Articles | Volume 19, issue 5
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2261–2273, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 12 May 2015
Research article | 12 May 2015
Evolution of the human–water relationships in the Heihe River basin in the past 2000 years
Z. Lu et al.
No articles found.
Qichun Yang, Quan J. Wang, Andrew W. Western, Wenyan Wu, Yawen Shao, and Kirsti Hakala
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Forecasts of evaporative water loss in the future are highly valuable for water resource management. These forecasts are often produced using outputs of climate models. We developed an innovative method to correct errors in these forecasts, particularly the errors caused by deficiencies of climate models in modeling the changing climate. We apply this method to seasonal forecasts of evaporative water loss across Australia and achieve significant improvements in forecast quality.
Shuci Liu, Dongryeol Ryu, J. Angus Webb, Anna Lintern, Danlu Guo, David Waters, and Andrew W. Western
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2663–2683,Short summary
Riverine water quality can change markedly at one particular location. This study developed predictive models to represent the temporal variation in stream water quality across the Great Barrier Reef catchments, Australia. The model structures were informed by a data-driven approach, which is useful for identifying important factors determining temporal changes in water quality and, in turn, providing critical information for developing management strategies.
Theresa Boas, Heye Bogena, Thomas Grünwald, Bernard Heinesch, Dongryeol Ryu, Marius Schmidt, Harry Vereecken, Andrew Western, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 573–601,Short summary
In this study we were able to significantly improve CLM5 model performance for European cropland sites by adding a winter wheat representation, specific plant parameterizations for important cash crops, and a cover-cropping and crop rotation subroutine to its crop module. Our modifications should be applied in future studies of CLM5 to improve regional yield predictions and to better understand large-scale impacts of agricultural management on carbon, water, and energy fluxes.
Danlu Guo, Anna Lintern, J. Angus Webb, Dongryeol Ryu, Ulrike Bende-Michl, Shuci Liu, and Andrew William Western
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 827–847,Short summary
This study developed predictive models to represent the spatial and temporal variation of stream water quality across Victoria, Australia. The model structures were informed by a data-driven approach, which identified the key controls of water quality variations from long-term records. These models are helpful to identify likely future changes in water quality and, in turn, provide critical information for developing management strategies to improve stream water quality.
Chinchu Mohan, Andrew W. Western, Yongping Wei, and Margarita Saft
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2689–2703,Short summary
To ensure a sustainable supply of groundwater, scientific information about what is going into the system as recharge and what is taken out of the system via pumping is essential. This study identified the most influential factors in groundwater recharge and developed an empirical global recharge model. The meteorological and vegetation factors were the most important factors, and the long-term global average recharge was 134 mm per year. This model will aid in groundwater policy-making.
Shabnam Saffarpour, Andrew W. Western, Russell Adams, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4525–4545,Short summary
A variety of threshold mechanisms influence the transfer of rainfall to runoff from catchments. Some of these mechanisms depend on the occurrence of intense rainfall and others depend on the catchment being wet. This article first provides a framework for considering which mechanisms are important in different situations and then uses that framework to examine the behaviour of a catchment in Australia that exhibits a mix of both rainfall intensity and catchment wetness dependent thresholds.
Z. K. Tesemma, Y. Wei, M. C. Peel, and A. W. Western
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2821–2836,
J. F. Costelloe, T. J. Peterson, K. Halbert, A. W. Western, and J. J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1599–1613,Short summary
Groundwater surface mapping is used as an independent data set to better estimate groundwater discharge to streamflow. The groundwater surfaces indicated when other techniques likely overestimated the groundwater discharge component of baseflow. Groundwater surfaces also identified areas where regional groundwater could not be contributing to tributary streamflow. This method adds significant value to water resource management where sufficient groundwater monitoring data are available.
L. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Liu, H. Xiao, Y. Ruan, and M. Zhou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4129–4151,
Z. K. Tesemma, Y. Wei, M. C. Peel, and A. W. Western
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Water Resources Management | Techniques and Approaches: Mathematical applicationsOptimal water use strategies for mitigating high urban temperaturesPhysical versus economic water footprints in crop production: a spatial and temporal analysis for ChinaAI-based techniques for multi-step streamflow forecasts: Application for multi-objective reservoir operation optimization and performance assessmentDevelopment of a revised method for indicators of hydrologic alteration for analyzing the cumulative impacts of cascading reservoirs on flow regimeChanging global cropping patterns to minimize national blue water scarcityClimate change impacts on the Water Highway project in MoroccoHESS Opinions: How should a future water census address consumptive use? (And where can we substitute withdrawal data while we wait?)Complex relationship between seasonal streamflow forecast skill and value in reservoir operationsWater footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North ChinaBenchmark levels for the consumptive water footprint of crop production for different environmental conditions: a case study for winter wheat in ChinaTechnical note: Multiple wavelet coherence for untangling scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships in geosciencesMachine learning methods for empirical streamflow simulation: a comparison of model accuracy, interpretability, and uncertainty in seasonal watershedsThe question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue NileA dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity costClimate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basinDetermining regional limits and sectoral constraints for water useChina's water sustainability in the 21st century: a climate-informed water risk assessment covering multi-sector water demandsRecent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policyAssessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern VietnamA framework for the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts on water-related activities at the basin scale
Bin Liu, Zhenghui Xie, Shuang Liu, Yujing Zeng, Ruichao Li, Longhuan Wang, Yan Wang, Binghao Jia, Peihua Qin, Si Chen, Jinbo Xie, and ChunXiang Shi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 387–400,Short summary
We implemented both urban water use schemes in a model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) and assessed their cooling effects with different amounts of water in different parts of the city (center, suburbs, and rural areas) for both road sprinkling and urban irrigation by model simulation. Then, we developed an optimization scheme to find out the optimal water use strategies for mitigating high urban temperatures.
Xi Yang, La Zhuo, Pengxuan Xie, Hongrong Huang, Bianbian Feng, and Pute Wu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 169–191,Short summary
Maximizing economic benefits with higher water productivity or lower water footprint is the core sustainable goal of agricultural water resources management. Here we look at spatial and temporal variations and developments in both production-based (PWF) and economic value-based (EWF) water footprints of crops, by taking a case study for China. A synergy evaluation index is proposed to further quantitatively evaluate the synergies and trade-offs between PWF and EWF.
Yuxue Guo, Yue-Ping Xu, Xinting Yu, Hao Chen, Haiting Gu, and Jingkai Xie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
We developed an AI-based management methodology to assess forecast quality and forecast-informed reservoir operation performance together due to uncertain inﬂow forecasts. Results showed that higher forecast performance could lead to improved reservoir operation, while uncertain forecasts were more valuable than deterministic forecasts. Moreover, the relationship between forecast horizon and reservoir operation was complex and depended on operating configurations and performance measures.
Xingyu Zhou, Xiaorong Huang, Hongbin Zhao, and Kai Ma
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4091–4107,Short summary
The main objective of this work is to discuss the cumulative effects on flow regime with the construction of cascade reservoirs. A revised IHA (indicators of hydrologic alteration) method was developed by using a projection pursuit method based on the real-coded accelerated genetic algorithm in this study. Through this method, IHA parameters with a high contribution to hydrological-alteration evaluation could be selected out and given high weight to reduce the redundancy among the IHA metrics.
Hatem Chouchane, Maarten S. Krol, and Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3015–3031,Short summary
Previous studies on water saving through food trade focussed either on comparing water productivities among countries or on analysing food trade in relation to national water endowments. Here, we consider, for the first time, both differences in water productivities and water endowments to analyse national comparative advantages. Our study reveals that blue water scarcity can be reduced to sustainable levels by changing cropping patterns while maintaining current levels of global production.
Nabil El Moçayd, Suchul Kang, and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1467–1483,Short summary
The present work addresses the impact of climate change on the Water Highway project in Morocco. This project aims to transfer 860 × 106 m3 yr−1 of water from the north to the south. As the project is very sensitive to the availability of water in the northern regions, we evaluate its feasibility under different future climate change scenarios: under a pessimistic climate scenario, the project is infeasible; however, under an optimistic scenario a rescaled version might be feasible.
