Articles | Volume 23, issue 10
02 Oct 2019
Research article | 02 Oct 2019
Niger discharge from radar altimetry: bridging gaps between gauge and altimetry time series
Stefan Schröder et al.
No articles found.
Simon Deggim, Annette Eicker, Lennart Schawohl, Helena Gerdener, Kerstin Schulze, Olga Engels, Jürgen Kusche, Anita T. Saraswati, Tonie van Dam, Laura Ellenbeck, Denise Dettmering, Christian Schwatke, Stefan Mayr, Igor Klein, and Laurent Longuevergne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2227–2244,Short summary
GRACE provides us with global changes of terrestrial water storage. However, the data have a low spatial resolution, and localized storage changes in lakes/reservoirs or mass change due to earthquakes causes leakage effects. The correction product RECOG RL01 presented in this paper accounts for these effects. Its application allows for improving calibration/assimilation of GRACE into hydrological models and better drought detection in earthquake-affected areas.
L. Drees, J. Kusche, and R. Roscher
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-2-2020, 813–820,
Isabel Meza, Stefan Siebert, Petra Döll, Jürgen Kusche, Claudia Herbert, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Hamideh Nouri, Helena Gerdener, Eklavyya Popat, Janna Frischen, Gustavo Naumann, Jürgen V. Vogt, Yvonne Walz, Zita Sebesvari, and Michael Hagenlocher
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 695–712,Short summary
The paper presents, for the first time, a global-scale drought risk assessment for both irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems while considering drought hazard indicators, exposure and expert-weighted vulnerability indicators. We identify global patterns of drought risk and, by disaggregating risk into its underlying components and factors, provide entry points for risk reduction.
Helena Gerdener, Olga Engels, and Jürgen Kusche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 227–248,Short summary
GRACE-derived drought indicators enable us to detect hydrological droughts based on changes observed in all storages. By performing synthetic experiments, we find that droughts identified by existing and modified indicators are biased by trends and GRACE-based spatial noise. A modified version of the Zhao et al. (2017) indicator is found to be particularly robust against spatial noise and is therefore applied to real GRACE data over South Africa.
Bibi S. Naz, Wolfgang Kurtz, Carsten Montzka, Wendy Sharples, Klaus Goergen, Jessica Keune, Huilin Gao, Anne Springer, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 277–301,Short summary
This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3 km resolution over Europe.
Anne Wiese, Joanna Staneva, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, Arno Behrens, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, and Jean-Raymond Bidlot
Ocean Sci., 14, 1503–1521,Short summary
The increase of data quality of wind and wave measurements provided by the new Sentinel-3A satellite in coastal areas is demonstrated compared to measurements of older satellites with in situ data and spectral wave model simulations. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the wave model to wind forcing is evaluated using data with different temporal and spatial resolution, where an hourly temporal resolution is necessary to represent the peak of extreme events better.
Kristin Vielberg, Ehsan Forootan, Christina Lück, Anno Löcher, Jürgen Kusche, and Klaus Börger
Ann. Geophys., 36, 761–779,Short summary
To predict the satellite's motion or its re-entry, the density surrounding the satellite needs to be known as precisely as possible. Usually empirical models are used to estimate the neutral density of the thermosphere, which is the region of the neutrally charged atmosphere. Here, based on calibrated accelerations measured by instruments on board satellites, we compute daily global maps to correct modeled densities. During times of high solar activity, corrections of up to 28 % are necessary.
Christina Lück, Jürgen Kusche, Roelof Rietbroek, and Anno Löcher
Solid Earth, 9, 323–339,Short summary
Since 2002, the GRACE mission provides estimates of the Earth's time-variable gravity field, from which one can derive ocean mass variability. Now that the GRACE mission has come to an end, it is especially important to find alternative ways for deriving ocean mass changes. For the first time, we use kinematic orbits of Swarm for computing ocean mass time series. We compute monthly solutions, but also show an alternative way of directly estimating time-variable spherical harmonic coefficients.
Jean-François Legeais, Michaël Ablain, Lionel Zawadzki, Hao Zuo, Johnny A. Johannessen, Martin G. Scharffenberg, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, M. Joana Fernandes, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Sergei Rudenko, Paolo Cipollini, Graham D. Quartly, Marcello Passaro, Anny Cazenave, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 281–301,Short summary
Sea level is one of the best indicators of climate change and has been listed as one of the essential climate variables. Sea level measurements have been provided by satellite altimetry for 25 years, and the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency has given the opportunity to provide a long-term, homogeneous and accurate sea level record. It will help scientists to better understand climate change and its variability.
