Articles | Volume 19, issue 6
Research article
09 Jun 2015
Research article |  | 09 Jun 2015

Flooding in river mouths: human caused or natural events? Five centuries of flooding events in the SW Netherlands, 1500–2000

A. M. J. de Kraker

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Subject: Coasts and Estuaries | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniques
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Cited articles

Baart, F., Bakker, M. A. J., van Dongeren, A., den Heijer, C., van Heteren, S., Smit, M. W. J., van Koningsveld, M., and Pool, A.: Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 2791–2801,, 2011.
Baeteman, C.: History of research and state of the art of the Holocene depositional history of the Belgian coastal plain, in: Landscapes or Seascapes? The history of the coastal environment in the North Sea area reconsidered, Corn Publication Series, Comparative Rural History of the North Sea Area, edited by: Thoen, E., Borger, G. J., de Kraker, A. M. J., Soens, T., Tys, D., Vervaet, L., and Weerts, H., 13 Brepols, Gent, 11–30, 2013.
Borger, G. J.: Draining-digging-dredging; the creation of a new landscape in the peat areas of the Low Countries, in: Fens and bogs in the Netherlands: vegetation, history, nutrient dynamics and conservation, edited by: Verhoeven, J. T. A., Geobotany, 18, 131–171, 1992.
Bosch, T.: Changing societies produce changing rivers, Managing the Rhine in Germany and Holland in a changing Environment, 1770–1850, in: A History of Water, Series II Volume 2: Rivers and Society: From Early Civilizations to Modern Times, edited by: Tvedt, T. and Coopey, R., I. B. Tauris, London, New York, 263–286, 2010.
Brázdil, R., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Benito, G., Demarée, G., Macdonald, N., and Roald, L. A.: Historical floods in Europe in the Past Millennium, in: Changes in Flood Risk in Europe, IAHS Special Publication 10, edited by: Kundezwicz, Z. W., IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, Wallingford, 121–166, 2012.
Short summary
Natural floodings caused by storm floods also have important human components determining how disastrous they could be. Man-made floodings during warfare were only successful if natural conditions and factors were fully used. Strategic floodings during the 16th-17th centuries dramatically changed landscapes, from which valueble lessons were learnt to perfect this strategy in the 18th and 19th centuries.