Articles | Volume 27, issue 1
Review article
12 Jan 2023
Review article |  | 12 Jan 2023

Advancing measurements and representations of subsurface heterogeneity and dynamic processes: towards 4D hydrogeology

Thomas Hermans, Pascal Goderniaux, Damien Jougnot, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Philip Brunner, Frédéric Nguyen, Niklas Linde, Johan Alexander Huisman, Olivier Bour, Jorge Lopez Alvis, Richard Hoffmann, Andrea Palacios, Anne-Karin Cooke, Álvaro Pardo-Álvarez, Lara Blazevic, Behzad Pouladi, Peleg Haruzi, Alejandro Fernandez Visentini, Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Joel Tirado-Conde, Majken C. Looms, Meruyert Kenshilikova, Philippe Davy, and Tanguy Le Borgne


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on hess-2022-95', Ty P. A. Ferre, 01 Apr 2022
    • CC1: 'Reply on RC1', Thomas Hermans, 07 Apr 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Thomas Hermans, 07 Jun 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on hess-2022-95', Anonymous Referee #2, 27 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Thomas Hermans, 07 Jun 2022

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
ED: Reconsider after major revisions (further review by editor and referees) (12 Jun 2022) by Alberto Guadagnini
AR by Thomas Hermans on behalf of the Authors (22 Aug 2022)  Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
EF by Polina Shvedko (24 Aug 2022)  Author's response 
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (02 Sep 2022) by Alberto Guadagnini
RR by Ty P. A. Ferre (03 Sep 2022)
ED: Publish as is (03 Dec 2022) by Alberto Guadagnini
AR by Thomas Hermans on behalf of the Authors (07 Dec 2022)  Author's response   Manuscript 
Short summary
Although invisible, groundwater plays an essential role for society as a source of drinking water or for ecosystems but is also facing important challenges in terms of contamination. Characterizing groundwater reservoirs with their spatial heterogeneity and their temporal evolution is therefore crucial for their sustainable management. In this paper, we review some important challenges and recent innovations in imaging and modeling the 4D nature of the hydrogeological systems.