Articles | Volume 25, issue 8
Research article 20 Aug 2021
Research article | 20 Aug 2021
Sources and pathways of biocides and their transformation products in urban storm water infrastructure of a 2 ha urban district
Felicia Linke et al.
No articles found.
Frank Preusser, Markus Fuchs, and Christine Thiel
DEUQUA Spec. Pub., 3, 1–3,
Frank Preusser, Markus Fuchs, and Christine Thiel
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 70, 201–203,
Jan Greiwe, Markus Weiler, and Jens Lange
Biogeosciences, 18, 4705–4715,Short summary
We analyzed variability in diel nitrate patterns at three locations in a lowland stream. Comparison of time lags between monitoring sites with water travel time indicated that diel patterns were created by in-stream processes rather than transported downstream from an upstream point of origin. Most of the patterns (70 %) could be explained by assimilatory nitrate uptake. The remaining patterns suggest seasonally varying dominance and synchronicity of different biochemical processes.
Jan Greiwe, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 497–509,Short summary
We investigated the linkage between contaminant mobilization in catchments and their mitigation in vegetated treatment systems (VTSs). We identified different patterns in chemographs recorded at the inlet of a VTS, indicating distinct mobilization patterns that were associated with similar source areas, transport pathways, and discharge dynamics. Peak concentration reduction in the VTS was strongest for sharp-peaked chemographs, suggesting that dispersion was the principle mitigation process.
Daniela Mueller, Frank Preusser, Marius W. Buechi, Lukas Gegg, and Gaudenz Deplazes
Geochronology, 2, 305–323,Short summary
Luminescence properties of samples from the Rinikerfeld, northern Switzerland, are assessed. Reader-specific low preheat temperatures are invesigated to ensure suitable measurement conditions. While quartz is found to be dominated by stable fast components, signal loss is observed for feldspar and polymineral. In general, the ages of the fading corrected feldspar and the fine-grained polymineral fractions are in agreement with coarse-grained quartz, and ages indicate sedimentation during MIS6.
Felix Martin Hofmann, Florian Rauscher, William McCreary, Jan-Paul Bischoff, and Frank Preusser
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 69, 61–87,Short summary
The Black Forest was covered by a 1000 km2 large ice cap during the last glaciation. Glacial landforms in the area north-west of the highest summit of the Black Forest, the Feldberg (1493 m above sea level), were investigated to select suitable sampling sites for dating glacial landforms in future studies. Some of the terminal moraines described in this study are mapped for the first time. The application of dating methods will provide insights into the chronology of the last glaciation.
Ferréol Salomon, Darío Bernal-Casasola, José J. Díaz, Macarena Lara, Salvador Domínguez-Bella, Damien Ertlen, Patrick Wassmer, Pierre Adam, Philippe Schaeffer, Laurent Hardion, Cécile Vittori, Stoil Chapkanski, Hugo Delile, Laurent Schmitt, Frank Preusser, Martine Trautmann, Alessia Masi, Cristiano Vignola, Laura Sadori, Jacob Morales, Paloma Vidal Matutano, Vincent Robin, Benjamin Keller, Ángel Sanchez Bellón, Javier Martínez López, and Gilles Rixhon
Sci. Dril., 27, 35–47,Short summary
PalaeoCADIX-Z is an interdisciplinary project that studied three cores drilled in a marine palaeochannel that ran through the ancient city of Cádiz (Spain). These cores reveal a ≥ 50 m thick Holocene sedimentary sequence. Importantly, most of the deposits date from the 1st millennium BCE to the 1st millennium CE. Geoarchaeologists, geomorphologists, archaeologists, sedimentologists, palaeoenvironmentalists, geochemists, and geochronologists collaborated within this project.
Marcus Bork, Jens Lange, Markus Graf-Rosenfellner, and Friederike Lang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 977–989,Short summary
Fluorescent tracers such as uranine and sulforhodamine B are useful tools to gain knowledge about water and solute fluxes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we systematically investigated the influence of important soil properties (pH, organic carbon content and texture) on tracer adsorption in soils and sediments. These properties also determine whether the tracers in the respective soil behave conservatively or non-conservatively.
