Articles | Volume 24, issue 7
Research article
15 Jul 2020
Research article |  | 15 Jul 2020

Combining resistivity and frequency domain electromagnetic methods to investigate submarine groundwater discharge in the littoral zone

Marieke Paepen, Daan Hanssens, Philippe De Smedt, Kristine Walraevens, and Thomas Hermans

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Cited articles

Archie, G. E.: The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics, T. AIME, 146, 54–62,, 1942. 
Burnett, B., Bokuniewicz, H., Huettel, M., Moore, W. S., and Taniguchi, M.: Groundwater and pore water inputs to the coastal zone, Biogeochemistry, 66, 3–33,, 2003. 
Burnett, W. C. and Dulaiova, H.: Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 69, 21–35,, 2003. 
Callegary, J. B., Ferré, T. P. A., and Groom, R. W.: Vertical Spatial Sensitivity and Exploration Depth of Low-Induction-Number Electromagnetic-Induction Instruments, Vadose Zone J., 6, 158–167,, 2007. 
Short summary
Fresh groundwater can flow to oceans and seas, possibly adding nutrients and pollutants to coastal ecosystems. For the first time, three complementary (salinity-sensitive) geophysical methods are combined to delineate the outflow in a very dynamic coastal environment. This provides temporal and spatial information on the salt- and freshwater distribution on land, in the intertidal zone, and offshore and visualizes the fresh-groundwater discharge around the low-water line at De Westhoek, Belgium.