Articles | Volume 20, issue 10
07 Oct 2016
Research article | 07 Oct 2016
Multiresponse modeling of variably saturated flow and isotope tracer transport for a hillslope experiment at the Landscape Evolution Observatory
Carlotta Scudeler et al.
No articles found.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Enrica Perra, Monica Piras, Roberto Deidda, Claudio Paniconi, Giuseppe Mascaro, Enrique R. Vivoni, Pierluigi Cau, Pier Andrea Marras, Ralf Ludwig, and Swen Meyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4125–4143,
Paolo Benettin, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Jay Frentress, Daniele Penna, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2881–2890,Short summary
Evaporation causes the isotopic composition of soil water to become different from that of the original precipitation source. If multiple samples originating from the same source are available, they can be used to reconstruct the original source composition. However, soil water is influenced by seasonal variability in both precipitation sources and evaporation patterns. We show that this variability, if not accounted for, can lead to biased estimates of the precipitation source water.
Klaus Haaken, Gian Piero Deidda, Giorgio Cassiani, Rita Deiana, Mario Putti, Claudio Paniconi, Carlotta Scudeler, and Andreas Kemna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1439–1454,Short summary
The paper presents a general methodology that will help understand how freshwater and saltwater may interact in natural porous media, with a particular view at practical applications such as the storage of freshwater underground in critical areas, e.g., semi-arid zones around the Mediterranean sea. The methodology is applied to a case study in Sardinia and shows how a mix of advanced monitoring and mathematical modeling tremendously advance our understanding of these systems.
Takeo Yoshida and Peter A. Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Studies in volcanic catchments have revealed two hydrological signatures significantly correlated with the age of the bedrock. To understand why such a simple relations have emerged, we used a hydrological model and conducted a numerical experiment. We found younger catchments require longer for the transmission zone storage to fill and empty, take longer to release water from deep aquifers, and have greater recharge to deep aquifers, supporting the hypotheses formulated by the empirical study.
Takeo Yoshida and Peter A. Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1133–1150,Short summary
We derived indices of landscape properties as well as hydrological response and examined their relation with catchment age and climate. We found significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. We compared our data with data from volcanic catchments in Oregon and could confirm that baseflow index decreases with time, but also discovered that drainage density seems to stabilize after 2M years, after an initial increase due to landscape incision.
Xavier Zapata-Rios, Paul D. Brooks, Peter A. Troch, Jennifer McIntosh, and Craig Rasmussen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1103–1115,Short summary
In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984–2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT). This study takes place in the Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m−2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2–1.3 MJ m2 decade−1).
M. Sprenger, T. H. M. Volkmann, T. Blume, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2617–2635,Short summary
We present a novel approach that includes information about the pore water stable isotopic composition in inverse model approaches to estimate soil hydraulic parameters. Different approaches are presented and their adequacy regarding the model efficiency, realism and parameter identifiability are discussed. The advantages of the new approach are shown by an application of the inverse estimated parameters to infer the water balance and the transit time for three different study sites.