Clemens Messerschmid, Martin Sauter, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 887–917,Short summary
Recharge assessment in the shared transboundary Western Aquifer Basin is highly relevant, scientifically as well as hydropolitically (in Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations). Our unique combination of field-measured soil characteristics and soil moisture time series with soil moisture saturation excess modelling provides a new basis for the spatial differentiation of formation-specific groundwater recharge (at any scale), applicable also in other previously ungauged basins around the world.
Elena Fernández-Pascual, Marcus Bork, Birte Hensen, and Jens Lange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 41–60,Short summary
In this study we explore the use of hydrological tracers coupled with high vertical resolution sampling and monitoring to evaluate temporal and spatial mechanisms that dominate transport and dissipation of pesticides in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland. Our results reveal different transport vectors and dissipation pathways of solutes over time and space that are influenced by the constructional design, the presence of plants and the alternation of different hydrological conditions.
Dorian Gaar, Hans Rudolf Graf, and Frank Preusser
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 68, 53–73,Short summary
Deposits related to the last advance of Reuss Glacier are dated using a luminescence methodology. An age of 25 ka for sediment directly overlying the lodgement till corresponds with existing age constraints for the last maximal position of glaciers. Luminescence dating further implies an earlier advance of Reuss Glacier into the lowlands during Marine Isotope Stage 4. The data are discussed regarding potential changes in the source of precipitation during the Late Pleistocene.
Judit Deák, Frank Preusser, Marie-Isabelle Cattin, Jean-Christophe Castel, and François-Xavier Chauvière
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 67, 41–72,Short summary
Provided here are novel data concerning site formation processes and Middle Palaeolithic human presence at Cotencher cave (Switzerland). A local glaciation around 70 ka was followed by ice-free conditions, when artefacts and faunal remains were displaced by solifluction processes. Evidence of local glacier development around 36 ka is also presented. This interdisciplinary study contributes new elements for the understanding of climatic changes and human passage in the central Jura Mountains.
Marcus Bork, Jens Lange, Markus Graf-Rosenfellner, and Friederike Lang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Fluorescent tracers such as uranine and sulforhodamine B are useful tools to gain knowledge about water and solute fluxes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In batch experiments, we investigated systematically the influence of pH, organic carbon and texture on tracer adsorption on soils and sediments and quantified their impact and possible interactions. Overall, the investigated controls determine if the respective tracer shows more conservative or more non-conservative transport behaviour.
Julien Seguinot, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Guillaume Jouvet, Matthias Huss, Martin Funk, and Frank Preusser
The Cryosphere, 12, 3265–3285,Short summary
About 25 000 years ago, Alpine glaciers filled most of the valleys and even extended onto the plains. In this study, with help from traces left by glaciers on the landscape, we use a computer model that contains knowledge of glacier physics based on modern observations of Greenland and Antarctica and laboratory experiments on ice, and one of the fastest computers in the world, to attempt a reconstruction of the evolution of Alpine glaciers through time from 120 000 years ago to today.
David Eschbach, Laurent Schmitt, Gwenaël Imfeld, Jan-Hendrik May, Sylvain Payraudeau, Frank Preusser, Mareike Trauerstein, and Grzegorz Skupinski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2717–2737,Short summary
In this study we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of past trajectories in complex hydrosystems. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the future.
Lorenz Wüthrich, Marcel Bliedtner, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Jana Zech, Fatemeh Shajari, Dorian Gaar, Frank Preusser, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, and Roland Zech
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 66, 91–100,
Jens Lange, Tineke Materne, and Jörg Grüner
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 9, 47–55,Short summary
Here we investigate the suitability of a specific low-cost water filter for drinking water treatment in households of rural South Africa. Distributed in the field, none of 51 individually tested water filters produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated hygienic water quality. We therefore recommend frequent monitoring of the filter performance at the point of use and identify dip slides as an efficient tool to assess critical contamination.
