Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Accounting for environmental flow requirements in global water assessments
Wageningen University, Earth System Science, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands
Climate Change and Adaptive Land and Water Management Group, Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2b, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Wageningen University, Earth System Science, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria
No articles found.
Wouter J. Smolenaars, Sanita Dhaubanjar, Muhammad K. Jamil, Arthur Lutz, Walter Immerzeel, Fulco Ludwig, and Hester Biemans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 861–883,Short summary
The arid plains of the lower Indus Basin rely heavily on the water provided by the mountainous upper Indus. Rapid population growth in the upper Indus is expected to increase the water that is consumed there. This will subsequently reduce the water that is available for the downstream plains, where the population and water demand are also expected to grow. In future, this may aggravate tensions over the division of water between the countries that share the Indus Basin.
Bram Droppers, Wietse H. P. Franssen, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Fulco Ludwig
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5029–5052,Short summary
Our study aims to include both both societal and natural water requirements and uses into a hydrological model in order to enable worldwide assessments of sustainable water use. The model was extended to include irrigation, domestic, industrial, energy, and livestock water uses as well as minimum flow requirements for natural systems. Initial results showed competition for water resources between society and nature, especially with respect to groundwater withdrawals.
René Reijer Wijngaard, Hester Biemans, Arthur Friedrich Lutz, Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Philippus Wester, and Walter Willem Immerzeel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6297–6321,Short summary
This study assesses the combined impacts of climate change and socio-economic developments on the future water gap for the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins until the end of the 21st century. The results show that despite projected increases in surface water availability, the strong socio-economic development and associated increase in water demand will likely lead to an increase in the water gap, indicating that socio-economic changes will be the key driver in the evolving water gap.
Wouter Greuell, Wietse H. P. Franssen, Hester Biemans, and Ronald W. A. Hutjes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3453–3472,Short summary
This paper presents the development and skill analysis of WUSHP, a system that makes hydrological forecasts for time horizons up to 7 months. Hot spots of significant skill in river discharge were identified in Fennoscandia (from January to October), the southern part of the Mediterranean (from June to August), Poland, north Germany, Romania and Bulgaria (mainly from November to January), and west France (from December to May). Some skill is left at the end of the forecasts.
Sibyll Schaphoff, Werner von Bloh, Anja Rammig, Kirsten Thonicke, Hester Biemans, Matthias Forkel, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Jonas Jägermeyr, Jürgen Knauer, Fanny Langerwisch, Wolfgang Lucht, Christoph Müller, Susanne Rolinski, and Katharina Waha
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1343–1375,Short summary
Here we provide a comprehensive model description of a global terrestrial biosphere model, named LPJmL4, incorporating the carbon and water cycle and the quantification of agricultural production. The model allows for the consistent and joint quantification of climate and land use change impacts on the biosphere. The model represents the key ecosystem functions, but also the influence of humans on the biosphere. It comes with an evaluation paper to demonstrate the credibility of LPJmL4.
Dung Duc Tran, Gerardo van Halsema, Petra J. G. J. Hellegers, Long Phi Hoang, Tho Quang Tran, Matti Kummu, and Fulco Ludwig
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1875–1896,Short summary
We modeled hydrological changes under impacts of large-scale dike constructions for intensive rice production in the floodplain of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Four scenarios show a significant increase in peak water levels in the upstream rivers, but very few water level changes are found downstream. Water balance calculations show where the floodwater goes under four dike construction scenarios. Its impacts on the tidal areas need to be clarified in the future with a 3-D hydraulic model.
Matthieu Guimberteau, Philippe Ciais, Agnès Ducharne, Juan Pablo Boisier, Ana Paula Dutra Aguiar, Hester Biemans, Hannes De Deurwaerder, David Galbraith, Bart Kruijt, Fanny Langerwisch, German Poveda, Anja Rammig, Daniel Andres Rodriguez, Graciela Tejada, Kirsten Thonicke, Celso Von Randow, Rita C. S. Von Randow, Ke Zhang, and Hans Verbeeck
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1455–1475,
Long Phi Hoang, Hannu Lauri, Matti Kummu, Jorma Koponen, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Iwan Supit, Rik Leemans, Pavel Kabat, and Fulco Ludwig
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3027–3041,Short summary
We modelled hydrological changes under climate change in the Mekong River, focusing on extreme events. The scenario ensemble shows an intensification of the hydrological cycle under climate change. Annual river flow increases between 5 and 16 % depending on locations. Extreme high flows increase substantially in both magnitude and frequency, posing threats to flood safety in the basin. Extreme low-flow events are projected to reduce as a result of increased river flow during the dry season.
Hester Biemans, Christian Siderius, Ashok Mishra, and Bashir Ahmad
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1971–1982,Short summary
This study presents crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping. We show that crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter and summer irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the demand in winter is much higher. Insight in where and when sufficient irrigation water supply is critical to sustain food production, is essential to plan adaptation.