A. I. Gevaert, A. J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet, S. B. DeLong, T. E. Huxman, L. A. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, J. D. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, X. Zeng, and P. A. Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3681–3692,
G.-Y. Niu, D. Pasetto, C. Scudeler, C. Paniconi, M. Putti, P. A. Troch, S. B. DeLong, K. Dontsova, L. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, T. E. Huxman, J. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, and X. Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1873–1883,
T. H. M. Volkmann and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1819–1833,
Related subject area
Subject: Hillslope hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Modelling approachesRecession discharge from compartmentalized bedrock hillslopesFrozen soil hydrological modeling for a mountainous catchment northeast of the Qinghai–Tibet PlateauOn the similarity of hillslope hydrologic function: a clustering approach based on groundwater changesSpatiotemporal changes in flow hydraulic characteristics and soil loss during gully headcut erosion under controlled conditionsEstimation of rainfall erosivity based on WRF-derived raindrop size distributionsPhysically based model for gully simulation: application to the Brazilian semiarid regionAssessing the perturbations of the hydrogeological regime in sloping fens due to roadsA review of the (Revised) Universal Soil Loss Equation ((R)USLE): with a view to increasing its global applicability and improving soil loss estimatesHybridizing Bayesian and variational data assimilation for high-resolution hydrologic forecastingMulti-source data assimilation for physically based hydrological modeling of an experimental hillslopeA new method, with application, for analysis of the impacts on flood risk of widely distributed enhanced hillslope storageTowards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystemReconstructing long-term gully dynamics in Mediterranean agricultural areasEvaluating performance of simplified physically based models for shallow landslide susceptibilityDeterminants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics: a reviewUse of satellite and modeled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scaleQuantification of the influence of preferential flow on slope stability using a numerical modelling approachHydrological hysteresis and its value for assessing process consistency in catchment conceptual modelsDerivation and evaluation of landslide-triggering thresholds by a Monte Carlo approachStable water isotope tracing through hydrological models for disentangling runoff generation processes at the hillslope scaleAnalysis of landslide triggering conditions in the Sarno area using a physically based modelThe influence of grid resolution on the prediction of natural and road-related shallow landslidesIncipient subsurface heterogeneity and its effect on overland flow generation – insight from a modeling study of the first experiment at the Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution ObservatoryCoupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm- and cold-season events in the Southern Appalachians, USAPredicting subsurface stormflow response of a forested hillslope – the role of connected flow pathsInterplay of riparian forest and groundwater in the hillslope hydrology of Sudanian West Africa (northern Benin)A model-based assessment of the potential use of compound-specific stable isotope analysis in river monitoring of diffuse pesticide pollutionA paradigm shift in stormflow predictions for active tectonic regions with large-magnitude storms: generalisation of catchment observations by hydraulic sensitivity analysis and insight into soil-layer evolutionDerivation of critical rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides as a tool for debris flow early warning systemsStatistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields in central EuropeHydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring dataPhysically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo forest, Puerto RicoCharacterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved claysA critical assessment of simple recharge models: application to the UK ChalkThe effect of spatial throughfall patterns on soil moisture patterns at the hillslope scaleSnow accumulation/melting model (SAMM) for integrated use in regional scale landslide early warning systemsSuspended sediment concentration–discharge relationships in the (sub-) humid Ethiopian highlandsA model of hydrological and mechanical feedbacks of preferential fissure flow in a slow-moving landslideScale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scalePhysical models for classroom teaching in hydrologyCoupling the modified SCS-CN and RUSLE models to simulate hydrological effects of restoring vegetation in the Loess Plateau of ChinaEffects of peatland drainage management on peak flowsA conceptual model of the hydrological influence of fissures on landslide activityA structure generator for modelling the initial sediment distribution of an artificial hydrologic catchmentA novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structuresQuantifying spatial and temporal discharge dynamics of an event in a first order stream, using distributed temperature sensingEffect of high-resolution spatial soil moisture variability on simulated runoff response using a distributed hydrologic modelA steady-state saturation model to determine the subsurface travel time (STT) in complex hillslopesComparison of algorithms and parameterisations for infiltration into organic-covered permafrost soils
Clément Roques, David E. Rupp, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Laurent Longuevergne, Elizabeth R. Jachens, Gordon Grant, Luc Aquilina, and John S. Selker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4391–4405,Short summary
Streamflow dynamics are directly dependent on contributions from groundwater, with hillslope heterogeneity being a major driver in controlling both spatial and temporal variabilities in recession discharge behaviors. By analysing new model results, this paper identifies the major structural features of aquifers driving streamflow dynamics. It provides important guidance to inform catchment-to-regional-scale models, with key geological knowledge influencing groundwater–surface water interactions.