F. Ries, J. Lange, S. Schmidt, H. Puhlmann, and M. Sauter
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1439–1456,Short summary
Soil moisture was observed along a strong semi-arid climatic gradient in a Mediterranean karst area. Soil moisture data and soil hydraulic modelling with Hydrus-1D revealed a strong dependency of percolation fluxes with rainfall amounts and intensity during heavy rainfall events. Spatial and temporal extrapolation of the model illustrated the high variability of seasonal percolation amounts among single years and showed strong correlations between soil depth and potential groundwater recharge.
M. Gassmann, C. Stamm, O. Olsson, J. Lange, K. Kümmerer, and M. Weiler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5213–5228,
A. Hartmann, M. Weiler, T. Wagener, J. Lange, M. Kralik, F. Humer, N. Mizyed, A. Rimmer, J. A. Barberá, B. Andreo, C. Butscher, and P. Huggenberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3305–3321,
Related subject area
Subject: Urban Hydrology | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniquesAssessing different imaging velocimetry techniques to measure shallow runoff velocities during rain events using an urban drainage physical modelUsing soil water isotopes to infer the influence of contrasting urban green space on ecohydrological partitioningReconstituting past flood events: the contribution of citizen scienceScalable flood level trend monitoring with surveillance cameras using a deep convolutional neural networkTechnical note: Laboratory modelling of urban flooding: strengths and challenges of distorted scale modelsWeather radar rainfall data in urban hydrologyThe potential of urban rainfall monitoring with crowdsourced automatic weather stations in AmsterdamGauge-adjusted rainfall estimates from commercial microwave linksImproving the precipitation accumulation analysis using lightning measurements and different integration periodsLocal nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakesVariability of drainage and solute leaching in heterogeneous urban vegetation environsTechnical note on measuring run-off dynamics from pavements using a new device: the weighable tipping bucket
Juan Naves, Juan T. García, Jerónimo Puertas, and Jose Anta
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 885–900,Short summary
Surface water velocities are key in the calibration of physically based urban drainage models, but the shallow depths developed during non-extreme rainfall and the risks during floods limit the availability of this type of data. This study proves the potential of different imaging velocimetry techniques to measure water runoff velocities in urban catchments during rain events, highlighting the importance of considering rain properties to interpret and assess the results obtained.
Lena-Marie Kuhlemann, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Aaron Smith, Birgit Kleinschmit, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 927–943,Short summary
We studied water partitioning under urban grassland, shrub and trees during a warm and dry growing season in Berlin, Germany. Soil evaporation was highest under grass, but total green water fluxes and turnover time of soil water were greater under trees. Lowest evapotranspiration losses under shrub indicate potential higher drought resilience. Knowledge of water partitioning and requirements of urban green will be essential for better adaptive management of urban water and irrigation strategies.
Bocar Sy, Corine Frischknecht, Hy Dao, David Consuegra, and Gregory Giuliani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 61–74,
Matthew Moy de Vitry, Simon Kramer, Jan Dirk Wegner, and João P. Leitão
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4621–4634,Short summary
This work demonstrates a new approach to obtain flood level trend information from surveillance footage with minimal prior information. A neural network trained to detect flood water is applied to video frames to create a qualitative flooding metric (namely, SOFI). The correlation between the real water trend and SOFI was found to be 75 % on average (based on six videos of flooding under various circumstances). SOFI could be used for flood model calibration, to increase model reliability.
Xuefang Li, Sébastien Erpicum, Martin Bruwier, Emmanuel Mignot, Pascal Finaud-Guyot, Pierre Archambeau, Michel Pirotton, and Benjamin Dewals
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1567–1580,Short summary
With a growing urban flood risk worldwide, flood risk management tools need to be validated against reference data. Field and remote-sensing observations provide valuable data on inundation extent and depth but virtually no information on flow velocity. Laboratory scale models have the potential to deliver complementary data, provided that the model scaling is performed carefully. In this paper, we reanalyse existing laboratory data to discuss challenges related to the scaling of urban floods.