Benjamin L. Ruddell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5551–5558,Short summary
We now lack sufficient empirical observations of consumptive use of water by humans and their economy, so it is worth considering what we can do with the withdrawal-based water use data we already possess. Fortunately, a wide range of applied water management and policy questions can be addressed using currently available withdrawal data. This discussion identifies important data collection problems and argues that the withdrawal data we already possess are adequate for some important purposes.
Sean W. D. Turner, James C. Bennett, David E. Robertson, and Stefano Galelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4841–4859,Short summary
This study investigates the relationship between skill and value of ensemble seasonal streamflow forecasts. Using data from a modern forecasting system, we show that skilled forecasts are more likely to provide benefits for reservoirs operated to maintain a target water level rather than reservoirs operated to satisfy a target demand. We identify the primary causes for this behaviour and provide specific recommendations for assessing the value of forecasts for reservoirs with supply objectives.
Yingmin Chu, Yanjun Shen, and Zaijian Yuan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3061–3069,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed the water footprint (WF) of crop production and found winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the Hebei southern plain (HSP). The total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012. Finally, we evaluated a reasonable farming structure by analyzing scenarios of the main crops' WF.
La Zhuo, Mesfin M. Mekonnen, and Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4547–4559,Short summary
Benchmarks for the water footprint (WF) of crop production can serve as a reference and be helpful in setting WF reduction targets. The study explores which environmental factors should be distinguished when determining benchmarks for the consumptive (green and blue) WF of crops. Through a case study for winter wheat in China over 1961–2008, we find that when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of a crop, it is most useful to distinguish between different climate zones.
Wei Hu and Bing Cheng Si
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3183–3191,Short summary
Bivariate wavelet coherence has been used to explore scale- and location-specific relationships between two variables. In reality, a process occurring on land surface is usually affected by more than two factors. Therefore, this manuscript is to develop a multiple wavelet coherence method. Results showed that new method outperforms other multivariate methods. Matlab codes for a new method are provided. This method can be widely applied in geosciences where a variable is controlled by many factors.
Julie E. Shortridge, Seth D. Guikema, and Benjamin F. Zaitchik
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2611–2628,Short summary
This paper compares six methods for data-driven rainfall–runoff simulation in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure, interpretability, and uncertainty. We demonstrate that autocorrelation in model errors can result in biased estimates of important values and show how certain model structures can be more easily interpreted to yield insights on physical watershed function. Finally, we explore how model structure can impact uncertainty in climate change sensitivity estimates.
S. Satti, B. Zaitchik, and S. Siddiqui
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2275–2293,
A. Tilmant, G. Marques, and Y. Mohamed
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1457–1467,Short summary
As water resources are increasingly used for various purposes, there is a need for a unified framework to describe, quantify and classify water use in a region, be it a catchment, a river basin or a country. This paper presents a novel water accounting framework whereby the contribution of traditional water uses but also storage services are properly considered.
L. E. Condon, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Pruitt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 159–175,
T. K. Lissner, C. A. Sullivan, D. E. Reusser, and J. P. Kropp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4039–4052,
X. Chen, D. Naresh, L. Upmanu, Z. Hao, L. Dong, Q. Ju, J. Wang, and S. Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1653–1662,
J. Shi, J. Liu, and L. Pinter
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1349–1357,
A. Castelletti, F. Pianosi, X. Quach, and R. Soncini-Sessa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 189–199,
D. Anghileri, F. Pianosi, and R. Soncini-Sessa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2025–2038,
Budyko, M. I.: Climate and Life, Academic, San Diego, CA, 508 pp., 1974.
Carpenter, S. R., Cole, J. J., Pace, M. L., Batt, R., Brock, W. A., Cline, T., Coloso, J., Hodgson, J. R., Kitchell, J. F., Seekell, D. A., Smith, L., and Weidel, B.: Early warnings of regime shifts: a whole-ecosystem experiment, Science, 332, 1079–1083, 2011.
Chen, L.: Land desertification and its control strategies in the low reaches of the Heihe River, J. Nat. Resour., 1, 35–43, 1996.
Cheng, H., Huang, Y., and Zhao, L.: The human activity in Hexi Corridor during historical time, available at: http://www.paper.edu.cn (last access: 5 April 2014), 2011.