W. Greuell, J. C. M. Andersson, C. Donnelly, L. Feyen, D. Gerten, F. Ludwig, G. Pisacane, P. Roudier, and S. Schaphoff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
The main aims of this paper are the evaluation of five large-scale hydrological models across Europe and the assessment of the suitability of the models for making projections under climate change. While we found large inter-model differences in biases, the skill to simulate interannual variability in discharge did not differ much between the models. Assuming that the skill of a model to simulate interannual variability provides a measure for the model’s ability to make projections under climate
B. Mueller, M. Hirschi, C. Jimenez, P. Ciais, P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, F. Ludwig, F. Maignan, D. G. Miralles, M. F. McCabe, M. Reichstein, J. Sheffield, K. Wang, E. F. Wood, Y. Zhang, and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3707–3720,
S. Hagemann, C. Chen, D. B. Clark, S. Folwell, S. N. Gosling, I. Haddeland, N. Hanasaki, J. Heinke, F. Ludwig, F. Voss, and A. J. Wiltshire
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 129–144,
Related subject area
Subject: Global hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Theory developmentA hydrologist's guide to open scienceFrom mythology to science: the development of scientific hydrological concepts in Greek antiquity and its relevance to modern hydrologyComment on: “A review of the complementary principle of evaporation: from the original linear relationship to generalized nonlinear functions” by Han and Tian (2020)Global distribution of hydrologic controls on forest growthInter-annual variability of the global terrestrial water cycleUsing R in hydrology: a review of recent developments and future directionsMultivariate stochastic bias corrections with optimal transportA simple tool for refining GCM water availability projections, applied to Chinese catchmentsNecessary storage as a signature of discharge variability: towards global mapsShould seasonal rainfall forecasts be used for flood preparedness?Hydroclimatic variability and predictability: a survey of recent researchHESS Opinions: A planetary boundary on freshwater use is misleadingControls on hydrologic drought duration in near-natural streamflow in Europe and the USADrought in a human-modified world: reframing drought definitions, understanding, and analysis approachesAction-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian actionImproving together: better science writing through peer learningA two-parameter Budyko function to represent conditions under which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitationHydrological recurrence as a measure for large river basin classification and process understandingStorm type effects on super Clausius–Clapeyron scaling of intense rainstorm properties with air temperatureHydroclimatic regimes: a distributed water-balance framework for hydrologic assessment, classification, and managementHESS Opinions "A perspective on isotope versus non-isotope approaches to determine the contribution of transpiration to total evaporation"Estimates of the climatological land surface energy and water balance derived from maximum convective powerA general framework for understanding the response of the water cycle to global warming over land and oceanA physically based approach for the estimation of root-zone soil moisture from surface measurementsGlobalization of agricultural pollution due to international tradeData-driven scale extrapolation: estimating yearly discharge for a large region by small sub-basinsHydrologic benchmarking of meteorological drought indices at interannual to climate change timescales: a case study over the Amazon and Mississippi river basinsA worldwide analysis of trends in water-balance evapotranspirationThermodynamic limits of hydrologic cycling within the Earth system: concepts, estimates and implicationsHydrological drought across the world: impact of climate and physical catchment structureGlobal hydrobelts and hydroregions: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?Evaluation of water-energy balance frameworks to predict the sensitivity of streamflow to climate changeTechnical note: Towards a continuous classification of climate using bivariate colour mappingRecycling of moisture in Europe: contribution of evaporation to variability in very wet and dry years
Caitlyn A. Hall, Sheila M. Saia, Andrea L. Popp, Nilay Dogulu, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, Niels Drost, Tim van Emmerik, and Rolf Hut
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 647–664,Short summary
Impactful open, accessible, reusable, and reproducible hydrologic research practices are being embraced by individuals and the community, but taking the plunge can seem overwhelming. We present the Open Hydrology Principles and Practical Guide to help hydrologists move toward open science, research, and education. We discuss the benefits and how hydrologists can overcome common challenges. We encourage all hydrologists to join the open science community (https://open-hydrology.github.io).
Demetris Koutsoyiannis and Nikos Mamassis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2419–2444,Short summary
This paper is the result of new research of ancient and early modern sources about the developments of the concept of the hydrological cycle and of hydrology in general. It shows that the flooding of the Nile was the first geophysical problem formulated in scientific terms in the cradle of natural philosophy and science in the 6th century BC. Aristotle was able to find the correct solution to the problem, which he tested through what it appears to be the first scientific expedition in history.
