Articles | Volume 25, issue 2
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 527–549, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-527-2021

Special issue: History of hydrology (HESS/HGSS inter-journal SI)

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 527–549, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-527-2021

Review article 02 Feb 2021

Review article | 02 Feb 2021

A history of TOPMODEL

Keith J. Beven et al.

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Cited articles

Adriance, A., Pantoja, M., and Lupo, C.: September. Acceleration of Hydrology Simulations Using DHSVM for Multi-thousand Runs and Uncertainty Assessment, in: Latin American High Performance Computing Conference, Springer, Cham, 179–193, 2018. 
Ambroise, B., Beven, K. J., and Freer, J.: Towards a generalisation of the TOPMODEL concepts: topographic indices of hydrological similarity, Water Resour. Res., 32, 2135–2145, 1996a. 
Ambroise, B., Freer, J., and Beven, K. J.: Application of a generalised TOPMODEL to the small Ringelbach catchment, Vosges, France, Water Resour. Res., 32, 2147–2159, 1996b. 
Aryal, S. K., O'Loughlin, E. M., and Mein, R. G.: A similarity approach to determine response times to steady-state saturation in landscapes, Adv. Water Res., 28, 99–115, 2005. 
Band, L. E., Patterson, P., Nemani, R., and Running, S. W.: Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: incorporating hillslope hydrology, Agr. For. Meteorol., 63, 93–126, 1993. 
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Short summary
The theory that forms the basis of TOPMODEL was first outlined by Mike Kirkby some 45 years ago. This paper recalls some of the early developments: the rejection of the first journal paper, the early days of digital terrain analysis, model calibration and validation, the various criticisms of the simplifying assumptions, and the relaxation of those assumptions in the dynamic forms of TOPMODEL, and it considers what we might do now with the benefit of hindsight.