Improving flood forecasting capability of physically based distributed hydrological models by parameter optimization
- 1Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-sen University, Room 108, Building 572, Guangzhou 510275, China
- 2Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources of Fujian Province. Fuzhou, Fujian, China
Abstract. Physically based distributed hydrological models (hereafter referred to as PBDHMs) divide the terrain of the whole catchment into a number of grid cells at fine resolution and assimilate different terrain data and precipitation to different cells. They are regarded to have the potential to improve the catchment hydrological process simulation and prediction capability. In the early stage, physically based distributed hydrological models are assumed to derive model parameters from the terrain properties directly, so there is no need to calibrate model parameters. However, unfortunately the uncertainties associated with this model derivation are very high, which impacted their application in flood forecasting, so parameter optimization may also be necessary. There are two main purposes for this study: the first is to propose a parameter optimization method for physically based distributed hydrological models in catchment flood forecasting by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and to test its competence and to improve its performances; the second is to explore the possibility of improving physically based distributed hydrological model capability in catchment flood forecasting by parameter optimization. In this paper, based on the scalar concept, a general framework for parameter optimization of the PBDHMs for catchment flood forecasting is first proposed that could be used for all PBDHMs. Then, with the Liuxihe model as the study model, which is a physically based distributed hydrological model proposed for catchment flood forecasting, the improved PSO algorithm is developed for the parameter optimization of the Liuxihe model in catchment flood forecasting. The improvements include adoption of the linearly decreasing inertia weight strategy to change the inertia weight and the arccosine function strategy to adjust the acceleration coefficients. This method has been tested in two catchments in southern China with different sizes, and the results show that the improved PSO algorithm could be used for the Liuxihe model parameter optimization effectively and could improve the model capability largely in catchment flood forecasting, thus proving that parameter optimization is necessary to improve the flood forecasting capability of physically based distributed hydrological models. It also has been found that the appropriate particle number and the maximum evolution number of PSO algorithm used for the Liuxihe model catchment flood forecasting are 20 and 30 respectively.