Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
On the uncertainty of stream networks derived from elevation data: the error propagation approach
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
G. B. M. Heuvelink
Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
E. E. van Loon
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Related subject area
Subject: Catchment hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Remote Sensing and GISMonitoring the extreme flood events in the Yangtze River basin based on GRACE and GRACE-FO satellite dataPredicting soil moisture conditions across a heterogeneous boreal catchment using terrain indicesA combined use of in situ and satellite-derived observations to characterize surface hydrology and its variability in the Congo River basinMonitoring surface water dynamics in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota using dual-polarised Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) time seriesWatershed zonation through hillslope clustering for tractably quantifying above- and below-ground watershed heterogeneity and functionsClimatic and anthropogenic drivers of a drying Himalayan riverOn the selection of precipitation products for the regionalisation of hydrological model parametersDischarge of groundwater flow to Potter Cove on King George Island, Antarctic PeninsulaThe value of ASCAT soil moisture and MODIS snow cover data for calibrating a conceptual hydrologic modelSystematic comparison of five machine-learning models in classification and interpolation of soil particle size fractions using different transformed dataUsing hydrological and climatic catchment clusters to explore drivers of catchment behaviorUsing MODIS estimates of fractional snow cover area to improve streamflow forecasts in interior AlaskaInforming a hydrological model of the Ogooué with multi-mission remote sensing dataSpatial characterization of long-term hydrological change in the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, IndiaSpatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model – a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approachA method to employ the spatial organization of catchments into semi-distributed rainfall–runoff modelsMulti-source hydrological soil moisture state estimation using data fusion optimisationTemporal and spatial evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates across the complex topographical and climatic gradients of ChileDaily Landsat-scale evapotranspiration estimation over a forested landscape in North Carolina, USA, using multi-satellite data fusionUsing object-based geomorphometry for hydro-geomorphological analysis in a Mediterranean research catchmentComparing the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) with root zone storage in a lumped conceptual modelCase-based knowledge formalization and reasoning method for digital terrain analysis – application to extracting drainage networksImproved large-scale hydrological modelling through the assimilation of streamflow and downscaled satellite soil moisture observationsVegetative impacts upon bedload transport capacity and channel stability for differing alluvial planforms in the Yellow River source zoneEvaluation of global fine-resolution precipitation products and their uncertainty quantification in ensemble discharge simulationsMultidecadal change in streamflow associated with anthropogenic disturbances in the tropical AndesIntegration of 2-D hydraulic model and high-resolution lidar-derived DEM for floodplain flow modelingRelating seasonal dynamics of enhanced vegetation index to the recycling of water in two endorheic river basins in north-west ChinaUrbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern ChinaGRACE storage-runoff hystereses reveal the dynamics of regional watershedsImpacts of high inter-annual variability of rainfall on a century of extreme hydrologic regime of northwest AustraliaIdentification of catchment functional units by time series of thermal remote sensing imagesFlow regime change in an endorheic basin in southern EthiopiaEvaluating digital terrain indices for soil wetness mapping – a Swedish case studyThe suitability of remotely sensed soil moisture for improving operational flood forecastingModelling stream flow and quantifying blue water using a modified STREAM model for a heterogeneous, highly utilized and data-scarce river basin in AfricaOperational reservoir inflow forecasting with radar altimetry: the Zambezi case studyThree perceptions of the evapotranspiration landscape: comparing spatial patterns from a distributed hydrological model, remotely sensed surface temperatures, and sub-basin water balancesAssessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of EgyptEstimating water discharge from large radar altimetry datasetsEstimation of antecedent wetness conditions for flood modelling in northern MoroccoMODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sitesThe AACES field experiments: SMOS calibration and validation across the Murrumbidgee River catchmentA soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western DenmarkClassification and flow prediction in a data-scarce watershed of the equatorial Nile regionOn the use of AMSU-based products for the description of soil water content at basin scaleEstimating flooded area and mean water level using active and passive microwaves: the example of Paraná River Delta floodplainAssimilating SAR-derived water level data into a hydraulic model: a case studyEstimation of soil moisture using trapezoidal relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature and vegetation indexEstimation of surface soil moisture and roughness from multi-angular ASAR imagery in the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER)
Jingkai Xie, Yue-Ping Xu, Hongjie Yu, Yan Huang, and Yuxue Guo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5933–5954,Short summary
Monitoring extreme flood events has long been a hot topic for hydrologists and decision makers around the world. In this study, we propose a new index incorporating satellite observations combined with meteorological data to monitor extreme flood events at sub-monthly timescales for the Yangtze River basin (YRB), China. The conclusions drawn from this study provide important implications for flood hazard prevention and water resource management over this region.