Søren Thorndahl, Thomas Einfalt, Patrick Willems, Jesper Ellerbæk Nielsen, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Michael R. Rasmussen, and Peter Molnar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1359–1380,Short summary
This paper reviews how weather radar data can be used in urban hydrological applications. It focuses on three areas of research: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Moreover, the paper provides examples of urban hydrological applications which can benefit from radar rainfall data in comparison to tradition rain gauge measurements of rainfall.
Lotte de Vos, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 765–777,Short summary
Recent developments have made it possible to easily crowdsource meteorological measurements from automatic personal weather stations worldwide. This has offered free access to rainfall ground measurements at spatial and temporal resolutions far exceeding those of national operational sensor networks, especially in cities. This paper is the first step to make optimal use of this promising source of rainfall measurements and identify challenges for future implementation for urban applications.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Jörg Rieckermann, and Vojtěch Bareš
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 617–634,Short summary
Commercial microwave links (CMLs) can provide rainfall observations with high space–time resolution. Unfortunately, CML rainfall estimates are often biased because we lack detailed information on the processes that attenuate the transmitted microwaves. We suggest removing the bias by continuously adjusting CMLs to cumulative data from rain gauges (RGs), which can be remote from the CMLs. Our approach practically eliminates the bias, which we demonstrate on unique data from several CMLs and RGs.
Erik Gregow, Antti Pessi, Antti Mäkelä, and Elena Saltikoff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 267–279,Short summary
A new lightning data assimilation method has been implemented and validated within the Finnish Meteorological Institute – Local Analysis and Prediction System. Lightning data do improve the analysis when no radars are available, and even with radar data, lightning data have a positive impact on the results. We also investigate the usage of different time integration intervals: 1, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days, where the 1 h integration time length gives the best results.
S. C. Sinang, E. S. Reichwaldt, and A. Ghadouani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2179–2195,
H. Nouri, S. Beecham, A. M. Hassanli, and G. Ingleton
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4339–4347,
T. Nehls, Y. Nam Rim, and G. Wessolek
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1379–1386,
Bergek, J., Andersson Trojer, M., Mok, A., and Nordstierna, L.: Controlled release of microencapsulated 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one from coatings: Effect of microscopic and macroscopic pores, Colloid. Surf. A, 458, 155–167, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.02.057, 2014.
Bollmann, U. E., Tang, C., Eriksson, E., Jönsson, K., Vollertsen, J., and Bester, K.: Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources, Water Res., 60, 64–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.014, 2014a.
Bollmann, U. E., Vollertsen, J., Carmeliet, J., and Bester, K.: Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment – concentrations, mass loads and emission processes, Water Res., 56, 66–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.033, 2014b.
Bollmann, U. E., Minelgaite, G., Schlüsener, M., Ternes, T., Vollertsen, J., and Bester, K.: Leaching of Terbutryn and Its Photodegradation Products from Artificial Walls under Natural Weather Conditions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 4289–4295, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05825, 2016.
Bollmann, U. E., Fernández-Calviño, D., Brandt, K. K., Storgaard, M. S., Sanderson, H., and Bester, K.: Biocide Runoff from Building Facades: Degradation Kinetics in Soil, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 3694–3702, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05512, 2017a.
Bollmann, U. E., Minelgaite, G., Schlüsener, M., Ternes, T. A., Vollertsen, J., and Bester, K.: Photodegradation of octylisothiazolinone and semi-field emissions from facade coatings, Scient. Rep., 7, 41501, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41501, 2017b.
Bollmann, U. E., Bester, K., Vollertsen, J., Urbanczyk, M. M., and Rudelle, E. A.: Transport and transformation of biocides in construction materials: Factors controlling release and emissions, Pesticide Research, 177, Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen, 110 pp., 2018.
Bucheli, T. D., Müller, S. R., Voegelin, A., and Schwarzenbach, R. P.: Bituminous Roof Sealing Membranes as Major Sources of the Herbicide (R S)-Mecoprop in Roof Runoff Waters: Potential Contamination of Groundwater and Surface Waters, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 3465–3471, https://doi.org/10.1021/es980318f, 1998.