Elshafei, Y., Sivapalan, M., Tonts, M., and Hipsey, M. R.: A prototype framework for models of socio-hydrology: identification of key feedback loops and parameterisation approach, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2141–2166, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-2141-2014, 2014.
Falkenmark, M. and Lannerstad, M.: Consumptive water use to feed humanity – curing a blind spot, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 15–28, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-15-2005, 2005.
Fu, B.: On the calculation of the evaporation from land surface, Sci. Atmos. Sin., 5, 23–31, 1981.
Geels, F. W.: Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: a multi-level perspective and a case-study, Res. Policy, 31, 1257–1274, 2002.
Holmes, J. A., Cook, E. R., and Yang, B.: Climate change over the past 2000 years in Western China, Quatern. Int., 194, 91–107, 2009.
Jin, H., Xiao, H., Sun, L., Zhang, H., Sun, Z., and Li, X.: Vicissitude of Sogo Nur and environmental-climatic change during last 1500 years, Sci. China Ser. D, 47, 61–70, 2004.
Jin, H., Xiao, H., Zhang, H., and Sun, Z.: Evolution and climate changes of the Juyan Lake revealed from grain size and geochemistry element since 1500aBP, J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 27, 233–240, 2005.
Kallis, G.: Coevolution in water resource development the vicious cycle of water supply and demand in Athens, Greece, Ecol. Econ., 69, 796–809, 2011.
Kang, X., Cheng, G., Kang, E., and Zhang, Q.: Mountainous runo_reconstruction of Heihe River during past 1000 years using tree-ring, Sci. China Ser. D, 32, 49–53, 2002.
Li, B.: An investigation and study on the desertification of the ancient oases from Han to Tang dynasties in the Hexi corridor, Acta Geogr. Sin., 53, 106–115, 1998.
Liu, K., Yao, Z., and Thompson, L. G.: A pollen record of Holocene climatic changes from the Dunde ice cap, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Geology, 26, 135–138, 1998.
Liu, Y., Tian, F., Hu, H., and Sivapalan, M.: Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1289–1303, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-1289-2014, 2014.
Lowry, D. P. and Morrill, C.: Changes in the Global Hydrological Cycle: Lessons from Modeling Lake Levels at the Last Glacial Maximum, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 5–9 December 2011, 2011.
Montanari, A., Young, G., Savenije, H., Hughes, D., Wagener, T., Ren, L., Koutsoyiannis, D., Cudennec, C., Toth, E., and Grimaldi, S.: "Panta Rhei – Everything Flows": change in hydrology and society – the IAHS Scientific Decade 2013–2022, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 58, 1256–1275, 2013.
Pataki, E., Carreiro, M., Cherrier, J., Grulke, E., Jennings, V., Pincetl, S., Pouyat, V., Whitlow, H., and Zipperer, C.: Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions, Front. Ecol. Environ., 1, 27–36, https://doi.org/10.1890/090220, 2011.
Qin, C., Yang, B., Burchardt, I., Hu, X., and Kang, X.: Intensified pluvial conditions during the twentieth century in the inland Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China over the past millennium, Global Planet. Change, 72, 192–200, 2010.
Qu, W., Wu, R., Wang, S., and Zhang, Z.: Sedimentary pigment and its environmental signification of East Juanyanhai in Inner Mongolia since the past 2600 years, Acta Sendiment. Sin., 48, 13–17, 2000.
Ren, Z., Lu, Y., and Yang, D.: Drought and flood disasters and rebuilding of precipitation sequence in Heihe River basin in the past 2000 years, J. Arid Land Resour. Environ., 24, 91–95, 2010.
Röckstrom, J., Karlberg, L., Wani, S. P., Barron, J., Hatibu, N., Oweis, T., Bruggeman, A., Farahanie, J., and Zhu, Q.: Managing water in rainfed agriculture – the need for a paradigm shift, Agr. Water Manage., 97, 543–550, 2010.
Rotmans, J.: Societal Innovation: Between Dream and Reality Lies Complexity, DRIFT Research Working Paper, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), Rotterdam, the Netherlands, https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.878564, 2005.