Johannes Larson, William Lidberg, Anneli M. Ågren, and Hjalmar Laudon
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4837–4851,Short summary
Terrain indices constitute a good candidate for modelling the spatial variation of soil moisture conditions in many landscapes. In this study, we evaluate nine terrain indices on varying DEM resolution and user-defined thresholds with validation using an extensive field soil moisture class inventory. We demonstrate the importance of field validation for selecting the appropriate DEM resolution and user-defined thresholds and that failing to do so can result in ambiguous and incorrect results.
Benjamin Kitambo, Fabrice Papa, Adrien Paris, Raphael M. Tshimanga, Stephane Calmant, Ayan Santos Fleischmann, Frederic Frappart, Melanie Becker, Mohammad J. Tourian, Catherine Prigent, and Johary Andriambeloson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1857–1882,Short summary
This study presents a better characterization of surface hydrology variability in the Congo River basin, the second largest river system in the world. We jointly use a large record of in situ and satellite-derived observations to monitor the spatial distribution and different timings of the Congo River basin's annual flood dynamic, including its peculiar bimodal pattern.
Stefan Schlaffer, Marco Chini, Wouter Dorigo, and Simon Plank
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 841–860,Short summary
Prairie wetlands are important for biodiversity and water availability. Knowledge about their variability and spatial distribution is of great use in conservation and water resources management. In this study, we propose a novel approach for the classification of small water bodies from satellite radar images and apply it to our study area over 6 years. The retrieved dynamics show the different responses of small and large wetlands to dry and wet periods.
Haruko M. Wainwright, Sebastian Uhlemann, Maya Franklin, Nicola Falco, Nicholas J. Bouskill, Michelle E. Newcomer, Baptiste Dafflon, Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn, Burke J. Minsley, Kenneth H. Williams, and Susan S. Hubbard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 429–444,Short summary
This paper has developed a tractable approach for characterizing watershed heterogeneity and its relationship with key functions such as ecosystem sensitivity to droughts and nitrogen export. We have applied clustering methods to classify hillslopes into
watershed zonesthat have distinct distributions of bedrock-to-canopy properties as well as key functions. This is a powerful approach for guiding watershed experiments and sampling as well as informing hydrological and biogeochemical models.
Gopal Penny, Zubair A. Dar, and Marc F. Müller
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 375–395,Short summary
We develop an empirical approach to attribute declining streamflow in the Upper Jhelum watershed, a key subwatershed of the transboundary Indus basin. We find that a loss of streamflow since the year 2000 resulted primarily due to interactions among vegetation and groundwater in response to climate rather than local changes in land use, revealing the climate sensitivity of this Himalayan watershed.
Oscar M. Baez-Villanueva, Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini, Pablo A. Mendoza, Ian McNamara, Hylke E. Beck, Joschka Thurner, Alexandra Nauditt, Lars Ribbe, and Nguyen Xuan Thinh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5805–5837,Short summary
Most rivers worldwide are ungauged, which hinders the sustainable management of water resources. Regionalisation methods use information from gauged rivers to estimate streamflow over ungauged ones. Through hydrological modelling, we assessed how the selection of precipitation products affects the performance of three regionalisation methods. We found that a precipitation product that provides the best results in hydrological modelling does not necessarily perform the best for regionalisation.
Ulrike Falk and Adrián Silva-Busso
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3227–3244,Short summary
This paper focuses on the groundwater flow aspects of a small hydrological catchment at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. This region has experienced drastic climatological changes in the recent past. The basin is representative for the rugged coastline of the peninsula. It is discussed as a case study for possible future evolution of similar basins further south. Results include a quantitative analysis of glacial and groundwater contribution to total discharge into coastal waters.