Richard D. Crago, Jozsef Szilagyi, and Russell Qualls
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 63–68,Short summary
The sigmoid-shaped complementary relationship (CR) for regional evaporation proposed by Han and Tian (2018, 2020) is reconsidered in terms of (1) its ability to give reasonable evaporation results from sites worldwide, (2) evidence for the three-state evaporation process it posits, (3) the validity of the proof provided by Han and Tian (2018), and (4) the relevance of model studies that seem to support it. Arguments for the sigmoid shape deserve to be taken seriously but remain unconvincing.
Caspar T. J. Roebroek, Lieke A. Melsen, Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Ying Fan, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4625–4639,Short summary
Vegetation is a principal component in the Earth system models that are used for weather, climate and other environmental predictions. Water is one of the main drivers of vegetation; however, the global distribution of how water influences vegetation is not well understood. This study looks at spatial patterns of photosynthesis and water sources (rain and groundwater) to obtain a first understanding of water access and limitations for the growth of global forests (proxy for natural vegetation).
Dongqin Yin and Michael L. Roderick
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 381–396,Short summary
We focus on the initial analysis of inter-annual variability in the global terrestrial water cycle, which is key to understanding hydro-climate extremes. We find that (1) the partitioning of inter-annual variability is totally different with the mean state partitioning; (2) the magnitude of covariances can be large and negative, indicating the variability in the sinks can exceed variability in the source; and (3) the partitioning is relevant to the water storage capacity and snow/ice presence.
Louise J. Slater, Guillaume Thirel, Shaun Harrigan, Olivier Delaigue, Alexander Hurley, Abdou Khouakhi, Ilaria Prosdocimi, Claudia Vitolo, and Katie Smith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2939–2963,Short summary
This paper explores the benefits and advantages of R's usage in hydrology. We provide an overview of a typical hydrological workflow based on reproducible principles and packages for retrieval of hydro-meteorological data, spatial analysis, hydrological modelling, statistics, and the design of static and dynamic visualizations and documents. We discuss some of the challenges that arise when using R in hydrology as well as a roadmap for R’s future within the discipline.
Yoann Robin, Mathieu Vrac, Philippe Naveau, and Pascal Yiou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 773–786,Short summary
Bias correction methods are used to calibrate climate model outputs with respect to observations. In this article, a non-stationary, multivariate and stochastic bias correction method is developed based on optimal transport, accounting for inter-site and inter-variable correlations. Optimal transport allows us to construct a joint distribution that minimizes energy spent in bias correction. Our methodology is tested on precipitation and temperatures over 12 locations in southern France.
Joe M. Osborne and F. Hugo Lambert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6043–6057,Short summary
We want to estimate how much water will be available in a river basin (runoff) at the end of the 21st century. Climate models alone are considered unsuitable for this task due to biases in representing the present-day climate. We show that the output from these models can be corrected using a simple mathematical framework. This approach narrows the range of future runoff projections for the Yellow river in China by 34 %. It serves as a quick tool for updating projections from climate models.
Kuniyoshi Takeuchi and Muhammad Masood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4495–4516,Short summary
There are many global maps of hydrology and water resources, but none on necessary storage to smooth out discharge variability. This paper provides a methodology to create such a map, taking the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna basin as an example. Necessary storage is calculated by a new method, intensity–duration–frequency curves of flood and drought (FDC–DDC). Necessary storage serves as a signature of hydrological variability and its geographical distribution provides new insights for hydrology.
Erin Coughlan de Perez, Elisabeth Stephens, Konstantinos Bischiniotis, Maarten van Aalst, Bart van den Hurk, Simon Mason, Hannah Nissan, and Florian Pappenberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4517–4524,Short summary
Disaster managers would like to use seasonal forecasts to anticipate flooding months in advance. However, current seasonal forecasts give information on rainfall instead of flooding. Here, we find that the number of extreme events, rather than total rainfall, is most related to flooding in different regions of Africa. We recommend several forecast adjustments and research opportunities that would improve flood information at the seasonal timescale in different regions.
Randal D. Koster, Alan K. Betts, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Marc Bierkens, Katrina E. Bennett, Stephen J. Déry, Jason P. Evans, Rong Fu, Felipe Hernandez, L. Ruby Leung, Xu Liang, Muhammad Masood, Hubert Savenije, Guiling Wang, and Xing Yuan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3777–3798,Short summary
Large-scale hydrological variability can affect society in profound ways; floods and droughts, for example, often cause major damage and hardship. A recent gathering of hydrologists at a symposium to honor the career of Professor Eric Wood motivates the present survey of recent research on this variability. The surveyed literature and the illustrative examples provided in the paper show that research into hydrological variability continues to be strong, vibrant, and multifaceted.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3455–3461,Short summary
In 2009, the "planetary boundaries" were introduced. They consist of nine global control variables and corresponding "thresholds which, if crossed, could generate unacceptable environmental change". The idea has been very successful, but also controversial. This paper picks up the debate with regard to the boundary on "global freshwater use": it argues that such a boundary is based on mere speculation, and that any exercise of assigning actual numbers is arbitrary, premature, and misleading.