Saito, K., Hirai, M., and Yonekura-Sakakibara, K.: Decoding genes with coexpression networks and metabolomics –"majority report by precogs", Trends Plant Sci., 13, 36–43, 2008.
Savenije, H. H. G., Hoekstra, A. Y., and van der Zaag, P.: Evolving water science in the Anthropocene, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 319–332, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-319-2014, 2014.
Shao, X., Xu, Y., Yin, Z.-Y., Liang, E., Zhu, H., and Wang, S.: Climatic implications of a 3585-year tree-ring width chronology from the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 29, 2111–2122, 2010.
Shen, J., Zhang, E., and Xia, W.: Records from lake sediments of the Qinghai Lake to mirror climatic environmental changes of the past about 1000 years, Quatern. Sci., 21, 508–513, 2001.
Shen, M. and He, L.: Comparison of new and old equal water regime in Heihe River basin, Yellow River, 26, 27–29, 2004.
Sheppard, P., Tarasov, P., Graumlich, L., Heussner, K.-U., Wagner, M., Österle, H., and Thompson, L.: Annual precipitation since 515 BC reconstructed from living and fossil juniper growth of northeastern Qinghai Province, China, Clim. Dynam., 23, 869–881, 2004.
Shi, J.: Integrating humanistic and scientific studies to reveal the changes of Khara Khoto, Studies in humanity and environment of Khara Khoto, in: Proceedings of international symposium on the humanity and environment of Khara Khoto region, Renmin University of China Press, Beijing, 1–4, 2007.
Shi, L.: Study on the spatio-temporal process of oasisization and desertification in the period of the Ming, Qing dynasty and Republic of China in the middle reaches, MD thesis, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 2010.
Shi, M., Wang, L., and Wang, X.: A study on changes and driving factors of agricultural water supply and demand in Zhangye after water reallocation of the Heihe River, Resour. Sci., 33, 1489–1497, 2011.
Sivapalan, M., Blöschl, G., Zhang, L., and Vertessy, R.: Downward approach to hydrological prediction, Hydrol. Process., 17, 2101–2111, 2003.
Sivapalan, M., Savenije, H. H., and Blöschl, G.: Socio-hydrology: a new science of people and water, Hydrol. Process., 26, 1270–1276, 2012.
Tàbara, J. D. and Ilhan, A.: Culture as trigger for sustainability transition in the water domain: the case of the Spanish water policy and the Ebro river basin, Reg. Environ. Change, 8, 59–71, 2008.
Tan, Q.: The Historical Atlas of China, China Cartographic Publishing House, Beijing, 1996.
Thompson, S. E., Sivapalan, M., Harman, C. J., Srinivasan, V., Hipsey, M. R., Reed, P., Montanari, A., and Blöschl, G.: Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: useinspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5013–5039, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-5013-2013, 2013.
Vörösmarty, C. J., McIntyre, P. B., Gessner, M. O., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P., Glidden, S., Bunn, S. E., Sullivan, C. A., Reidy Liermann, C., and Davies, P. M.: Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity, Nature, 467, 555–563, 2010.
Wang, G., Yang, L., Chen, L., and Jumpei, K.: Impacts of land use changes on groundwater resources in the Heihe River basin, Acta Geogr. Sin., 60, 456–466, 2005.
Wang, G., Xie, Y., Wang, X., Yu, L., and Shi, Z.: Data reconstruction of Heihe River basin cultivated land area prior to the Ming dynasty, Resour. Sci., 35, 362–369, 2013.
Wang, Y.: The development history of water conservancy facilities in Heihe River basin, Gansu Nationalities Press, Lanzhou, 2003.
Wei, H.: Groundwater age and sustainability based on process simulation in Zhangye basin, PhD thesis, Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 2013.
Wimmer, A.: Models, methodologies, and metaphors on the move, in: Understanding Change Models, Methodologies, and Metaphors, edited by: Wimmer, A. and Kössler, R., Palgrave MacMillan, London, England, 2006.
Woodhouse, A., Gray, T., and Meko, M.: Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin, Water Resour. Res., 40, W05415, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004455, 2006.