Burkhardt, M., Kupper, T., Hean, S., Haag, R., Schmid, P., Kohler, M., and Boller, M.: Biocides used in building materials and their leaching behavior to sewer systems, Water Sci. Technol., 56, 63–67, https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.807, 2007.
Burkhardt, M., Zuleeg, S., Vonbank, R., Schmid, P., Hean, S., Lamani, X., Bester, K., and Boller, M.: Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff, Water Sci. Technol., 63, 1974–1982, https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.128, 2011.
Burkhardt, M., Zuleeg, S., Vonbank, R., Bester, K., Carmeliet, J., Boller, M., and Wangler, T.: Leaching of biocides from façades under natural weather conditions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 5497–5503, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2040009, 2012.
Burri, N. M., Weatherl, R., Moeck, C., and Schirmer, M.: A review of threats to groundwater quality in the anthropocene, Sci. Total Environ., 684, 136–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.236, 2019.
Coutu, S., Rota, C., Rossi, L., and Barry, D. A.: Modelling city-scale facade leaching of biocide by rainfall, Water Res., 46, 3525–3534, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.064, 2012.
DIN 1986-100: Drainage systems on private ground – Part 100: Specifications in relation to DIN EN 752 and DIN EN 12056: DIN 1986-100, 2016.
Donati, L. and Funari, E.: Review of leaching characteristics of triazines and their degradation products, Ann. 1st Super. Sanita, 29, 225–241, 1993.
Doppler, T., Camenzuli, L., Hirzel, G., Krauss, M., Lück, A., and Stamm, C.: Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1947–1967, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-1947-2012, 2012.
ECHA: List of biocidal active substances, available at: https://echa.europa.eu/de/information-on-chemicals/biocidal-active-substances (last access: 9 March 2021), 2007–2020.
European Parliament and Council: Regulation (EU) No. 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products, Text with EEA relevance: EU No. 528/2012, Luxembourg, 123 pp., 2012.
European Parliament and Council: Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policyText with EEA relevance, Luxembourg, 17 pp., 2013.
Fenner, K., Canonica, S., Wackett, L. P., and Elsner, M.: Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities, Science, 341, 752–758, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1236281, 2013.
Foster, S. and Cogu, R. C.: Urban Groundwater – mobilising stakeholders to improve monitoring, The Source, available at: https://www.thesourcemagazine.org/urban-groundwater-mobilising-stakeholders-to-improve-monitoring/ (last access: 9 March 2021), 2019.
Gallé, T., Bayerle, M., Pittois, D., and Huck, V.: Allocating biocide sources and flow paths to surface waters using passive samplers and flood wave chemographs, Water Res., 173, 115533, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115533, 2020.
Gasperi, J., Sebastian, C., Ruban, V., Delamain, M., Percot, S., Wiest, L., Mirande, C., Caupos, E., Demare, D., Kessoo, M. D. K., Saad, M., Schwartz, J. J., Dubois, P., Fratta, C., Wolff, H., Moilleron, R., Chebbo, G., Cren, C., Millet, M., Barraud, S., and Gromaire, M. C.: Micropollutants in urban stormwater: occurrence, concentrations, and atmospheric contributions for a wide range of contaminants in three French catchments, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 21, 5267–5281, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2396-0, 2013.
Gassmann, M., Stamm, C., Olsson, O., Lange, J., Kümmerer, K., and Weiler, M.: Model-based estimation of pesticides and transformation products and their export pathways in a headwater catchment, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5213–5228, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-5213-2013, 2013.
Giacomazzi, S. and Cochet, N.: Environmental impact of diuron transformation: a review, Chemosphere, 56, 1021–1032, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.061, 2004.
Greiwe, J., Olsson, O., Kümmerer, K., and Lange, J.: Pesticide peak concentration reduction in a small vegetated treatment system controlled by chemograph shape, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 497–509, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-497-2021, 2021.
