Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-554
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-554

  26 Nov 2020

26 Nov 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal HESS.

Unshielded Precipitation Gauge Collection Efficiency with Wind Speed and Hydrometeor Fall Velocity. Part II: Experimental Results

Jeffery Hoover, Michael E. Earle, and Paul I. Joe Jeffery Hoover et al.
  • Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4, Canada

Abstract. Five collection efficiency transfer functions for unshielded precipitation gauges are presented that compensate for wind-induced collection loss. Three of the transfer functions presented are dependent on wind speed and precipitation fall velocity, and were derived through computational fluid dynamics modelling in Part 1 (CFD function) and from measurement data (HE1 function with fall velocity threshold and HE2 function with linear fall velocity dependence). These functions are evaluated alongside universal (KUniversal) and site-specific (KCARE) transfer functions with wind speed and temperature dependence. Their performance was assessed using 30-minute precipitation event accumulations reported by unshielded and shielded Geonor T-200B3 precipitation gauges over two winter seasons. The latter gauge was installed in a Double Fence Automated Reference (DFAR) configuration comprising a single-Alter shield within an octagonal, wooden double fence. Estimates of fall velocity were provided by a Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS).

The CFD function reduced the RMSE (0.08 mm) relative to KUniversal, KCARE, and the unadjusted measurements, with a bias error of 0.011 mm. The HE1 function provided a RMSE of 0.09 mm and bias error of 0.006 mm, capturing well the collection efficiency trends for rain and snow. The HE2 function better captured the overall collection efficiency, including mixed precipitation, resulting in a RMSE of 0.07 mm and bias error of 0.006 mm. The improved agreement demonstrates the importance of fall velocity for collection efficiency.

Jeffery Hoover et al.

 
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Jeffery Hoover et al.

Jeffery Hoover et al.

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Short summary
Transfer functions with dependence on wind speed and precipitation fall velocity are evaluated alongside transfer functions with wind speed and temperature dependence for unshielded precipitation gauges. The transfer functions with fall velocity dependence reduced the RMSE of unshielded gauge measurements relative to the functions based on wind speed and temperature, demonstrating the importance of fall velocity for precipitation gauge collection efficiency and transfer functions.