Wu, X.: Historical variance of the ecological environment in the inland river area along the Hexi corridor, J. Lanzhou Univ. (Social Sciences), 28, 46–49, 2000.
Xiao, S. and Xiao, H.: Farming-grazing vicissitude and man–land relation evolution of Ejin Banner in historical period, J. Desert Res., 24, 449–451, 2004.
Xiao, S. and Xiao, H.: Advances in the study of the water regime process and driving mechanism in the Heihe River basin, Adv. Earth Sci., 23, 748–755, 2008.
Xiao, S., Xiao, H., Zhou, M., Si, J., and Zhang, X.: Water level change of the west Juyan Lake in the past 100 years recorded in the tree ring of the shrubs in the lake banks, J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 26, 557–562, 2004.
Xie, Y.: Dataset of cultivated oasis distribution in the Heihe River Basin during the historical period, Heihe Plan Science Data Center, Lanzhou, China, https://doi.org/10.3972/heihe.092.2013.db, 2013.
Xie, Y., Chen, F., and Qi, J.: Past desertification processes of Minqin Oasis in arid China, Int. J. Sust. Dev. World, 16, 260–269, 2009.
Xie, Y., Wang, X., Wang, G., and Yu, L.: Cultivated land distribution simulation based on grid in middle reaches of Heihe River basin in the historical periods, Adv. Earth Sci., 28, 71–78, 2013.
Yang, B., Qin, C., Shi, F., and Sonechkin, D. M.: Tree ring-based annual streamflow reconstruction for the Heihe River in arid northwestern China from AD 575 and its implications for water resource management, Holocene, 22, 773–784, 2012.
Yang, B., Qin, C., Wang, J., He, M., Melvin, T. M., Osborn, T. J., and Briffa, K. R.: A 3,500-year tree-ring record of annual precipitation on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 2903–2908, 2014.
Yang, D., Sun, F., Liu, Z., Cong, Z., Ni, G., and Lei, Z.: Analyzing spatial and temporal variability of annual water-energy balance in nonhumid regions of China using the Budyko hypothesis, Water Resour. Res., 43, W04426, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006WR005224, 2007.
Zhang, L., Dawes, W., and Walker, G.: Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale, Water Resour. Res., 37, 701–708, 2001.
Zhang, L., Hickel, K., Dawes, W., Chiew, F. H., Western, A., and Briggs, P.: A rational function approach for estimating mean annual evapotranspiration, Water Resour. Res., 40, W02502, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002710, 2004.
Zhang, L., Pang, B., Xu, Z., and He, R.: Impacts of climate change and LULC on hydrological processes in the Gulang River basin, Sounth-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science & Technology, 12, 42–46, 2014.
Zhang, Z., Wu, R., Wang, S., Xia, W., Wu, Y., and Qu, W.: Environmental changes recorded by lake sediments from East Juyanhai Lake in Inner Mongolia during the last 2600 years, J. Lake Sci., 10, 44–51, 1998.
Zhao, L. and Ji, X.: Quantification of transpiration and evaporation over agricultural field using the FAO-56 Dual Crop Coe_cient Approach – A case study of the maize field in an oasis in the middlestream of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, Scient. Agr. Sin., 43, 4016–4026, 2010.
Zheng, J. and Wang, S.: Assessment on climate change in China for the last 2000 years, Acta Geogr. Sin., 60, 21–31, 2005.
Zheng, J., Shao, X., Hao, Z., and Ge, Q.: An overview of research on climate change in China during the past 2000 years, Geogr. Res., 29, 1561–1570, 2010.
Zhou, L. and Yang, G.: Ecological economic problems and development patterns of the Arid Inland River Basin in Northwest China, Ambio, 35, 316–318, 2006.
This paper quantitatively analyzed the evolution of human-water relationships in the Heihe River basin over the past 2000 years by reconstructing the catchment water balance. The results provided the basis for investigating the impacts of human societies on hydrological systems. The evolutionary processes of human-water relationships can be divided into four stages: predevelopment, take-off, acceleration, and rebalancing. And the transition of the human-water relationship had no fixed pattern.
This paper quantitatively analyzed the evolution of human-water relationships in the Heihe River...