Articles | Volume 19, issue 3
Research article
05 Mar 2015
Research article |  | 05 Mar 2015

Quantifying groundwater dependence of a sub-polar lake cluster in Finland using an isotope mass balance approach

E. Isokangas, K. Rozanski, P. M. Rossi, A.-K. Ronkanen, and B. Kløve


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Short summary
An iterative isotope mass balance approach was used to quantify the groundwater dependence of 67 kettle lakes and ponds. A quantitative measure for the dependence of a lake on groundwater (G index) introduced in this study revealed generally large groundwater dependency among the lakes. The isotope mass balance approach proved to be especially useful when the groundwater reliance of lakes situated in a relatively small area with similar climatic conditions needs to be determined.