Rui Tong, Juraj Parajka, Andreas Salentinig, Isabella Pfeil, Jürgen Komma, Borbála Széles, Martin Kubáň, Peter Valent, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Wolfgang Wagner, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1389–1410,Short summary
We used a new and experimental version of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil water index data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) C6 snow cover products for multiple objective calibrations of the TUWmodel in 213 catchments of Austria. Combined calibration to runoff, satellite soil moisture, and snow cover improves runoff (40 % catchments), soil moisture (80 % catchments), and snow (~ 100 % catchments) simulation compared to traditional calibration to runoff only.
Mo Zhang, Wenjiao Shi, and Ziwei Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2505–2526,Short summary
We systematically compared 45 models for direct and indirect soil texture classification and soil particle size fraction interpolation based on 5 machine-learning models and 3 log-ratio transformation methods. Random forest showed powerful performance in both classification of imbalanced data and regression assessment. Extreme gradient boosting is more meaningful and computationally efficient when dealing with large data sets. The indirect classification and log-ratio methods are recommended.
Florian U. Jehn, Konrad Bestian, Lutz Breuer, Philipp Kraft, and Tobias Houska
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1081–1100,Short summary
We grouped 643 rivers from the United States into 10 behavioral groups based on their hydrological behavior (e.g., how much water they transport overall). Those groups are aligned with the ecoregions in the United States. Depending on the groups’ location and other characteristics, either snow, aridity or seasonality is most important for the behavior of the rivers in a group. We also find that very similar river behavior can be found in rivers far apart and with different characteristics.
Katrina E. Bennett, Jessica E. Cherry, Ben Balk, and Scott Lindsey
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2439–2459,Short summary
Remotely sensed snow observations may improve operational streamflow forecasting in remote regions, such as Alaska. In this study, we insert remotely sensed observations of snow extent into the operational framework employed by the US National Weather Service’s Alaska Pacific River Forecast Center. Our work indicates that the snow observations can improve snow estimates and streamflow forecasting. This work provides direction for forecasters to implement remote sensing in their operations.
Cecile M. M. Kittel, Karina Nielsen, Christian Tøttrup, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1453–1472,Short summary
In this study, we integrate free, global Earth observations in a user-friendly and flexible model to reliably characterize an otherwise unmonitored river basin. The proposed model is the best baseline characterization of the Ogooué basin in light of available observations. Furthermore, the study shows the potential of using new, publicly available Earth observations and a suitable model structure to obtain new information in poorly monitored or remote areas and to support user requirements.
Gopal Penny, Veena Srinivasan, Iryna Dronova, Sharachchandra Lele, and Sally Thompson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 595–610,Short summary
Water resources in the Arkavathy watershed in southern India are changing due to human modification of the landscape, including changing agricultural practices and urbanization. We analyze surface water resources in man-made lakes in satellite imagery over a period of 4 decades and find drying in the northern part of the watershed (characterized by heavy agriculture) and wetting downstream of urban areas. Drying in the watershed is associated with groundwater-irrigated agriculture.
Gorka Mendiguren, Julian Koch, and Simon Stisen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5987–6005,Short summary
The present study is focused on the spatial pattern evaluation of two models and describes the similarities and dissimilarities. It also discusses the factors that generate these patterns and proposes similar new approaches to minimize the differences. The study points towards a new approach in which the spatial component of the hydrological model is also calibrated and taken into account.
Henning Oppel and Andreas Schumann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4259–4282,Short summary
How can we evaluate the heterogeneity of natural watersheds and how can we assess its spatial organization? How can we make use of this information for hydrological models and is it beneficial to our models? We propose a method display and assess the interaction of catchment characteristics with the flow path which we defined as the ordering scheme within a basin. A newly implemented algorithm brings this information to the set-up of a model and our results show an increase in model performance.
Lu Zhuo and Dawei Han
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3267–3285,Short summary
Reliable estimation of hydrological soil moisture state is of critical importance in operational hydrology to improve the flood prediction and hydrological cycle description. This paper attempts for the first time to build a soil moisture product directly applicable to hydrology using multiple data sources retrieved from remote sensing and land surface modelling. The result shows a significant improvement of the soil moisture state accuracy; the method can be easily applied in other catchments.
Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini, Alexandra Nauditt, Christian Birkel, Koen Verbist, and Lars Ribbe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1295–1320,Short summary
This work exhaustively evaluates – for the first time – the suitability of seven state-of-the-art satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. Several indices of performance are used for different timescales and elevation zones. Our analysis reveals what SREs are in closer agreement to ground-based observations and what indices allow for understanding mismatches in shape, magnitude, variability and intensity of precipitation.