Hensen, B., Lange, J., Jackisch, N., Zieger, F., Olsson, O., and Kümmerer, K.: Entry of biocides and their transformation products into groundwater via urban stormwater infiltration systems, Water Res., 144, 413–423, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.046, 2018.
Hensen, B., Olsson, O., and Kümmerer, K.: A strategy for an initial assessment of the ecotoxicological effects of transformation products of pesticides in aquatic systems following a tiered approach, Environ. Int., 137, 105533, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105533, 2020.
Jirkovský, J., Faure, V., and Boule, P.: Photolysis of Diuron, Pestic. Sci., 50, 42–52, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199705)50:1<42::AID-PS557>3.0.CO;2-W, 1997.
Johann, S., Schwerd, R., and Scherer, C. R.: Verhalten von aus Baustoffen ausgelaugten Bioziden bei der Bodenpassage, Bauphysik, 40, 369–378, https://doi.org/10.1002/bapi.201800006, 2018.
Jungnickel, C., Stock, F., Brandsch, T., and Ranke, J.: Risk assessment of biocides in roof paint, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 15, 258–265, https://doi.org/10.1065/espr2007.12.465, 2008.
Kümmerer, K., Dionysiou, D. D., Olsson, O., and Fatta-Kassinos, D.: A path to clean water, Science, 361, 222–224, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau2405, 2018.
Lechón, Y., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and Tadeo, J. L.: Influence of the Laboratory Incubation Method on Chlorotoluron and Terbutryn Degradation in Soil, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 951–954, 1997.
Moschet, C., Wittmer, I., Simovic, J., Junghans, M., Piazzoli, A., Singer, H., Stamm, C., Leu, C., and Hollender, J.: How a complete pesticide screening changes the assessment of surface water quality, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 5423–5432, https://doi.org/10.1021/es500371t, 2014.
Musgrave, H., Tattersall, C., Clarke, S., and Comber, S.: Technical Support for the Impact Assessment of the Review of Priority Substances under Directive 2000/60/EC: Substance Assessment: Terbutryn, European Commission (DG Environment), London, 59 pp., 2011.
Paijens, C., Bressy, A., Frère, B., and Moilleron, R.: Biocide emissions from building materials during wet weather: identification of substances, mechanism of release and transfer to the aquatic environment, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 27, 3768–3791, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06608-7, 2019.
Paijens, C., Bressy, A., Frère, B., Tedoldi, D., Mailler, R., Rocher, V., Neveu, P., and Moilleron, R.: Urban pathways of biocides towards surface waters during dry and wet weathers: Assessment at the Paris conurbation scale, J. Hazard. Mater., 402, 123765, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123765, 2021.
Peck, D. E., Corwin, D. L., and Farmer, W. J.: Adsorption-Desorption of Diuron by Freshwater Sediments, J. Environ. Qual., 9, 101–106, 1980.
Pinasseau, L., Wiest, L., Volatier, L., Mermillod-Blondin, F., and Vulliet, E.: Emerging polar pollutants in groundwater: Potential impact of urban stormwater infiltration practices, Environ. Pollut., 266, 115387, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115387, 2020.
Quednow, K. and Püttmann, W.: Monitoring terbutryn pollution in small rivers of Hesse, Germany, J. Environ. Monit., 9, 1337–1343, https://doi.org/10.1039/b711854f, 2007.
Reemtsma, T., Alder, L., and Banasiak, U.: Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites, Water Res., 47, 5535–5545, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.06.031, 2013.
Reichenberger, S., Bach, M., Skitschak, A., and Frede, H.-G.: Mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water and their effectiveness; a review, Sci. Total Environ., 384, 1–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.04.046, 2007.
RStudio Team: Integrated Development for R, RStudio, PBC, Boston, MA, available at: http://www.rstudio.com/, last access: 16 August 2021.
Sauer, F.: Microbicides in Coatings, Vincentz Network, Hanover, 143 pp., 2017.
Schoknecht, U., Sommerfeld, T., Borho, N., and Bagda, E.: Interlaboratory comparison for a laboratory leaching test procedure with façade coatings, Prog. Organ. Coat., 76, 351–359, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2012.10.001, 2013.