Erik Tijdeman, Sophie Bachmair, and Kerstin Stahl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4043–4059,
Anne F. Van Loon, Kerstin Stahl, Giuliano Di Baldassarre, Julian Clark, Sally Rangecroft, Niko Wanders, Tom Gleeson, Albert I. J. M. Van Dijk, Lena M. Tallaksen, Jamie Hannaford, Remko Uijlenhoet, Adriaan J. Teuling, David M. Hannah, Justin Sheffield, Mark Svoboda, Boud Verbeiren, Thorsten Wagener, and Henny A. J. Van Lanen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3631–3650,Short summary
In the Anthropocene, drought cannot be viewed as a natural hazard independent of people. Drought can be alleviated or made worse by human activities and drought impacts are dependent on a myriad of factors. In this paper, we identify research gaps and suggest a framework that will allow us to adequately analyse and manage drought in the Anthropocene. We need to focus on attribution of drought to different drivers, linking drought to its impacts, and feedbacks between drought and society.
Erin Coughlan de Perez, Bart van den Hurk, Maarten K. van Aalst, Irene Amuron, Deus Bamanya, Tristan Hauser, Brenden Jongma, Ana Lopez, Simon Mason, Janot Mendler de Suarez, Florian Pappenberger, Alexandra Rueth, Elisabeth Stephens, Pablo Suarez, Jurjen Wagemaker, and Ervin Zsoter
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3549–3560,Short summary
Many flood disaster impacts could be avoided by preventative action; however, early action is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the design of a new system of forecast-based financing, which automatically triggers action when a flood forecast arrives, before a potential disaster. We establish "action triggers" for northern Uganda based on a global flood forecasting system, verifying these forecasts and assessing the uncertainties inherent in setting a trigger in a data-scarce location.
Mathew A. Stiller-Reeve, Céline Heuzé, William T. Ball, Rachel H. White, Gabriele Messori, Karin van der Wiel, Iselin Medhaug, Annemarie H. Eckes, Amee O'Callaghan, Mike J. Newland, Sian R. Williams, Matthew Kasoar, Hella Elisa Wittmeier, and Valerie Kumer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2965–2973,Short summary
Scientific writing must improve and the key to long-term improvement of scientific writing lies with the early-career scientist (ECS). We introduce the ClimateSnack project, which aims to motivate ECSs to start writing groups around the world to improve their skills together. Writing groups offer many benefits but can be a challenge to keep going. Several ClimateSnack writing groups formed, and this paper examines why some of the groups flourished and others dissolved.
Peter Greve, Lukas Gudmundsson, Boris Orlowsky, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2195–2205,Short summary
The widely used Budyko framework is by definition limited to steady-state conditions. In this study we analytically derive a new, two-parameter formulation of the Budyko framework that represents conditions under which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. This is technically achieved by rotating the water supply limit within the Budyko space. The new formulation is shown to be capable to represent first-order seasonal dynamics within the hydroclimatological system.
R. Fernandez and T. Sayama
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1919–1942,
P. Molnar, S. Fatichi, L. Gaál, J. Szolgay, and P. Burlando
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1753–1766,Short summary
We present an empirical study of the rates of increase in precipitation intensity with air temperature using high-resolution 10 min precipitation records in Switzerland. We estimated the scaling rates for lightning (convective) and non-lightning event subsets and show that scaling rates are between 7 and 14%/C for convective rain and that mixing of storm types exaggerates the relations to air temperature. Doubled CC rates reported by other studies are an exception in our data set.
P. K. Weiskel, D. M. Wolock, P. J. Zarriello, R. M. Vogel, S. B. Levin, and R. M. Lent
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3855–3872,
S. J. Sutanto, B. van den Hurk, P. A. Dirmeyer, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Röckmann, K. E. Trenberth, E. M. Blyth, J. Wenninger, and G. Hoffmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2815–2827,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2201–2218,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1575–1589,
S. Manfreda, L. Brocca, T. Moramarco, F. Melone, and J. Sheffield
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1199–1212,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 503–510,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 343–352,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4885–4895,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4177–4187,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2873–2892,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1715–1732,
M. Meybeck, M. Kummu, and H. H. Dürr
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1093–1111,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1419–1433,
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Freshwater ecosystems encompass the most threatened species on earth. Environmental flow requirements need to be addressed globally to provide sufficient water for humans and nature. We present a comparison of five environmental flow methods validated with locally calculated EFRs. We showed that methods based on monthly average flow such as the variable monthly flow method are more reliable than methods based on annual thresholds. A range of EFRs was calculated for large river basins.
Freshwater ecosystems encompass the most threatened species on earth. Environmental flow...