Articles | Volume 23, issue 9
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3603–3629, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-3603-2019
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3603–3629, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-3603-2019

Review article 04 Sep 2019

Review article | 04 Sep 2019

Error in hydraulic head and gradient time-series measurements: a quantitative appraisal

Gabriel C. Rau et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 3,504 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
2,002 1,470 32 3,504 28 43
  • HTML: 2,002
  • PDF: 1,470
  • XML: 32
  • Total: 3,504
  • BibTeX: 28
  • EndNote: 43
Views and downloads (calculated since 29 Apr 2019)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 29 Apr 2019)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 2,841 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 2,814 with geography defined and 27 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Latest update: 02 Dec 2021
Download
Short summary
The flow of water is often inferred from water levels and gradients whose measurements are considered trivial despite the many steps and complexity of the instruments involved. We systematically review the four measurement steps required and summarise the systematic errors. To determine the accuracy with which flow can be resolved, we quantify and propagate the random errors. Our results illustrate the limitations of current practice and provide concise recommendations to improve data quality.