Schoknecht, U., Mathies, H., and Wegner, R.: Biocide leaching during field experiments on treated articles, Environ. Sci. Eur., 28, 2850, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-016-0074-9, 2016.
Stadt Freiburg i. Br.: Satzung über den Bebauungsplan Wohngebiet östlich Wiehre-Bahnhof/ Ausgleichsflächen am Tuniberg – Plan-Nr. 4-62: Plan-Nr. 4–62, Freiburg i. Br., 3 pp., 2005.
Styszko, K., Bollmann, U. E., and Bester, K.: Leaching of biocides from polymer renders under wet/dry cycles–Rates and mechanisms, Chemosphere, 138, 609–615, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.07.029, 2015.
Talja, K. M., Kaukonen, S., Kilpi-Koski, J., Malin, I., Kairesalo, T., Romantschuk, M., Tuominen, J., and Kontro, M. H.: Atrazine and terbutryn degradation in deposits from groundwater environment within the boreal region in Lahti, Finland, J. Agricult. Food Chem., 56, 11962–11968, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802528a, 2008.
Tietje, O., Burkhardt, M., Rohr, M., Borho, N., and Schoknecht, U.: Emissions- und Übertragungsfunktionen für die Modellierung der Auslaugung von Bauprodukten, 28, Umweltbundesamt – UBA, Dessau-Roßlau, 59 pp., 2018.
Uhlig, S., Colson, B., and Schoknecht, U.: A mathematical approach for the analysis of data obtained from the monitoring of biocides leached from treated materials exposed to outdoor conditions, Chemosphere, 228, 271–277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.102, 2019.
Urbanczyk, M. M., Bollmann, U. E., and Bester, K.: Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder, Sci. Total Environ., 573, 639–644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.129, 2016.
Urbanczyk, M. M., Bester, K., Borho, N., Schoknecht, U., and Bollmann, U. E.: Influence of pigments on phototransformation of biocides in paints, J. Hazard. Mater., 364, 125–133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.10.018, 2019.
Vega-Garcia, P., Schwerd, R., Scherer, C., Schwitalla, C., Johann, S., Rommel, S. H., and Helmreich, B.: Influence of façade orientation on the leaching of biocides from building façades covered with mortars and plasters, Sci. Total Environ., 734, 139465, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139465, 2020.
Wangler, T. P., Zuleeg, S., Vonbank, R., Bester, K., Boller, M., Carmeliet, J., and Burkhardt, M.: Laboratory scale studies of biocide leaching from façade coatings, Build. Environ., 54, 168–173, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.02.021, 2012.
Wicke, D., Matzinger, A., and Rouault, P.: Relevanz organischer Spurenstoffe im Regenwasserabfluss Berlins, Kompetenzzentrum Wasser, Berlin, 109 pp., 2015.
Wieck, S., Olsson, O., and Kümmerer, K.: Not only biocidal products: Washing and cleaning agents and personal care products can act as further sources of biocidal active substances in wastewater, Environ. Int., 115, 247–256, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.040, 2018.
Wittmer, I. K., Bader, H.-P., Scheidegger, R., Singer, H., Lück, A., Hanke, I., Carlsson, C., and Stamm, C.: Significance of urban and agricultural land use for biocide and pesticide dynamics in surface waters, Water Res., 44, 2850–2862, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.01.030, 2010.
Wu, C.-H., Santelmann, P. W., and Davidson, J. M.: Influence of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Terbutryn Activity and Persistence, Weed Sci., 22, 571–574, 1974.
We used a two-step approach with limited sampling effort in existing storm water infrastructure to illustrate the risk of biocide emission in a 2 ha urban area 13 years after construction had ended. First samples at a swale confirmed the overall relevance of biocide pollution. Then we identified sources where biocides were used for film protection and pathways where transformation products were formed. Our results suggest that biocide pollution is a also continuous risk in aging urban areas.
We used a two-step approach with limited sampling effort in existing storm water infrastructure...