Yacouba Yira, Bernd Diekkrüger, Gero Steup, and Aymar Yaovi Bossa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2143–2161,Short summary
The current study aims to investigate the future climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Dano catchment in Burkina Faso, thus contributing to the management of water resources in the region. Temperature and bias corrected precipitation data from an ensemble of six RCMs–GCMs were used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model to simulate water balance components. The results indicate potential increase and decrease in future discharge in the catchment.
Kathrin Wahle, Joanna Staneva, Wolfgang Koch, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, Ha T. M. Ho-Hagemann, and Emil V. Stanev
Ocean Sci., 13, 289–301,Short summary
Reduction of wave forecasting errors is a challenge, especially in dynamically complicated coastal ocean areas such as the southern part of the North Sea area. We study the effects of coupling between an atmospheric and two nested-grid wind wave models. Comparisons with data from in situ and satellite altimeter observations indicate that two-way coupling improves the simulation of wind and wave parameters of the model and justifies its implementation for both operational and climate simulation.
Joanna Staneva, Kathrin Wahle, Wolfgang Koch, Arno Behrens, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, and Emil V. Stanev
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2373–2389,Short summary
This study addresses the impact of wind, waves, tidal forcing and baroclinicity on the sea level of the German Bight during extreme storm events. The role of wave-induced processes, tides and baroclinicity is quantified, and the results are compared with in situ measurements and satellite data. Considering a wave-dependent approach and baroclinicity, the surge is significantly enhanced in the coastal areas and the model results are closer to observations, especially during the extreme storm.
Constanze Leemhuis, Esther Amler, Bernd Diekkrüger, Geofrey Gabiri, and Kristian Näschen
Proc. IAHS, 374, 123–128,
A. Y. Bossa and B. Diekkrüger
Biogeosciences, 11, 4235–4249,
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesEffects of spatial and temporal variability in surface water inputs on streamflow generation and cessation in the rain–snow transition zoneQuantifying multi-year hydrological memory with Catchment Forgetting CurvesOn constraining a lumped hydrological model with both piezometry and streamflow: results of a large sample evaluationInfluences of land use changes on the dynamics of water quantity and quality in the German lowland catchment of the StörImpact of spatial distribution information of rainfall in runoff simulation using deep learning methodTowards effective drought monitoring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: implications from assimilating leaf area index and soil moisture into the Noah-MP land surface model for MoroccoThe effects of spatial and temporal resolution of gridded meteorological forcing on watershed hydrological responsesHydrological response of a peri-urban catchment exploiting conventional and unconventional rainfall observations: the case study of Lambro CatchmentAssessing hydrological sensitivity of grassland basins in the Canadian Prairies to climate using a basin classification-based virtual modelling approachThe value of satellite soil moisture and snow cover data for the transfer of hydrological model parameters to ungauged sitesStorylines of UK drought based on the 2010–2012 eventUncertainty estimation with deep learning for rainfall–runoff modelingApplying non-parametric Bayesian networks to estimate maximum daily river discharge: potential and challengesThe Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project Phase 4: The Great Lakes (GRIP-GL)Contrasting changes in hydrological processes of the Volta River basin under global warmingA retrospective on hydrological catchment modelling based on half a century with the HBV modelEcosystem adaptation to climate change: the sensitivity of hydrological predictions to time-dynamic model parametersRainfall–runoff relationships at event scale in western Mediterranean ephemeral streamsCombined impacts of uncertainty in precipitation and air temperature on simulated mountain system recharge from an integrated hydrologic modelSimultaneous assimilation of water levels from river gauges and satellite flood maps for near-real-time flood mappingRemote sensing-aided rainfall–runoff modeling in the tropics of Costa RicaDrivers of drought-induced shifts in the water balance through a Budyko approachRegionalization of hydrological model parameters using gradient boosting machineAquifer recharge in the Piedmont Alpine zone: historical trends and future scenariosImproved representation of agricultural land use and crop management for large-scale hydrological impact simulation in Africa using SWAT+How well are we able to close the water budget at the global scale?Bending of the concentration discharge relationship can inform about in-stream nitrate removalQuantifying the impacts of land cover change on hydrological responses in the Mahanadi river basin in IndiaIdentification of the contributing area to river discharge during low-flow periodsSimulating sediment discharge at water treatment plants under different land use scenarios using cascade modelling with an expert-based erosion-runoff model and a deep neural networkIn-stream Escherichia coli modeling using high-temporal-resolution data with deep learning and process-based modelsCan we use precipitation isotope outputs of isotopic general circulation models to improve hydrological modeling in large mountainous catchments on the Tibetan Plateau?Small-scale topography explains patterns and dynamics of dissolved organic carbon exports from the riparian zone of a temperate, forested catchmentRevisiting parameter sensitivities in the Variable Infiltration Capacity modelFlood forecasting with machine learning models in an operational frameworkEffects of spatial resolution of terrain models on modelled discharge and soil loss in Oaxaca, MexicoBenchmarking data-driven rainfall–runoff