Articles | Volume 18, issue 4
01 Apr 2014
Research article | 01 Apr 2014
Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American prairies
U. Nachshon et al.
No articles found.
Andrew M. Ireson, Raymond J. Spiteri, Martyn P. Clark, and Simon A. Mathias
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Richards' Equation (RE) is used to describe the movement and storage of water in a soil profile, and is a component of many hydrological and earth-system models. Solving RE numerically is challenging due to the non-linearities in the properties. Here, we present a simple but effective and mass-conservative solution to solving RE, which is ideal for teaching/learning purposes, but also useful in prototype models that are used to explore alternative process representations.
Chris M. DeBeer, Howard S. Wheater, John W. Pomeroy, Alan G. Barr, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Jill F. Johnstone, Merritt R. Turetsky, Ronald E. Stewart, Masaki Hayashi, Garth van der Kamp, Shawn Marshall, Elizabeth Campbell, Philip Marsh, Sean K. Carey, William L. Quinton, Yanping Li, Saman Razavi, Aaron Berg, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Christopher Spence, Warren D. Helgason, Andrew M. Ireson, T. Andrew Black, Mohamed Elshamy, Fuad Yassin, Bruce Davison, Allan Howard, Julie M. Thériault, Kevin Shook, Michael N. Demuth, and Alain Pietroniro
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1849–1882,Short summary
This article examines future changes in land cover and hydrological cycling across the interior of western Canada under climate conditions projected for the 21st century. Key insights into the mechanisms and interactions of Earth system and hydrological process responses are presented, and this understanding is used together with model application to provide a synthesis of future change. This has allowed more scientifically informed projections than have hitherto been available.
Zhe Zhang, Yanping Li, Michael Barlage, Fei Chen, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Andrew Ireson, and Zhenhua Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 655–672,Short summary
The groundwater regime in cold regions is strongly impacted by the soil freeze–thaw processes and semiarid climatic conditions. In this paper, we incorporate groundwater dynamics in the Noah-MP land surface model to simulate the water exchange between the unsaturated soil zone and an unconfined aquifer in the Prairie Pothole Region. The water table dynamics are reasonably simulated. The water budget of groundwater aquifer under current and future climate are also investigated.
Edward K. P. Bam, Rosa Brannen, Sujata Budhathoki, Andrew M. Ireson, Chris Spence, and Garth van der Kamp
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 553–563,Short summary
The paper highlights the data contained in the database for the Prairie research site, St. Denis National Wildlife Research Area, at Saskatchewan, Canada. The database includes atmosphere, snow surveys, pond, soil, groundwater, and water isotopes collected on an intermittent basis between 1968 and 2018. The metadata table provides location information, information about the full range of measurements carried out on each parameter, and GPS locations relevant for interpretation of the data.
Xicai Pan, Warren Helgason, Andrew Ireson, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5401–5413,Short summary
In this paper we present a case study from a heterogeneous pasture site in the Canadian prairies, where we have quantified the various components of the water balance on the field scale, and critically examine some of the simplifying assumptions which are often invoked when applying water budget approaches in applied hydrology. We highlight challenges caused by lateral fluxes of blowing snow and ambiguous partitioning of snow melt water into runoff and infiltration.
Amber M. Peterson, Warren D. Helgason, and Andrew M. Ireson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1373–1385,Short summary
Remote sensing techniques can provide useful large-scale estimates of soil moisture. However, these methods often only sense near-surface soil moisture, whereas many applications require estimates of the entire root zone. In this study we propose and test methods to "depth-scale" the shallow soil moisture measurements obtained using the cosmic-ray neutron probe to represent the entire root zone, thereby improving the applicability of this measurement approach.
P. Gober and H. S. Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1413–1422,
A. M. Ireson and A. P. Butler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2083–2096,
Related subject area
Subject: Hillslope hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Theory developmentMorphological controls on surface runoff: an interpretation of steady-state energy patterns, maximum power states and dissipation regimes within a thermodynamic frameworkSoil moisture: variable in space but redundant in timeA history of the concept of time of concentrationAre dissolved organic carbon concentrations in riparian groundwater linked to hydrological pathways in the boreal forest?The influence of diurnal snowmelt and transpiration on hillslope throughflow and stream responseSlope–velocity equilibrium and evolution of surface roughness on a stony hillslopeAssessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiationTechnical note: Inference in hydrology from entropy balance considerationsEcohydrological effects of stream–aquifer water interaction: a case study of the Heihe River basin, northwestern ChinaHillslope-scale experiment demonstrates the role of convergence during two-step saturationResolving structural errors in a spatially distributed hydrologic model using ensemble Kalman filter state updatesRunoff formation from experimental plot, field, to small catchment scales in agricultural North Huaihe River Plain, ChinaAddressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstructionHydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flowEffect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible bedsLarge-scale runoff generation – parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topographyEstimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagerySeasonal evaluation of the land surface scheme HTESSEL against remote sensing derived energy fluxes of the Transdanubian region in HungaryAnalysis of surface soil moisture patterns in agricultural landscapes using Empirical Orthogonal FunctionsModelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agricultureEvaluation of alternative formulae for calculation of surface temperature in snowmelt models using frequency analysis of temperature observationsGrowth of a high-elevation large inland lake, associated with climate change and permafrost degradation in TibetSelection of an appropriately simple storm runoff modelSpatial mapping of leaf area index using hyperspectral remote sensing for hydrological applications with a particular focus on canopy interceptionUse of satellite-derived data for characterization of snow cover and simulation of snowmelt runoff through a distributed physically based model of runoff generationA contribution to understanding the turbidity behaviour in an Amazon floodplainGlobal spatial optimization with hydrological systems simulation: application to land-use allocation and peak runoff minimizationImplementing small scale processes at the soil-plant interface – the role of root architectures for calculating root water uptake profilesUncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters and its influence on the performance of two hydrological models of different complexityModelling the inorganic nitrogen behaviour in a small Mediterranean forested catchment, Fuirosos (Catalonia)Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical areaClimate and terrain factors explaining streamflow response and recession in Australian catchmentsSoil moisture active and passive microwave products: intercomparison and evaluation over a Sahelian siteCharacteristics of 2-D convective structures in Catalonia (NE Spain): an analysis using radar data and GISThe contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of two typical Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balanceActual daily evapotranspiration estimated from MERIS and AATSR data over the Chinese Loess PlateauCalibration analysis for water storage variability of the global hydrological model WGHMEarth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advancesReducing scale dependence in TOPMODEL using a dimensionless topographic indexSpatial variation in soil active-layer geochemistry across hydrologic margins in polar desert ecosystemsNitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoffRecent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna DeltaWater availability, demand and reliability of in situ water harvesting in smallholder rain-fed agriculture in the Thukela River Basin, South AfricaVariability of the groundwater sulfate concentration in fractured rock slopes: a tool to identify active unstable areasCopula based multisite model for daily precipitation simulationSolid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxesDeriving a global river network map and its sub-grid topographic characteristics from a fine-resolution flow direction mapSurface water acidification and critical loads: exploring the F-factorModelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plantDying to find the source – the use of rhodamine WT as a proxy for soluble point source pollutants in closed pipe surface drainage networks
Samuel Schroers, Olivier Eiff, Axel Kleidon, Ulrike Scherer, Jan Wienhöfer, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3125–3150,Short summary
In hydrology the formation of landform patterns is of special interest as changing forcings of the natural systems, such as climate or land use, will change these structures. In our study we developed a thermodynamic framework for surface runoff on hillslopes and highlight the differences of energy conversion patterns on two related spatial and temporal scales. The results indicate that surface runoff on hillslopes approaches a maximum power state.
Mirko Mälicke, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, Markus Weiler, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2633–2653,Short summary
We could show that distributed soil moisture time series bear a considerable amount of information about dynamic changes in soil moisture. We developed a new method to describe spatial patterns and analyze their persistency. By combining uncertainty propagation with information theory, we were able to calculate the information content of spatial similarity with respect to measurement uncertainty. This does help to understand when and why the soil is drying in an organized manner.
Keith J. Beven
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2655–2670,Short summary
The concept of time of concentration in the analysis of catchment responses dates back over 150 years. It is normally discussed in terms of the velocity of flow of a water particle from the furthest part of a catchment to the outlet. This is also the basis for the definition in the International Glossary of Hydrology, but this is in conflict with the way in which it is commonly used. This paper provides a clarification of the concept and its correct useage.
Stefan W. Ploum, Hjalmar Laudon, Andrés Peralta-Tapia, and Lenka Kuglerová
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1709–1720,Short summary
Near-stream areas, or riparian zones, are important for the health of streams and rivers. If these areas are disturbed by forestry or other anthropogenic activity, the water quality and all life in streams may be at risk. We examined which riparian areas are particularly sensitive. We found that only a few wet areas bring most of the rainwater from the landscape to the stream, and they have a unique water quality. In order to maintain healthy streams and rivers, these areas should be protected.
Brett Woelber, Marco P. Maneta, Joel Harper, Kelsey G. Jencso, W. Payton Gardner, Andrew C. Wilcox, and Ignacio López-Moreno
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4295–4310,Short summary
The hydrology of high-elevation headwaters in midlatitudes is typically dominated by snow processes, which are very sensitive to changes in energy inputs at the top of the snowpack. We present a data analyses that reveal how snowmelt and transpiration waves induced by the diurnal solar cycle generate water pressure fluctuations that propagate through the snowpack–hillslope–stream system. Changes in diurnal energy inputs alter these pressure cycles with potential ecohydrological consequences.
Mark A. Nearing, Viktor O. Polyakov, Mary H. Nichols, Mariano Hernandez, Li Li, Ying Zhao, and Gerardo Armendariz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3221–3229,Short summary
This study presents novel scientific understanding about the way that hillslope surfaces form when exposed to rainfall erosion, and the way those surfaces interact with and influence runoff velocities during rain events. The data show that hillslope surfaces form such that flow velocities are independent of slope gradient and dependent on flow rates alone. This result represents a shift in thinking about surface water runoff.
Aliakbar Nazari Samani, Qiuwen Chen, Shahram Khalighi, Robert James Wasson, and Mohammad Reza Rahdari
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3005–3012,Short summary
We hypothesized that land use had important effects on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation. We investigated the effects using an experimental plot. The results indicated that the use of a threshold value of τcr = 35 dyne cm−2 and ωu = 0.4 Cm S−1 in physically based soil erosion models is susceptible to high uncertainty when assessing gully erosion.
Stefan J. Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2801–2809,
Yujin Zeng, Zhenghui Xie, Yan Yu, Shuang Liu, Linying Wang, Binghao Jia, Peihua Qin, and Yaning Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2333–2352,Short summary
In arid areas, stream–aquifer water exchange essentially sustains the growth and subsistence of riparian ecosystem. To quantify this effect for intensity and range, a stream–riverbank scheme was incorporated into a state-of-the-art land model, and some runs were set up over Heihe River basin, northwestern China. The results show that the hydrology circle is significantly changed, and the ecological system is benefitted greatly by the river water lateral transfer within a 1 km range to the stream.
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3681–3692,
J. H. Spaaks and W. Bouten
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3455–3472,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3115–3125,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1365–1377,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1305–1320,
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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 627–638,
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