Hongkai Gao, Chuntan Han, Rensheng Chen, Zijing Feng, Kang Wang, Fabrizio Fenicia, and Hubert Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4187–4208,Short summary
Frozen soil hydrology is one of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH). In this study, we developed a novel conceptual frozen soil hydrological model, FLEX-Topo-FS. The model successfully reproduced the soil freeze–thaw process, and its impacts on hydrologic connectivity, runoff generation, and groundwater. We believe this study is a breakthrough for the 23 UPH, giving us new insights on frozen soil hydrology, with broad implications for predicting cold region hydrology in future.
Fadji Z. Maina, Haruko M. Wainwright, Peter James Dennedy-Frank, and Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3805–3823,Short summary
We propose a hillslope clustering approach based on the seasonal changes in groundwater levels and test its performance by comparing it to several common clustering approaches (aridity index, topographic wetness index, elevation, land cover, and machine-learning clustering). The proposed approach is robust as it reasonably categorizes hillslopes with similar elevation, land cover, hydroclimate, land surface processes, and subsurface hydrodynamics, hence a similar hydrologic function.
Mingming Guo, Zhuoxin Chen, Wenlong Wang, Tianchao Wang, Qianhua Shi, Hongliang Kang, Man Zhao, and Lanqian Feng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4473–4494,Short summary
Gully headcut erosion is always a difficult issue in soil erosion, which hinders the revelation of gully erosion mechanisms and the establishment of a gully erosion model. This study clarified the spatiotemporal changes in flow properties, energy consumption, and soil loss, confirming that gully head consumed the most of flow energy (78 %) and can contribute 89 % of total soil loss. Critical energy consumption initiating soil erosion of the upstream area, gully head, and gully bed is confirmed.
Qiang Dai, Jingxuan Zhu, Shuliang Zhang, Shaonan Zhu, Dawei Han, and Guonian Lv
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5407–5422,Short summary
Rainfall is a driving force that accounts for a large proportion of soil loss around the world. Most previous studies used a fixed rainfall–energy relationship to estimate rainfall energy, ignoring the spatial and temporal changes of raindrop microphysical processes. This study proposes a novel method for large-scale and long-term rainfall energy and rainfall erosivity investigations based on rainfall microphysical parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.
Pedro Henrique Lima Alencar, José Carlos de Araújo, and Adunias dos Santos Teixeira
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4239–4255,Short summary
Soil erosion by water has been emphasized as a key problem to be faced in the 21st century. Thus, it is critical to understand land degradation and to answer fundamental questions regarding how and why such processes occur. Here, we present a model for gully erosion (channels carved by rainwater) based on existing equations, and we identify some major variables that influence the initiation and evolution of this process. The successful model can help in planning soil conservation practices.
Fabien Cochand, Daniel Käser, Philippe Grosvernier, Daniel Hunkeler, and Philip Brunner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 213–226,Short summary
Roads in sloping fens constitute a hydraulic barrier for surface and subsurface flow. This can lead to the drying out of downslope areas of the fen as well as gully erosion. By combining fieldwork and numerical models, this study presents an assessment of the hydrogeological impact of three road structures especially designed to limit their impact. The study shows that the impact of roads on the hydrological regime in fens can be significantly reduced by using appropriate engineering measures.
Rubianca Benavidez, Bethanna Jackson, Deborah Maxwell, and Kevin Norton
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6059–6086,Short summary
Soil erosion is a global problem and models identify vulnerable areas for management. One such model is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. We review its different sub-factors and compile studies and equations that modified it for local conditions. The limitations of RUSLE include its data requirements and exclusion of gullying and landslides. Future directions include accounting for these erosion types. This paper serves as a reference for others working with RUSLE and related approaches.
Felipe Hernández and Xu Liang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5759–5779,Short summary
Predicting floods requires first knowing the amount of water in the valleys, which is complicated because we cannot know for sure how much water there is in the soil. We created a unique system that combines the best methods to estimate these conditions accurately based on the observed water flow in the rivers and on detailed simulations of the valleys. Comparisons with popular methods show that our system can produce realistic predictions efficiently, even for very detailed river networks.
