Articles | Volume 21, issue 8
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4073–4101, 2017
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4073–4101, 2017

Research article 14 Aug 2017

Research article | 14 Aug 2017

Waning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fish

José María Santiago1, Rafael Muñoz-Mas2, Joaquín Solana-Gutiérrez1, Diego García de Jalón1, Carlos Alonso1, Francisco Martínez-Capel2, Javier Pórtoles3, Robert Monjo3, and Jaime Ribalaygua3 José María Santiago et al.
  • 1Laboratorio de Hidrobiología, ETSI Montes, Forestal y Medio Natural, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Camino de las Moreras s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
  • 2Institut d'Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Grau de Gandia, Valencia 46730, Spain
  • 3Fundación para la Investigación del Clima, C/ Tremps 11. Madrid 28040, Spain

Abstract. Climate changes affect aquatic ecosystems by altering temperatures and precipitation patterns, and the rear edges of the distributions of cold-water species are especially sensitive to these effects. The main goal of this study was to predict in detail how changes in air temperature and precipitation will affect streamflow, the thermal habitat of a cold-water fish (the brown trout, Salmo trutta), and the synergistic relationships among these variables at the rear edge of the natural distribution of brown trout. Thirty-one sites in 14 mountain rivers and streams were studied in central Spain. Models of streamflow were built for several of these sites using M5 model trees, and a non-linear regression method was used to estimate stream temperatures. Nine global climate models simulations for Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were downscaled to the local level. Significant reductions in streamflow were predicted to occur in all of the basins (max. −49 %) by the year 2099, and seasonal differences were noted between the basins. The stream temperature models showed relationships between the model parameters, geology and hydrologic responses. Temperature was sensitive to streamflow in one set of streams, and summer reductions in streamflow contributed to additional stream temperature increases (max. 3.6 °C), although the sites that are most dependent on deep aquifers will likely resist warming to a greater degree. The predicted increases in water temperatures were as high as 4.0 °C. Temperature and streamflow changes will cause a shift in the rear edge of the distribution of this species. However, geology will affect the extent of this shift. Approaches like the one used herein have proven to be useful in planning the prevention and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change by differentiating areas based on the risk level and viability of fish populations.

Short summary
High-time-resolution models for streamflow and stream temperature are used in this study to predict future brown trout habitat loss. Flow reductions falling down to 51 % of current values and water temperature increases growing up to 4 ºC are predicted. Streamflow and temperature will act synergistically affecting fish. We found that the thermal response of rivers is influenced by basin geology and, consequently, geology will be also an influent factor in the cold-water fish distribution shift.