Yun Yang, Martha C. Anderson, Feng Gao, Christopher R. Hain, Kathryn A. Semmens, William P. Kustas, Asko Noormets, Randolph H. Wynne, Valerie A. Thomas, and Ge Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1017–1037,Short summary
This work explores the utility of a thermal remote sensing based MODIS/Landsat ET data fusion procedure over a mixed forested/agricultural landscape in North Carolina, USA. The daily ET retrieved at 30 m resolution agreed well with measured fluxes in a clear-cut and a mature pine stand. An accounting of consumptive water use by land cover classes is presented, as well as relative partitioning of ET between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) components.
Domenico Guida, Albina Cuomo, and Vincenzo Palmieri
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3493–3509,Short summary
The authors apply an object-based geomorphometric procedure to define the runoff contribution areas. The results enabled us to identify the contribution area related to the different runoff components activated during the storm events through an advanced hydro-chemical analysis. This kind of approach could be useful applied to similar, rainfall-dominated, forested and no-karst Mediterranean catchments.
Nutchanart Sriwongsitanon, Hongkai Gao, Hubert H. G. Savenije, Ekkarin Maekan, Sirikanya Saengsawang, and Sansarith Thianpopirug
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3361–3377,Short summary
We demonstrated that the readily available NDII remote sensing product is a very useful proxy for moisture storage in the root zone of vegetation. We compared the temporal variation of the NDII with the root zone storage in a hydrological model of eight catchments in the Upper Ping River in Thailand, yielding very good results. Having a reliable NDII product that can help us to estimate the actual moisture storage in catchments is a major contribution to prediction in ungauged basins.
Cheng-Zhi Qin, Xue-Wei Wu, Jing-Chao Jiang, and A-Xing Zhu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3379–3392,Short summary
Application of digital terrain analysis (DTA), which is typically a modeling process involving workflow building, relies heavily on DTA domain knowledge. However, the DTA knowledge has not been formalized well to be available for inference in automatic tools. We propose a case-based methodology to solve this problem. This methodology can also be applied to other domains of geographical modeling with a similar situation.
Patricia López López, Niko Wanders, Jaap Schellekens, Luigi J. Renzullo, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3059–3076,Short summary
We perform a joint assimilation experiment of high-resolution satellite soil moisture and discharge observations in the Murrumbidgee River basin with a large-scale hydrological model. Additionally, we study the impact of high- and low-resolution meteorological forcing on the model performance. We show that the assimilation of high-resolution satellite soil moisture and discharge observations has a significant impact on discharge simulations and can bring them closer to locally calibrated models.
Zhi Wei Li, Guo An Yu, Gary Brierley, and Zhao Yin Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3013–3025,Short summary
Influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching–braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Yellow River source zone in western China. This innovative work reveals complex interactions between channel planform, bedload transport capacity, sediment supply in the flood season, and the hydraulic role of vegetation.
W. Qi, C. Zhang, G. Fu, C. Sweetapple, and H. Zhou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 903–920,Short summary
Six precipitation products, including TRMM3B42, TRMM3B42RT, GLDAS/Noah, APHRODITE, PERSIANN, and GSMAP-MVK+, are investigated in the usually neglected area of NE China, and a framework is developed to quantify the contributions of uncertainties from precipitation products, hydrological models, and their interactions to uncertainty in simulated discharges. It is found that interactions between hydrological models and precipitation products contribute significantly to uncertainty in discharge.
A. Molina, V. Vanacker, E. Brisson, D. Mora, and V. Balthazar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4201–4213,Short summary
Andean catchments play a key role in the provision of freshwater resources. The development of megacities in the inter-Andean valleys raises severe concerns about growing water scarcity. This study is one of the first long-term (1970s-now) analyses of the role of land cover and climate change on provision and regulation of streamflow in the tropical Andes. Forest conversion had the largest impact on streamflow, leading to a 10 % net decrease in streamflow over the last 40 years.
D. Shen, J. Wang, X. Cheng, Y. Rui, and S. Ye
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3605–3616,
M. A. Matin and C. P.-A. Bourque
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3387–3403,Short summary
This paper describes a methodology in analysing the interdependencies between components of the hydrological cycle and vegetation characteristics at different elevation zones of two endorheic river basins in an arid-mountainous region of NW China. The analysis shows that oasis vegetation has an important function in sustaining the water cycle in the river basins and oasis vegetation is dependent on surface and shallow subsurface water flow from mountain sources.