Anna Botto, Enrica Belluco, and Matteo Camporese
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4251–4266,Short summary
We present a multivariate application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in hydrological modeling of a real-world hillslope test case with dominant unsaturated dynamics and strong nonlinearities. Overall, the EnKF is able to correctly update system state and soil parameters. However, multivariate data assimilation may lead to significant tradeoffs between model predictions of different variables, if the observation data are not high quality or representative.
Peter Metcalfe, Keith Beven, Barry Hankin, and Rob Lamb
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2589–2605,Short summary
Flooding is a significant hazard and extreme events in recent years have focused attention on effective means of reducing its risk. An approach known as natural flood management (NFM) seeks to increase flood resilience by a range of measures that work with natural processes. The paper develops a modelling approach to assess one type NFM of intervention – distributed additional hillslope storage features – and demonstrates that more strategic placement is required than has hitherto been applied.
Abraham Endalamaw, W. Robert Bolton, Jessica M. Young-Robertson, Don Morton, Larry Hinzman, and Bart Nijssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4663–4680,Short summary
This study applies plot-scale and hill-slope knowledge to a process-based mesoscale model to improve the skill of distributed hydrological models to simulate the spatially and basin-integrated hydrological processes of complex ecosystems in the sub-arctic boreal forest. We developed a sub-grid parameterization method to parameterize the surface heterogeneity of interior Alaskan discontinuous permafrost watersheds.
Antonio Hayas, Tom Vanwalleghem, Ana Laguna, Adolfo Peña, and Juan V. Giráldez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 235–249,Short summary
Gully erosion is one of the most important erosion processes. In this study, we provide new data on gully dynamics over long timescales with an unprecedented temporal resolution. We apply a new Monte Carlo based method for calculating gully volumes based on orthophotos and, especially, for constraining uncertainties of these estimations. Our results show that gully erosion rates are highly variable from year to year and significantly higher than other erosion processes.
Giuseppe Formetta, Giovanna Capparelli, and Pasquale Versace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4585–4603,Short summary
This paper focuses on performance evaluation of simplified, physically based landslide susceptibility models. It presents a new methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify, and compare different models and models performances indicators in order to individuate and select the models whose behavior is more reliable for a certain case study. The procedure was implemented in a package for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated the open-source hydrological model NewAge.
Bruno Cheviron and Roger Moussa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3799–3830,Short summary
This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics. Each case study has a signature composed of given contexts (spatiotemporal scales, flow typology, and phenomenology) and chosen concepts (refinement and subscales of the flow model). This review proposes a normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.
F. Todisco, L. Brocca, L. F. Termite, and W. Wagner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3845–3856,Short summary
We developed a new formulation of USLE, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), that directly incorporates soil moisture information. SM4E is applied here by using modeled data and satellite observations obtained from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). SM4E is found to outperform USLE and USLE-MM models in silty–clay soil in central Italy. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying SM4E for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.
W. Shao, T. A. Bogaard, M. Bakker, and R. Greco
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2197–2212,Short summary
The effect of preferential flow on the stability of landslides is studied through numerical simulation of two types of rainfall events on a hypothetical hillslope. A model is developed that consists of two parts. The first part is a model for combined saturated/unsaturated subsurface flow and is used to compute the spatial and temporal water pressure response to rainfall. Preferential flow is simulated with a dual-permeability continuum model consisting of a matrix/preferential flow domain.
O. Fovet, L. Ruiz, M. Hrachowitz, M. Faucheux, and C. Gascuel-Odoux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 105–123,Short summary
We studied the annual hysteretic patterns observed between stream flow and water storage in the saturated and unsaturated zones of a hillslope and a riparian zone. We described these signatures using a hysteresis index and then used this to assess conceptual hydrological models. This led us to identify four hydrological periods and a clearly distinct behaviour between riparian and hillslope groundwaters and to provide new information about the model performances.