models in Great Britain: a comparison of long short-term memory (LSTM)-based models with four lumped conceptual modelsNumerical daemons of hydrological models are summoned by extreme precipitationHow is Baseflow Index (BFI) impacted by water resource management practices?Technical note: RAT – a robustness assessment test for calibrated and uncalibrated hydrological modelsReduction of vegetation-accessible water storage capacity after deforestation affects catchment travel time distributions and increases young water fractions in a headwater catchmentCombining split-sample testing and hidden Markov modelling to assess the robustness of hydrological modelsDiel streamflow cycles suggest more sensitive snowmelt-driven streamflow to climate change than land surface modelingDeep learning rainfall-runoff predictions of extreme eventsHydrologically informed machine learning for rainfall–runoff modelling: towards distributed modellingDevelopment and evaluation of 0.05° terrestrial water storage estimates using Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model and assimilation of GRACE dataConditioning ensemble streamflow prediction with the North Atlantic Oscillation improves skill at longer lead timesTechnical note: Hydrology modelling R packages – a unified analysis of models and practicalities from a user perspectiveA new fractal-theory-based criterion for hydrological model calibrationThe value of water isotope data on improving process understanding in a glacierized catchment on the Tibetan Plateau
Leonie Kiewiet, Ernesto Trujillo, Andrew Hedrick, Scott Havens, Katherine Hale, Mark Seyfried, Stephanie Kampf, and Sarah E. Godsey
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2779–2796,Short summary
Climate change affects precipitation phase, which can propagate into changes in streamflow timing and magnitude. This study examines how variations in rainfall and snowmelt affect discharge. We found that annual discharge and stream cessation depended on the magnitude and timing of rainfall and snowmelt and on the snowpack melt-out date. This highlights the importance of precipitation timing and emphasizes the need for spatiotemporally distributed simulations of snowpack and rainfall dynamics.
Alban de Lavenne, Vazken Andréassian, Louise Crochemore, Göran Lindström, and Berit Arheimer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2715–2732,Short summary
A watershed remembers the past to some extent, and this memory influences its behavior. This memory is defined by the ability to store past rainfall for several years. By releasing this water into the river or the atmosphere, it tends to forget. We describe how this memory fades over time in France and Sweden. A few watersheds show a multi-year memory. It increases with the influence of groundwater or dry conditions. After 3 or 4 years, they behave independently of the past.
Antoine Pelletier and Vazken Andréassian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2733–2758,Short summary
A large part of the water cycle takes place underground. In many places, the soil stores water during the wet periods and can release it all year long, which is particularly visible when the river level is low. Modelling tools that are used to simulate and forecast the behaviour of the river struggle to represent this. We improved an existing model to take underground water into account using measurements of the soil water content. Results allow us make recommendations for model users.
Chaogui Lei, Paul D. Wagner, and Nicola Fohrer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2561–2582,Short summary
We presented an integrated approach to hydrologic modeling and partial least squares regression quantifying land use change impacts on water and nutrient balance over 3 decades. Results highlight that most variations (70 %–80 %) in water quantity and quality variables are explained by changes in land use class-specific areas and landscape metrics. Arable land influences water quantity and quality the most. The study provides insights on water resources management in rural lowland catchments.
Yang Wang and Hassan A. Karimi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2387–2403,Short summary
We found that rainfall data with spatial information can improve the model's performance, especially when simulating the future multi-day discharges. We did not observe that regional LSTM as a regional model achieved better results than LSTM as individual model. This conclusion applies to both one-day and multi-day simulations. However, we found that using spatially distributed rainfall data can reduce the difference between individual LSTM and regional LSTM.
Wanshu Nie, Sujay V. Kumar, Kristi R. Arsenault, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Iliana E. Mladenova, Karim Bergaoui, Abheera Hazra, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Sarith P. Mahanama, Rachael McDonnell, David M. Mocko, and Mahdi Navari
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2365–2386,Short summary
The MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region faces significant food and water insecurity and hydrological hazards. Here we investigate the value of assimilating remote sensing data sets into an Earth system model to help build an effective drought monitoring system and support risk mitigation and management by countries in the region. We highlight incorporating satellite-informed vegetation conditions into the model as being one of the key processes for a successful application for the region.
Pin Shuai, Xingyuan Chen, Utkarsh Mital, Ethan T. Coon, and Dipankar Dwivedi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2245–2276,Short summary
Using an integrated watershed model, we compared simulated watershed hydrologic variables driven by three publicly available gridded meteorological forcings (GMFs) at various spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results demonstrated that spatially distributed variables are sensitive to the spatial resolution of the GMF. The temporal resolution of the GMF impacts the dynamics of watershed responses. The choice of GMF depends on the quantity of interest and its spatial and temporal scales.
