Articles | Volume 25, issue 2
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 527–549, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-527-2021

Special issue: History of hydrology (HESS/HGSS inter-journal SI)

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 527–549, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-527-2021

Review article 02 Feb 2021

Review article | 02 Feb 2021

A history of TOPMODEL

Keith J. Beven et al.

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Latest update: 20 Oct 2021
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Short summary
The theory that forms the basis of TOPMODEL was first outlined by Mike Kirkby some 45 years ago. This paper recalls some of the early developments: the rejection of the first journal paper, the early days of digital terrain analysis, model calibration and validation, the various criticisms of the simplifying assumptions, and the relaxation of those assumptions in the dynamic forms of TOPMODEL, and it considers what we might do now with the benefit of hindsight.