L. Hao, G. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wan, M. Qin, H. Qian, C. Liu, J. Zheng, R. John, P. Fan, and J. Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3319–3331,Short summary
The role of land cover in affecting hydrologic and environmental changes in the humid region in southern China is not well studied. We found that high flows and low flows increased and evapotranspiration decreased due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin. Urbanization masked climate warming effects in a rice-paddy-dominated watershed in altering long-term hydrology. Flooding risks and heat island effects are expected to rise due to urbanization.
E. A. Sproles, S. G. Leibowitz, J. T. Reager, P. J. Wigington Jr, J. S. Famiglietti, and S. D. Patil
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3253–3272,Short summary
The paper demonstrates how data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to describe the relationship between water stored at the regional scale and stream flow. Additionally, we employ GRACE as a regional-scale indicator to successfully predict stream flow later in the water year. Our work focuses on the Columbia River Basin (North America), but is widely applicable across the globe, and could prove to be particularly useful in regions with limited hydrological data.
A. Rouillard, G. Skrzypek, S. Dogramaci, C. Turney, and P. F. Grierson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2057–2078,Short summary
We reconstructed a 100-year monthly history of flooding and drought of a large wetland in arid northwest Australia, using hydroclimatic data calibrated against 25 years of satellite images. Severe and intense regional rainfall, as well as the sequence of events, determined surface water expression on the floodplain. While inter-annual variability was high, changes to the flood regime over the last 20 years suggest the wetland may become more persistent in response to the observed rainfall trend.
B. Müller, M. Bernhardt, and K. Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5345–5359,Short summary
We present a method to define hydrological landscape units by a time series of thermal infrared satellite data. Land surface temperature is calculated for 28 images in 12 years for a catchment in Luxembourg. Pattern measures show spatio-temporal persistency; principle component analysis extracts relevant patterns. Functional units represent similar behaving entities based on a representative set of images. Resulting classification and patterns are discussed regarding potential applications.
F. F. Worku, M. Werner, N. Wright, P. van der Zaag, and S. S. Demissie
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3837–3853,
A. M. Ågren, W. Lidberg, M. Strömgren, J. Ogilvie, and P. A. Arp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3623–3634,
N. Wanders, D. Karssenberg, A. de Roo, S. M. de Jong, and M. F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2343–2357,
J. K. Kiptala, M. L. Mul, Y. A. Mohamed, and P. van der Zaag
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2287–2303,
C. I. Michailovsky and P. Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 997–1007,
T. Conradt, F. Wechsung, and A. Bronstert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2947–2966,
M. El Bastawesy, R. Ramadan Ali, A. Faid, and M. El Osta
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1493–1501,
A. C. V. Getirana and C. Peters-Lidard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 923–933,
Y. Tramblay, R. Bouaicha, L. Brocca, W. Dorigo, C. Bouvier, S. Camici, and E. Servat
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4375–4386,
J. Parajka, L. Holko, Z. Kostka, and G. Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2365–2377,
S. Peischl, J. P. Walker, C. Rüdiger, N. Ye, Y. H. Kerr, E. Kim, R. Bandara, and M. Allahmoradi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1697–1708,
S. Bircher, N. Skou, K. H. Jensen, J. P. Walker, and L. Rasmussen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1445–1463,
J.-M. Kileshye Onema, A. E. Taigbenu, and J. Ndiritu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1435–1443,
S. Manfreda, T. Lacava, B. Onorati, N. Pergola, M. Di Leo, M. R. Margiotta, and V. Tramutoli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2839–2852,
M. Salvia, F. Grings, P. Ferrazzoli, V. Barraza, V. Douna, P. Perna, C. Bruscantini, and H. Karszenbaum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2679–2692,
L. Giustarini, P. Matgen, R. Hostache, M. Montanari, D. Plaza, V. R. N. Pauwels, G. J. M. De Lannoy, R. De Keyser, L. Pfister, L. Hoffmann, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2349–2365,
W. Wang, D. Huang, X.-G. Wang, Y.-R. Liu, and F. Zhou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1699–1712,
S. G. Wang, X. Li, X. J. Han, and R. Jin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1415–1426,
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