Greta Cazzaniga, Carlo De Michele, Michele D'Amico, Cristina Deidda, Antonio Ghezzi, and Roberto Nebuloni
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2093–2111,Short summary
Rainfall estimates are usually obtained from rain gauges, weather radars, or satellites. An alternative is the measurement of the signal loss induced by rainfall on commercial microwave links (CMLs). In this work, we assess the hydrologic response of Lambro Basin when CML-retrieved rainfall is used as model input. CML estimates agree with rain gauge data. CML-driven discharge simulations show performance comparable to that from rain gauges if a CML-based calibration of the model is undertaken.
Christopher Spence, Zhihua He, Kevin R. Shook, Balew A. Mekonnen, John W. Pomeroy, Colin J. Whitfield, and Jared D. Wolfe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1801–1819,Short summary
We determined how snow and flow in small creeks change with temperature and precipitation in the Canadian Prairie, a region where water resources are often under stress. We tried something new. Every watershed in the region was placed in one of seven groups based on their landscape traits. We selected one of these groups and used its traits to build a model of snow and streamflow. It worked well, and by the 2040s there may be 20 %–40 % less snow and 30 % less streamflow than the 1980s.
Rui Tong, Juraj Parajka, Borbála Széles, Isabella Greimeister-Pfeil, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jürgen Komma, Peter Valent, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1779–1799,Short summary
The role and impact of using additional data (other than runoff) for the prediction of daily hydrographs in ungauged basins are not well understood. In this study, we assessed the model performance in terms of runoff, soil moisture, and snow cover predictions with the existing regionalization approaches. Results show that the best transfer methods are the similarity and the kriging approaches. The performance of the transfer methods differs between lowland and alpine catchments.
Wilson C. H. Chan, Theodore G. Shepherd, Katie Facer-Childs, Geoff Darch, and Nigel W. Arnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1755–1777,Short summary
We select the 2010–2012 UK drought and investigate an alternative unfolding of the drought from changes to its attributes. We created storylines of drier preconditions, alternative seasonal contributions, a third dry winter, and climate change. Storylines of the 2010–2012 drought show alternative situations that could have resulted in worse conditions than observed. Event-based storylines exploring plausible situations are used that may lead to high impacts and help stress test existing systems.
Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Martin Gauch, Alden Keefe Sampson, Johannes Brandstetter, Günter Klambauer, Sepp Hochreiter, and Grey Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1673–1693,Short summary
This contribution evaluates distributional runoff predictions from deep-learning-based approaches. We propose a benchmarking setup and establish four strong baselines. The results show that accurate, precise, and reliable uncertainty estimation can be achieved with deep learning.
Elisa Ragno, Markus Hrachowitz, and Oswaldo Morales-Nápoles
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1695–1711,Short summary
We explore the ability of non-parametric Bayesian networks to reproduce maximum daily discharge in a given month in a catchment when the remaining hydro-meteorological and catchment attributes are known. We show that a saturated network evaluated in an individual catchment can reproduce statistical characteristics of discharge in about ~ 40 % of the cases, while challenges remain when a saturated network considering all the catchments together is evaluated.
Juliane Mai, Hongren Shen, Bryan A. Tolson, Étienne Gaborit, Richard Arsenault, James R. Craig, Vincent Fortin, Lauren M. Fry, Martin Gauch, Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Nicole O'Brien, Daniel G. Princz, Sinan Rasiya Koya, Tirthankar Roy, Frank Seglenieks, Narayan K. Shrestha, André G. T. Temgoua, Vincent Vionnet, and Jonathan W. Waddell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Model intercomparison studies are carried out to test various models and compare the quality of their outputs over the same domain. In this study, 13 diverse models setup using the same input data are evaluated over the Great Lakes region. Various model outputs – such as streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture, and amount of snow on the ground – are compared using standardized methods and metrics. The basin-wise model outputs and observations are made available through an interactive website.
Moctar Dembélé, Mathieu Vrac, Natalie Ceperley, Sander J. Zwart, Josh Larsen, Simon J. Dadson, Grégoire Mariéthoz, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1481–1506,Short summary
Climate change impacts on water resources in the Volta River basin are investigated under various global warming scenarios. Results reveal contrasting changes in future hydrological processes and water availability, depending on greenhouse gas emission scenarios, with implications for floods and drought occurrence over the 21st century. These findings provide insights for the elaboration of regional adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change.
