well as the potential response to future environmental changes and to uncertainties in model parameter values. We believe that our approach could help improving upscaling strategies to better integrate estuaries in regional/global biogeochemical studies.
A generic estuarine model is applied to three idealized tidal estuaries representing the main...