D. J. Peres and A. Cancelliere
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4913–4931,Short summary
A Monte Carlo approach, combining rainfall-stochastic models and hydrological and slope stability physically based models, is used to derive rainfall thresholds of landslide triggering. The uncertainty in threshold assessment related to variability of rainfall intensity within events and to past rainfall (antecedent rainfall) is analyzed and measured via ROC-based indexes, with a specific focus dedicated to the widely used power-law rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) thresholds.
D. Windhorst, P. Kraft, E. Timbe, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4113–4127,
G. Capparelli and P. Versace
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3225–3237,
D. Penna, M. Borga, G. T. Aronica, G. Brigandì, and P. Tarolli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2127–2139,
G.-Y. Niu, D. Pasetto, C. Scudeler, C. Paniconi, M. Putti, P. A. Troch, S. B. DeLong, K. Dontsova, L. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, T. E. Huxman, J. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, and X. Zeng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1873–1883,
J. Tao and A. P. Barros
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 367–388,
J. Wienhöfer and E. Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 121–138,
A. Richard, S. Galle, M. Descloitres, J.-M. Cohard, J.-P. Vandervaere, L. Séguis, and C. Peugeot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5079–5096,
S. R. Lutz, H. J. van Meerveld, M. J. Waterloo, H. P. Broers, and B. M. van Breukelen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4505–4524,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4453–4470,
M. N. Papa, V. Medina, F. Ciervo, and A. Bateman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4095–4107,
P. Fiener, K. Auerswald, F. Winter, and M. Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4121–4132,
R. Greco, L. Comegna, E. Damiano, A. Guida, L. Olivares, and L. Picarelli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4001–4013,
C. Lepore, E. Arnone, L. V. Noto, G. Sivandran, and R. L. Bras
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3371–3387,
J. E. van der Spek, T. A. Bogaard, and M. Bakker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2171–2183,
A. M. Ireson and A. P. Butler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2083–2096,
A. M. J. Coenders-Gerrits, L. Hopp, H. H. G. Savenije, and L. Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1749–1763,
G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, D. Lagomarsino, R. Fanti, and F. Catani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1229–1240,
C. D. Guzman, S. A. Tilahun, A. D. Zegeye, and T. S. Steenhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1067–1077,
D. M. Krzeminska, T. A. Bogaard, J.-P. Malet, and L. P. H. van Beek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 947–959,
A. Peñuela, M. Javaux, and C. L. Bielders
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 87–101,
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3075–3082,
G. Y. Gao, B. J. Fu, Y. H. Lü, Y. Liu, S. Wang, and J. Zhou
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2347–2364,
C. E. Ballard, N. McIntyre, and H. S. Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2299–2310,
D. M. Krzeminska, T. A. Bogaard, Th. W. J. van Asch, and L. P. H. van Beek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1561–1576,
T. Maurer, A. Schneider, and H. H. Gerke
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3617–3638,
J. Klaus and E. Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2127–2144,
M. C. Westhoff, T. A. Bogaard, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1945–1957,
J. Minet, E. Laloy, S. Lambot, and M. Vanclooster
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1323–1338,
T. Sabzevari, A. Talebi, R. Ardakanian, and A. Shamsai
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 891–900,
Y. Zhang, S. K. Carey, W. L. Quinton, J. R. Janowicz, J. W. Pomeroy, and G. N. Flerchinger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 729–750,
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Very few studies have applied a physically based hydrological model with integrated and distributed multivariate observation data of both flow and transport phenomena. In this study we address this challenge for a hillslope-scale unsaturated zone isotope tracer experiment. The results show how model complexity evolves as the number and detail of simulated responses increases. Possible gaps in process representation for simulating solute transport phenomena in very dry soils are discussed.
Very few studies have applied a physically based hydrological model with integrated and...