Jan Seibert and Sten Bergström
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1371–1388,Short summary
Hydrological catchment models are commonly used as the basis for water resource management planning. The HBV model, which is a typical example of such a model, was first applied about 50 years ago in Sweden. We describe and reflect on the model development and applications. The aim is to provide an understanding of the background of model development and a basis for addressing the balance between model complexity and data availability that will continue to face hydrologists in the future.
Laurène J. E. Bouaziz, Emma E. Aalbers, Albrecht H. Weerts, Mark Hegnauer, Hendrik Buiteveld, Rita Lammersen, Jasper Stam, Eric Sprokkereef, Hubert H. G. Savenije, and Markus Hrachowitz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1295–1318,Short summary
Assuming stationarity of hydrological systems is no longer appropriate when considering land use and climate change. We tested the sensitivity of hydrological predictions to changes in model parameters that reflect ecosystem adaptation to climate and potential land use change. We estimated a 34 % increase in the root zone storage parameter under +2 K global warming, resulting in up to 15 % less streamflow in autumn, due to 14 % higher summer evaporation, compared to a stationary system.
Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Alberto Martínez-Salvador, Rafael García-Lorenzo, David Espín-Sánchez, and Carmelo Conesa-García
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1243–1260,Short summary
Ephemeral streams in the western Mediterranean area are driven by the duration, magnitude, and intensity of rainfall events (REs). A detailed statistical analysis showed that the average RE (1.2 d and 1.5 mm) is not enough to generate new flow, which is only guaranteed by events occurring in return periods from 2 to > 50 years. REs explain near to 75 % of new flow, meaning that terrain and lithological characteristics play a fundamental role.
Adam P. Schreiner-McGraw and Hoori Ajami
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1145–1164,Short summary
We assess the impact of uncertainty in measurements of precipitation and air temperature on simulated groundwater processes in a mountainous watershed. We illustrate the role of topography in controlling how uncertainty in the input datasets propagates through the soil and into the groundwater. While the focus of previous investigations has been on the impact of precipitation uncertainty, we show that air temperature uncertainty is equally important in controlling the groundwater recharge.
Antonio Annis, Fernando Nardi, and Fabio Castelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1019–1041,Short summary
In this work, we proposed a multi-source data assimilation framework for near-real-time flood mapping. We used a quasi-2D hydraulic model to update model states by injecting both stage gauge observations and satellite-derived flood extents. Results showed improvements in terms of water level prediction and reduction of flood extent uncertainty when assimilating both stage gauges and satellite images with respect to the disjoint assimilation of both observations.
Saúl Arciniega-Esparza, Christian Birkel, Andrés Chavarría-Palma, Berit Arheimer, and José Agustín Breña-Naranjo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 975–999,Short summary
In the humid tropics, a notoriously data-scarce region, we need to find alternatives in order to reasonably apply hydrological models. Here, we tested remotely sensed rainfall data in order to drive a model for Costa Rica, and we evaluated the simulations against evapotranspiration satellite products. We found that our model was able to reasonably simulate the water balance and streamflow dynamics of over 600 catchments where the satellite data helped to reduce the model uncertainties.
Tessa Maurer, Francesco Avanzi, Steven D. Glaser, and Roger C. Bales
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 589–607,Short summary
Predicting how much water will end up in rivers is more difficult during droughts because the relationship between precipitation and streamflow can change in unexpected ways. We differentiate between changes that are predictable based on the weather patterns and those harder to predict because they depend on the land and vegetation of a particular region. This work helps clarify why models are less accurate during droughts and helps predict how much water will be available for human use.
Zhihong Song, Jun Xia, Gangsheng Wang, Dunxian She, Chen Hu, and Si Hong
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 505–524,Short summary
We performed a machine learning approach to regionalize the parameters of a China-wide hydrological model by linking six model parameters with 10 physical attributes (terrain and soil properties). The results show the superiority of machine-learning-based regionalization approach compared with the traditional linear regression method in ungauged regions. We also obtained the relative importance of attributes against model parameters.
Elisa Brussolo, Elisa Palazzi, Jost von Hardenberg, Giulio Masetti, Gianna Vivaldo, Maurizio Previati, Davide Canone, Davide Gisolo, Ivan Bevilacqua, Antonello Provenzale, and Stefano Ferraris
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 407–427,Short summary
In this study, we evaluate the past, present and future quantity of groundwater potentially available for drinking purposes in the metropolitan area of Turin, north-western Italy. In order to effectively manage water resources, a knowledge of the water cycle components is necessary, including precipitation, evapotranspiration and subsurface reservoirs. All these components have been carefully evaluated in this paper, using observational datasets and modelling approaches.
