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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-424
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-424
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  08 Oct 2018

08 Oct 2018

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This preprint has been withdrawn by the authors.

Spatial Relationship between Precipitation and Runoff in Africa

Fidele Karamage1,2,3,4, Yuanbo Liu1, Xingwang Fan1, Meta Francis Justine2,5, Guiping Wu1, Yongwei Liu1, Han Zhou1, and Ruonan Wang1 Fidele Karamage et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China
  • 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 3University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, P.O. Box 6392, Kigali, Rwanda
  • 4Joint Research Center for Natural Resources and Environment in East Africa, P.O. Box 6392, Kigali, Rwanda
  • 5Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China

Abstract. Lack of sufficient and reliable hydrological information is a key hindrance to water resource planning and management in Africa. Hence, the objective of this research is to examine the relationship between precipitation and runoff at three spatial scales, including the whole continent, 25 major basins and 55 countries. For this purpose, the long-term monthly runoff coefficient (Rc) was estimated using the long-term monthly runoff data (R) calculated from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) streamflow records and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation datasets for the period of time spanning from 1901 to 2017. Subsequently, the observed Rc data were interpolated in order to estimate Rc over the ungauged basins under guidance of key runoff controlling factors, including the land-surface temperature (T), precipitation (P) and potential runoff coefficient (Co) inferred from the land use and land cover, slope and soil texture information. The results show that 16 % of the annual mean precipitation (672.52 mm) becomes runoff (105.72 mm), with a runoff coefficient of 0.16, and the remaining 84 % (566.80 mm) evapotranspirates over the continent during 1901–2017. Spatial analysis reveals that the precipitation–runoff relationship varies significantly among different basins and countries, mainly dependent on climatic conditions and its inter-annual variability. Generally, high runoff depths and runoff coefficients are observed over humid tropical basins and countries with high precipitation intensity compared to those located in subtropical and temperate drylands.

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Fidele Karamage et al.

Fidele Karamage et al.

Fidele Karamage et al.

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