Albert Nkwasa, Celray James Chawanda, Jonas Jägermeyr, and Ann van Griensven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 71–89,Short summary
We present an approach on how to incorporate crop phenology in a regional hydrological model using decision tables and global datasets of rainfed and irrigated cropland with the associated cropping calendar and management practices. Results indicate improved temporal patterns of leaf area index (LAI) and evapotranspiration (ET) simulations in comparison with remote sensing data. In addition, the improvement of the cropping season also helps to improve soil erosion estimates in cultivated areas.
Fanny Lehmann, Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma, and Jonathan Bamber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 35–54,Short summary
Many data sources are available to evaluate components of the water cycle (precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and terrestrial water storage). Despite this variety, it remains unclear how different combinations of datasets satisfy the conservation of mass. We conducted the most comprehensive analysis of water budget closure on a global scale to date. Our results can serve as a basis to select appropriate datasets for regional hydrological studies.
Joni Dehaspe, Fanny Sarrazin, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6437–6463,Short summary
Increased nitrate concentrations in surface waters can compromise river ecosystem health. As riverine nitrate uptake is hard to measure, we explore how low-frequency nitrate concentration and discharge observations (that are widely available) can help to identify (in)efficient uptake in river networks. We find that channel geometry and water velocity rather than the biological uptake capacity dominate the nitrate-discharge pattern at the outlet. The former can be used to predict uptake.
Shaini Naha, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, and Rafael Rosolem
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6339–6357,Short summary
Rapid growth in population in developing countries leads to an increase in food demand, and as a consequence, percentages of land are being converted to cropland which alters river flow processes. This study describes how the hydrology of a flood-prone river basin in India would respond to the current and future changes in land cover. Our findings indicate that the recurrent flood events occurring in the basin might be influenced by these changes in land cover at the catchment scale.
Maxime Gillet, Corinne Le Gal La Salle, Pierre Alain Ayral, Somar Khaska, Philippe Martin, and Patrick Verdoux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6261–6281,Short summary
This paper aims at identifying the key reservoirs sustaining river low flow during dry summer. The reservoirs are discriminated based on the geological nature of the formations and the geochemical signature of groundwater. Results show the increasing importance to low-flow support of a specific reservoir, showing only a limited outcrop area and becoming preponderant in the heart of the dry season. This finding will contribute to improving the protective measures for preserving low flows.
Edouard Patault, Valentin Landemaine, Jérôme Ledun, Arnaud Soulignac, Matthieu Fournier, Jean-François Ouvry, Olivier Cerdan, and Benoit Laignel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6223–6238,Short summary
The goal of this study was to assess the sediment discharge variability at a water treatment plant (Normandy, France) according to multiple realistic land use scenarios. We developed a new cascade modelling approach and simulations suggested that coupling eco-engineering and best farming practices can significantly reduce the sediment discharge (up to 80 %).
Ather Abbas, Sangsoo Baek, Norbert Silvera, Bounsamay Soulileuth, Yakov Pachepsky, Olivier Ribolzi, Laurie Boithias, and Kyung Hwa Cho
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6185–6202,Short summary
Correct estimation of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters is critical for public health. Process-driven models and recently data-driven models have been applied for water quality modeling; however, a systematic comparison for simulation of E. coli is missing in the literature. We compared performance of process-driven (HSPF) and data-driven (LSTM) models for E. coli simulation. We show that LSTM can be an alternative to process-driven models for estimation of E. coli in surface waters.
Yi Nan, Zhihua He, Fuqiang Tian, Zhongwang Wei, and Lide Tian
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6151–6172,Short summary
Hydrological modeling has large problems of uncertainty in cold regions. Tracer-aided hydrological models are increasingly used to reduce uncertainty and refine the parameterizations of hydrological processes, with limited application in large basins due to the unavailability of spatially distributed precipitation isotopes. This study explored the utility of isotopic general circulation models in driving a tracer-aided hydrological model in a large basin on the Tibetan Plateau.
Benedikt J. Werner, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Andreas Musolff, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Jie Yang, Ralf Gründling, Ulrike Werban, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6067–6086,Short summary
Export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from riparian zones (RZs) is an important yet poorly understood component of the catchment carbon budget. This study chemically and spatially classifies DOC source zones within a RZ of a small catchment to assess DOC export patterns. Results highlight that DOC export from only a small fraction of the RZ with distinct DOC composition dominates overall DOC export. The application of a spatial, topographic proxy can be used to improve DOC export models.
Ulises Sepúlveda, Pablo A. Mendoza, Naoki Mizukami, and Andrew J. Newman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
This paper characterizes parameter sensitivities across > 5,500 grid cells for a commonly used macro-scale hydrological model, including a suite of eight performance metrics and 43 soil, vegetation and snow parameters. The results show that the model is highly overparameterized and, more importantly, help to provide guidance on the most relevant parameters for specific target processes across diverse climatic types.
Sella Nevo, Efrat Morin, Adi Gerzi Rosenthal, Asher Metzger, Chen Barshai, Dana Weitzner, Dafi Voloshin, Frederik Kratzert, Gal Elidan, Gideon Dror, Gregory Begelman, Grey Nearing, Guy Shalev, Hila Noga, Ira Shavitt, Liora Yuklea, Moriah Royz, Niv Giladi, Nofar Peled Levi, Ofir Reich, Oren Gilon, Ronnie Maor, Shahar Timnat, Tal Shechter, Vladimir Anisimov, Yotam Gigi, Yuval Levin, Zach Moshe, Zvika Ben-Haim, Avinatan Hassidim, and Yossi Matias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Early flood warnings are one of the most effective tools to save lives and goods. Machine learning models can improve flood prediction accuracy but their use in operational frameworks is limited. The paper presents a flood warning system, operational in India and Bangladesh, that uses machine learning models for forecasting river stage and flood inundation maps, and discusses the models’ performances. In 2021 more than 100M flood alerts were sent to people near rivers over an area of 287,000 km2.
Sergio Naranjo, Francelino A. Rodrigues Jr., Georg Cadisch, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Mariela Fuentes Ponce, and Carsten Marohn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5561–5588,Short summary
We integrate a spatially explicit soil erosion model with plot- and watershed-scale characterization and high-resolution drone imagery to assess the effect of spatial resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) on discharge and soil loss. Results showed reduction in slope due to resampling down of DTM. Higher resolution translates to higher slope, denser fluvial system, and extremer values of soil loss, reducing concentration time and increasing soil loss at the outlet. The best resolution was 4 m.
Thomas Lees, Marcus Buechel, Bailey Anderson, Louise Slater, Steven Reece, Gemma Coxon, and Simon J. Dadson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5517–5534,Short summary
We used deep learning (DL) models to simulate the amount of water moving through a river channel (discharge) based on the rainfall, temperature and potential evaporation in the previous days. We tested the DL models on catchments across Great Britain finding that the model can accurately simulate hydrological systems across a variety of catchment conditions. Ultimately, the model struggled most in areas where there is chalky bedrock and where human influence on the catchment is large.
Peter T. La Follette, Adriaan J. Teuling, Nans Addor, Martyn Clark, Koen Jansen, and Lieke A. Melsen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5425–5446,Short summary
Hydrological models are useful tools that allow us to predict distributions and movement of water. A variety of numerical methods are used by these models. We demonstrate which numerical methods yield large errors when subject to extreme precipitation. As the climate is changing such that extreme precipitation is more common, we find that some numerical methods are better suited for use in hydrological models. Also, we find that many current hydrological models use relatively inaccurate methods.
John P. Bloomfield, Mengyi Gong, Benjamin P. Marchant, Gemma Coxon, and Nans Addor
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5355–5379,Short summary
Groundwater provides flow, known as baseflow, to surface streams and rivers. It is important as it sustains the flow of many rivers at times of water stress. However, it may be affected by water management practices. Statistical models have been used to show that abstraction of groundwater may influence baseflow. Consequently, it is recommended that information on groundwater abstraction is included in future assessments and predictions of baseflow.
Pierre Nicolle, Vazken Andréassian, Paul Royer-Gaspard, Charles Perrin, Guillaume Thirel, Laurent Coron, and Léonard Santos
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5013–5027,Short summary
In this note, a new method (RAT) is proposed to assess the robustness of hydrological models. The RAT method is particularly interesting because it does not require multiple calibrations (it is therefore applicable to uncalibrated models), and it can be used to determine whether a hydrological model may be safely used for climate change impact studies. Success at the robustness assessment test is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition of model robustness.
Markus Hrachowitz, Michael Stockinger, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Ruud van der Ent, Heye Bogena, Andreas Lücke, and Christine Stumpp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4887–4915,Short summary
Deforestation affects how catchments store and release water. Here we found that deforestation in the study catchment led to a 20 % increase in mean runoff, while reducing the vegetation-accessible water storage from about 258 to 101 mm. As a consequence, fractions of young water in the stream increased by up to 25 % during wet periods. This implies that water and solutes are more rapidly routed to the stream, which can, after contamination, lead to increased contaminant peak concentrations.
Etienne Guilpart, Vahid Espanmanesh, Amaury Tilmant, and François Anctil
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4611–4629,Short summary
The stationary assumption in hydrology has become obsolete because of climate changes. In that context, it is crucial to assess the performance of a hydrologic model over a wide range of climates and their corresponding hydrologic conditions. In this paper, numerous, contrasted, climate sequences identified by a hidden Markov model (HMM) are used in a differential split-sample testing framework to assess the robustness of a hydrologic model. We illustrate the method on the Senegal River.
Sebastian A. Krogh, Lucia Scaff, Gary Sterle, James Kirchner, Beatrice Gordon, and Adrian Harpold
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
We present a new way to detect snowmelt using daily cycles in streamflow driven by solar radiation. Results show that warmer sites have earlier and more intermittent snowmelt than colder sites, and the timing of early snowmelt events is strongly correlated with the timing of streamflow volume. A space-for-time substitution shows greater sensitivity of streamflow timing to climate change in colder than in warmer places, which is then contrasted with land-surface simulations.
Jonathan Frame, Frederik Kratzert, Daniel Klotz, Martin Gauch, Guy Shelev, Oren Gilon, Logan M. Qualls, Hoshin V. Gupta, and Grey S. Nearing
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
The most accurate rainfall-runoff predictions are currently based on deep learning. There is a concern among hydrologists that deep learning models may not be reliable in extrapolation or for predicting extreme events. This study tests that hypothesis. The deep learning models remained relatively accurate in predicting extreme events compared traditional models, even when extreme events are not included in the training set.
Herath Mudiyanselage Viraj Vidura Herath, Jayashree Chadalawada, and Vladan Babovic
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4373–4401,Short summary
Existing hydrological knowledge has been integrated with genetic programming based on a machine learning algorithm (MIKA-SHA) to induce readily interpretable distributed rainfall–runoff models. At present, the model building components of two flexible modelling frameworks (FUSE and SUPERFLEX) represent the elements of hydrological knowledge. The proposed toolkit captures spatial variabilities and automatically induces semi-distributed rainfall–runoff models without any explicit user selections.
Natthachet Tangdamrongsub, Michael F. Jasinski, and Peter J. Shellito
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4185–4208,Short summary
Accurate estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) is essential for reliable water resource assessments. TWS can be estimated from the Community Atmosphere–Biosphere Land Exchange model (CABLE), but the resolution is limited to 0.5°. We reconfigure CABLE to improve TWS spatial details from 0.5° to 0.05°. GRACE satellite data are assimilated into CABLE to improve TWS accuracy. Our workflow relies only on publicly accessible data, allowing reproduction of 0.05° TWS in any region.
Seán Donegan, Conor Murphy, Shaun Harrigan, Ciaran Broderick, Dáire Foran Quinn, Saeed Golian, Jeff Knight, Tom Matthews, Christel Prudhomme, Adam A. Scaife, Nicky Stringer, and Robert L. Wilby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4159–4183,Short summary
We benchmarked the skill of ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) for a diverse sample of 46 Irish catchments. We found that ESP is skilful in the majority of catchments up to several months ahead. However, the level of skill was strongly dependent on lead time, initialisation month, and individual catchment location and storage properties. We also conditioned ESP with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and show that improvements in forecast skill, reliability, and discrimination are possible.
Paul C. Astagneau, Guillaume Thirel, Olivier Delaigue, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Juraj Parajka, Claudia C. Brauer, Alberto Viglione, Wouter Buytaert, and Keith J. Beven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3937–3973,Short summary
The R programming language has become an important tool for many applications in hydrology. In this study, we provide an analysis of some of the R tools providing hydrological models. In total, two aspects are uniformly investigated, namely the conceptualisation of the models and the practicality of their implementation for end-users. These comparisons aim at easing the choice of R tools for users and at improving their usability for hydrology modelling to support more transferable research.
Zhixu Bai, Yao Wu, Di Ma, and Yue-Ping Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3675–3690,Short summary
To test our hypothesis that the fractal dimensions of streamflow series can be used to improve the calibration of hydrological models, we designed the E–RD efficiency ratio of fractal dimensions strategy and examined its usability in the calibration of lumped models. The results reveal that, in most aspects, introducing RD into model calibration makes the simulation of streamflow components more reasonable. Also, pursuing a better RD during calibration leads to only a minor decrease in E.
Yi Nan, Lide Tian, Zhihua He, Fuqiang Tian, and Lili Shao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3653–3673,Short summary
This study integrated a water isotope module into the hydrological model THREW. The isotope-aided model was subsequently applied for process understanding in the glacierized watershed of Karuxung river on the Tibetan Plateau. The model was used to quantify the contribution of runoff component and estimate the water travel time in the catchment. Model uncertainties were significantly constrained by using additional isotopic data, improving the process understanding in the catchment.
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We propose deriving altimetric rating curves by
bridginggaps between time series from gauge and altimeter measurements using hydrological model simulations. We investigate several stations at the Niger River, which is a challenging region. We show that altimetry reproduces discharge well and enables continuing the gauge time series, albeit at a lower temporal resolution.
We propose deriving altimetric rating curves by
bridginggaps between time series from gauge and...